Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/797

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COMMERCE

441

quantities of iron are known to exist, l)ut tliey cannot be worked from want of fuel. Cotton mills are on the increase ; in Brazil there are 155 cotton factories, of which 43 are in the State of Kio de Janeiro, 35 in Minas Geraes, 11 in San Paulo, 15 in Bahia, 14 in Maranhao, 17 in Santa Catarina, 5 in Pernambuco, 4 in Ceare, 2 in Sergipc, and 1 each in Piaiihy, Rio Grande do Norte, Parahyba, and Espirito Santo. The capital invested in cotton mills and factories amounts to about 100,000,000 milreis, and the persons employed number about 200,000. Theie are important woollen factories for cloths, flannels, rugs, felts, &c., at Rio Janeirq, Nictheroy, Maranhao, Porto Allegre, and Rio Grande do Sul. There are 2 silk mills at Petropolis near Rio. In Rio de Janeiro are also 2 large flour mills capable of grinding per annum 60,000 and 40,000 tons respectively, wheat 1)eing imported chiefly from the Argentine and Uruguayan Republics.

Commerce.

The total value of exports from Brazil for the year 1897 is given, exclusive of specie, at 831,806,918 milreis {= 26,752,224^. at 7^^ to the milreis), and the imports at 671,603,280 milreis ( = 21,567,660Z.). Remittances abroad are estimated at 300,000,000 milreis (= 9,644,614^.).

The import duties are very high, sometimes 80, 100, and 120 per cent, on value of imports. These duties are especially high on spirits, tobacco, matches, preserved provisions, light cloths, cottons, drugs, perfumery and patent medicines ; Avhile agricultural implements, machineiy and tools are but lightly taxed.

The official values of the chief exports from the whole of Brazil in 1897 were : Cotiee, 509,190,115 milreis; rubber, 149,691,325 ; tobacco, 23,971,821 ; hides, 13,427,229; cocoa, 12,757,957.

From the chief ports of Brazil the most important exports are : Coffee, from Rio Janeiro in 1896, 2,784,958 bags (of 60 kilogrammes) ; in 1897, 4,066,734; from Santos in 1896, 4,157,971 bags; in 1897, 5,621,762; from Victoria in 1896, 273,255 bags ; in 1897, 372,221 ; from Bahia in 1896, 260,981 bags ; in 1897, 292,480 ; from Ceara in 1896, 6,000 bags ; in 1897, 6,578 ; sugar from Pernambuco in 1897, 110,550 tons ; from Maceio in 1897, 28,705 tons ; cotton from Maranham in 1897, 1,375 tons ; from Per- nainbuco in 1897, 11,970 tons ; from Ceara, 953 tons ; from Parahyba, 1,698 tons ; rublK'r Irom Para and Amazonas in 1897, 22,216 tons. From Rio Grande do Sul the chief exports in 1897, were dried beef, 18,537,098 kilogrammes; tallow, 2,381,468 kilogrammes; hides, 658,642 in number. The chief imi)orts into Brazil are cottons, woollens, iron and machinery, coal, flour, .cattle and jerked beef, rice, codfish, pork, lard, butter, maize, olive oil, macaroni, tea, candles, salt, petroleum, timber, wines and spirits.

The trade of Brazil is mostly with Great Britain, the United States, Germany, and France.

The amount of the commercial intercourse of Brazil with the United Kingdom, according to the Board of Trade returns, is shown in the subjoined table, for each of the last five years : —

Imports into U. K. from Brazil.

Exports of British pro- duce to Brazil .

1893 LS94

isor. 1S90

1897

£ £ 4,636,102 3,940,069 7,774,510 7,526,700

£

3,614,155 7,323,690

£

4,053,663 0,664,004

£

3,736,419 5,431,234