THE BRITISH EMPIRE :— CEYLON
west coast is also protected, the colony having paid the cost of the erection of earthworks, the Imperial Government supplying the armament. Ceylon has no naval forces of its own. The British troops in Ceylon are under the command ot a major-general, and comprise a regiment of British infantry, artillery, and engineers, the total strength being 1,663 ; there is a volunteer force numbering 1,074 of all ranks. The colony pays 1,702,165 Rs. per annum to the Imperial Govern- ment as the cost of the garrison. The cost of the Local Volunteer Corps was 122,437 Rs. in 1897. Production and Industry. The estimated area of the colony is 16,233,000 acres, 2,159,698 acres being under cultivation, and 763,850 acres pasture land. Of this, 728,112 acres were (1897) under rice and other grains, 19,477 under coffee, 404,574 under tea, 891 under cinchona, 878,909 under coco nuts, 42,289 under cinnamon, 10,122 under tobacco, and 32,354 under cocoa. The live stock of the island in 1897 consisted of 4,007 horses, 1,289,536 horned cattle, 86,627 sheep, and 155,495 goats. Plumbago is a valuable mining product, and in 1897 there were 584 plumbago mines. The produce of the pearl fishery in 1890 was valued at 310,000 Rs. ; in 1891 at 960,000 Rs. None since.
Commerce. The declared value of the total imports and exports of the colony, includ- ing bullion and specie, was as follows in each of the last five years : —
Years Imports Exports Rs. Rs. 1893 72,340,662 74,195,368 1894 78,113,072 79,723,791 1895 84,556,309 77,495,557 1896 87,788,085 87,841,357 1897 98,027,474 85,099,603
The values of imports and exports are declared, and represent tlie wholesale values at the place of import or export. Declarations are subject to scrutiny and penalty. The Chamber of Commerce, as representing the trade of the island, assists by supplying the value on which a rated duty is levied. Quantities of imports are ascertained from invoices or by actual examination ; of exports, from declarations and by examination of the shipping documents, shippers being liable to penalties for misstatement. The origin and destination of goods are also obtained from the sliipping documents. In some cases, however, goods intended for transhipment abroad are so entered, e.g. to New York, via London. The transit trade includes all goods transliipped direct in i^ort, as well as goods landed into transhipment warehouses. The transit trade of Colombo has largely increased of late years, "but, as no bills of entry are required in respect of transhiinnent goods, the returns as to quantity are only approximately correct, and no returns as to value can be prepared. Value of dutiable imports (1897), 65,288,950 Rs. ; duty free 32,738,524 Rs. The principal articles of export from Ceylon in 1897 were — coffee, valued at 1,472,346 Rs. ; cinchona, 32,512 Rs. ; 'tea, 46,931,190 Rs. ; plumbago, 3,670,846 Rs.; cocoa-nut products, 13,142,622 Rs. ; arecanuts, 1,316,595 Rs. The principal articles of import were — cotton goods valued at 7,866,100 Rs. ; salt-fish, 1,512,659 Rs. ; rice and other grain, 32,802,996 Rs. ; coal and coke S 519, 319 Rs. ; spirits, &c., 1,144,784 Rs. ; wines, 396,023 Rs.