Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/540

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196 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — EAST AFRICA

capital Mombasa ; (2) Ukamba, capital Machakos ; (3) Tana -land, including Witu, capital Laniu ; (4) Juba-land, capital Kismayu A large portion of the Protectorate is, however, still unorganised. The total population is estimated at 2,500,000, including 13,500 Asiatics and 390 Europeans and Eurasians. Mombasa (24,700) is the capital of the -whole Protectorate and has a fine harbour which has been much improved by the construction of jetties and other works. It is connected with Zanzibar by a submarine cable, and with Lamu by a telegraph line via Golbanti (Tana River) ; the length of line within the Protectorate was, in 1897, 140 miles. The principal other ports are Lamu and Kismayu towards the north, and Vanga and Takaungu towards the south. A railway is in course of construction towards Lake Victoria, Uganda, and a telegraph line along the railway. In February, 1899, about 260 miles of railway were completed.

The revenue for the year 1896-97 amounted to 39,186Z., and for 1897-98 to 43,841?. The imports for the year 1896-97 were valued at 3,925,597 rupees, and for 1897-98 at 4,464,827 rupees ; exports in 1896-97 at 1,172,026 rupees, and for 1897-98 at 1,087,266 rupees. Shipping entered, 1897-98, 196,630 tons. On June 30, 1892, the Sultan of Zanzibar withdrew his reserves under the Berlin Act, thereby placing all his dominions within the Free Zone. At the mainland ports 5 per cent, import duty is levied under the Brussels Act. The principal exports are ivory, india-rubber, cattle and goats, grain, copra, gum-copal, hides and horns, &c. The imports are Man- chester goods, Bombay cloth, brass, wire, beads, provisions, &c. Mangiove- logs (borities) for building purposes are imported at Mombasa from other parts of the coast. Trade is at present principally in the hands of East Indian merchants (Banians).

The Masai, who have given some trouble to caravans in the interior, seem likely, in future, to respect the British authority. The higher plateaux are largely covered with rich giass, and are considered particularly favourable for ranching operations.

Commissioner and Consul- General. — Sir Arthur H. Hardinge, K.C.M.G., C.B.

Suh-Commissioner at Mombasa. — C. H. Craufurd.

THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE.

In July, 1896, this Protectorate was extended so as to include in addition to Uganda proper, Unyoro, and other countries to the west as far as the boundary of the British sphere {see above), as well as Usoga to the east. The Protectorate is administered by a Commissioner, but the infant son of King Mwanga nominally reigns in Uganda proper. Order is maintained by means of a trained force of Sudanese. Regular criminal courts have been established, and there is a kind of native parliament. Roads have been made since the British occupation, but outside trade will be impossible until the com- pletion of the railway, the construction of which from the coast was begun in the latter part of 1895. The soil is exceedingly fertile and coffee is thought likely to succeed. The natives show much skill in iron-working, i)ottery, &c. The capital is Mengo, close to which is the British fort Kampala. The Commissioner resides at Port Alice on the Victoria Nyanza. Ugove Bay, on the east shore of the lake, is to be the terminus of the railway. Forts have been established in Unyoro and other districts on the borders of Uganda.

Both Protestant and Roman Catholic missionaries have made many converts. For the last two years Uganda lias been in a state of disorganisa- tion.