Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/796

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440 BRAZIL

24. dc Maio (cx-Aquidaban), the sister armourclads, Maralial Deodoro aiul Marshal Floriano, building (the first-named launched) at La Seyne ; the coast-defence vessels Bahia (1,000 tons), Alagoas, Fiauhy, Bio Grande^ Maranhao, Pcrnamhvco (the last five being river monitors, 340 to 470 tons), the first-class cniiser Nicfh-croy {ex-Hl Cid) ; the second-class cruisers Ahnirante Tamandare (4,735 tons), Barrozo and Amazonas (3,600 tons) ; the third-class cruisers, Andrada {cx-Bntanvia), and Benjamin Constant (2,750 tons), and 12 smaller vessels of the cruising and gunljoat classes. The torpedo-flotilla consists of 8 first-class and 6 third-class boats, besides small vedette craft. The torpedo cruisers, Tamoyo, Tiwhira and Twpy (1,030 tons) have been launched at Kiel (1896 and 1898). The cruisers Abrrn and Amazonas, built at Elswick, were sold to the United States at the beginning of the war with Spain, and re-named.

The sea-going turret-ships, Riachuelo (5,700 tons displacement), and 24. de Maio (4,950 tons), were built in England, the former launched in 1883 and completed in 1884, and the latter launched and completed in 1885. Both vessels are protected by a belt of armour (steel-faced) having a maximum thickness of 11 inches, and each has two turrets protected by 10-inch armour. The principal armament consists of four 9 "2 in. breech-loading guns earned in the turrets, and there is an auxiliary armament of six 4 '7 in. quick-firers, two 3-pr. and 15 machine guns. The 24 de Maio has been partly reconstructed at Elswick and has received new guns. The small armour-clads, Deodoro and Floriano (3,162 tons), are completing at La Seyne, and are of a type un- represented in our navy. Their small displacement is combined with heavy armouring (13*7 inches of Harvey steel on the sides), and powerful armament, comprising 2 9 ■4-inch guns, 2 6-inch howitzers, and 4 4 7 quick-firers. The cruiser Ahnirante Tamaiulare, built in Brazil in 1890, is a vessel of 4,465 tons and 7,500 nominal horse-power, with a very extensive quick-firing armament. The protected 20-knot cruiser Barrozo was launched in 1896 at Elswick. This vessel has a large quick-firing armament.

There are five naval arsenals — at Rio de Janeiro, Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, and Ladario de Matto Grosso.

Production and Industry.

Brazil is an agricultural country, though only a small fraction of its soil has been brought under culture. Coffee is the chief product cultivated, and after that sugar, tobacco, and cotton, mate (Parauguay tea), india-rubber, timber, cocoa, nuts. The annual yield of coffee has steadily increased of late years, and the crop of 1897-98 probably exceeded 10,000,000 bags. The 1898-99 crop will be, however, considerably smaller, probably between 8 and 9 million bags. In Pernambuco the sugar crop, 1896-7, yielded 1,488,206 bags (75 kilos.). In this State are about 30 sugar Victories with an average capacity of about 160 tons of cane per day. In Rio Grande do Sul the cattle industry is important. The number killed in 1895 was 280,000 ; 1896, 215,000 ; 1897, 320,000 ; in 1898, 340,000. In the same State are prosperous fruit preserving establishments, tanneries and breweries. The production of rum and alcohol is rapidly increasing. Both the forests and mines of Brazil are of value, but little has been done to make use of them. The mines, with certain reservations, belong to the proprietors of the soil. Coal mines are worked in Rio Grande do Sul ; the output in 1895 was 11,012 tons ; in 1896, 18,300 tons. In Minas Geraes there are 5 important gold mines worked by English companies and 1 by a French company. Gold is worked also to some extent in Bahia, where silver, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, quicksilver and other minerals are found. Diamond mining is also carried on. Vast