Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/541

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GOVERNMENT — JUSTICE 197

The imports (exclusive of Government imports) in 1895 amounted to 222,006 rupees, and the exports to 244,728 rupees.

Covimissioncr and Consul-General. — E. J. L. Berkeley, C.B.

ZANZIBAR PROTECTORATE. Sultan and Government.

The Sultan, or more correctly, the Seyyid, Hanioud bin Mahomed bin Said, about 44 years of age, nephew of the late Sultans Ali, Khalifa and Burghash, succeeded to the Sultanate on the death of Seyyid Hamed bin Thwain on August 27, 1896. He was one of two claimants, and was selected by the British Government as being the most fitting.

Zanzibar dominions were gradually acquired by the Imams of Muscat at various dates between the years 1698 and 1807, partly by conquest from the Portuguese and partly from native chiefs. They were held as an api)anage of Muscat until the death of Seyyid Said, when, on a dispute as to the succession arising between Seyyid Thwain, of Muscat, uncle of the present Sultan of Zan- zibar, and Seyyid Majid, of Zanzibar (both being sons of Seyyid Said), the domin- ions in Africa were made independent of the present State, and confirmed under Majid by an arbitration of Lord Canning (dated 1861), then Governor-General of India. Besides the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and smaller islands, the Sultan's authority nominally extended along the coasts and indefinitely inland, from Warsheikh, in 3° N. lat, to Tunghi Bay, in 10° 42' S. lat, his influ- ence, however, being exercised but a little way from the coast, except along a few trade routes. As mentioned above, the Sultan's dominions were gradually restricted in area between the years 1886 and 1890, until they finally included only the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba.

In October 1891, a regular Government was formed for Zanzibar, of which Sir L. Mathews is Prime Minister. All accounts are now kept in English and Arabic, and are always open to the inspection of the British Consul- General, and no new undertakings or additional expenditure can be incurred without his consent. On February 1, 1892, Zanzibar was declared a free port, but the importation of spirits, arms, powder, and mineral oils remains subject to regulation.

Area, Population, Religion.

The island of Zanzibar has an area of 640 square miles, and Pemba 380 square miles. The population of the island is estimated at 150,000, and that of the island of Pemba at 50,000. There is a considerable foreign population, mostly engaged in trading. There are about 50 Englishmen, 50 Germans, a few Americans, Frenchmen, Italians, Greeks, and Roumanians, the two latter nationalities being under British protection. There are also about 7,000 British Indian subjects, through whose hands almost the whole trade of Zanzibar and of East Africa passes, directly or indirectly. The town of Zanzibar has a population estimated at 30,000.

Mohammedanism is the religion of the country, most of the natives of the coast and islands being Sunnis of the Sliafi school, though many are heathen ; while the Sultan and his relatives are schismatics of the I bad hi sect. There are Christian missions (Church of England, Wesleyan, Independent and Roman Catholic) on the island and far into the mainland.

There is a French hospital at Zanzibar, attended by French sisters of mercy, and a hospital at the Universities Mission. Sir Tharia Topan's hospital for Indians is now completed, but is not yet in use.

Justice.

Justice among the Sultan's subjects is administered by various 'Kazis,' with an appeal to H. H, ; among Europeans by their consuls in all cases in