JUSTICE AND CRIME — DEFENCE
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism. The basis of the law is the Roman-Dutch law, modified by colonial ordinances. The criminal law has been codified on the principle of the Indian Penal Code. Justice is administered by the Supreme Court, the police courts and courts of requests, and the district courts, intermediate between the latter and the Supreme Court. There are also village councils which deal with petty offences. The number of summary convictions in 1897 in the Police Courts was 17,025, convictions in the District Courts 866, and in the Supreme Court 494. The number of paupers is not known, as there is no poor law, though a few old persons receive a charitable allowance from the Government vary- ing from Rs. 1 to Rs. 12 '50 each per mensem. Finance. The public revenue and expenditure of the colony, in each of the last five years, were as follows : —
Years Revenue Expenditure Rupees Rupees 1893 18,051,950 18,276,108 1894 19,485,310 20,342,899 1895 20,982,809 20,899,714 1896 21,974,573 21,237,860 1897 24,006,522 21,634,378
The principal sources of revenue are (1897) ; the customs, 5,973,785 Rs. ; land sales, 498,970 Rs. ; licences, which in efi'ect means the revenue from spirituous liquor, 2,812,324 Rs, ; stamps, 2,075,876 Rs. ; the proceeds of the sale of Government timber and Government salt, 1,553,110 Rs. ; and port and harbour dues, 971,429 Rs. ; Government railways, 1897, 7,318,683 Rs. The principal items of expenditure are (1897) : establishments, 5,696,234 Rs. ; contribution towards military expenditure (including cost of volunteer force) 1,824,602 Rs. (of this 1,702,165 Rs. is paid to the Imperial Government) ; pensions and retired allowances, 1,013,966 Rs. ; interest on loans, &c., 2,860,295 Rs. ; on public works, 2,872,921 Rs. On December 31, 1897, the public debt of the colony amounted to 3,494,905/. and 3,278,672 Rs. ; it has been incurred entirely for public works, including 297 miles of railway, the Colombo breakwater, and the Colombo waterworks. In 1896 the total local revenue amounted to 2,231,274 Rs.
Defence. The harbour of Trincomalee on the east coast of Ceylon is a naval and victualling yard, and is the headquarters of the British fleet in East Indian waters. It is fortified, and the fortifications have been strengthened, at the cost of the Imperial Government. The harbour of Colombo on the I 2