WESTERN PACIFIC Gil
German East Africa.
The German sphere of influence in East Africa, with a coast line of about 620 miles, and an estimated area of 384,000 square miles, is bounded on the north by a treaty line, defined in 1886 and 1890, running north-west from the Umbe Kiver, by the north of Kilima-Njaro, to the east shore of the Victoria Nyanza, and to the W. of this lake, following the parallel of 1° S. lat., to the boundary of the Congo State, making a loo]), however, so as to pass S, of Mount Mfumbiro On the AVest it is bounded ])y Lake Tan- ganyika, and on the S. by a line (define.! 1890) joining the S. end of that lake with the N. end of Lake Nyassa and running to the N. of the Stevenson Road, and by the Rovuma River. The narrow strip of territory on the coast was leased by tlie Sultan of Zanzibar to the Germans for fifty years, from April 1888, with its harbours and customs, but the Sultan's rights were acquired by Germany in 1890 for a payment of 4,000,000 marks. The German Empire is represented in the Protectorate by an Imperial governor. The native population is estimated at 4,000,000, consisting mostly of tribes of mixed Bantu race, with a strong Asiatic element near the coast. The Euro- pean population in 1897 numbered 922 (678 German). The military force consists of 172 Germans and 1,572 coloured men, while the police numbers 15 Germans and 482 coloured men (Askaris). There are seven Protestant and three Catholic missionary societies at work. The country near the coast con- tains forests of mangrove, coco-palm, baobab, tamarind, &c., while in the higher regions the acacia, cotton-tree, sycamore, banian, and other trees abound. In the more settled regions agriculture is pursued ; there are large banana plantations belonging to the natives who also cultivate pulse and maize. Near the coast there are German plantations of coco-palms, coffee (on the higher lands), vanilla, tobacco, caoutchouc, cacao. Belonging to the Government are several experimental stations for tropical culture and cattle- rearing. The most common domestic animal among the natives is the o-oat, but sheep and cattle are also reared. Minerals known to exist within the Protectorate are coal, iron, malachite, salt ; gold has also been observed. The resources of the region are still undeveloped, but commercial enterprise is being encouraged by the Government which grants subsidies for railways and steamers. The chief seaports are Dar-es-Salaam (population 13,000), Bagamoyo (13,000), Saadani, Pangani, Kilwa (10,000), Lindi, Mikindani, and Tanga (5,000), but few of these arc accessible to ocean-going vessels. A railway from Tanga is open for traffic as far as Pongwe, nearly 10 miles, and is bein*' extended towards Karagwe. There are in the coast towns 9 telegraph stations and a line connects with Zanzibar. Budget for 1899-1900, revenue (indudino- Imperial contrilmtion of 5,985,000 marks) and expenditure 8,000,000 marks. In 1897 the value of the imports was 8,666,000 marks, and exports 4,117,000 marks. The chief exports are (1897) ivorv (1,682,000 marks), caoutchouc (892,000 marks), sesame (110,000 marks), gum (174,000 marks). The chief imports are cottons, iron ware, colonial wares, rice, oil, spirits, wine and beer. Karag\ve, one of the large Central African States formed after the dissolu- tion of the former Empire of Kitwara, lies mainly within the German Sphere of Influence as delimited northwards by the Anglo-German Agreement of July 1, 1890. The capital, standing on two trade routes to the interior, may l»e exi>ectcd to assume greater importance when reached by the railway now nndor construetion,