6l4f GERMAN EMPIRE:— WEST TAGIFIC
Kiau-Chau, on the cast coast of the Chinese province of Shan-tnng, was seized by Crermany in November, 1897 ; the town, harbonr, and district were by treaty transferred to Germany on a 99 years' lease, March 6, 1898 ; and the district was declared a Protectorate of the German Empire, April 27, 1898, The administration is entrusted to the navy department, and a naval officer has been placed at its head, with the title of f^overnor.
The area of the Protectorate is about 120 square miles, exclusive of the bay (about 200 square miles). There are in the district 33 townships, and a population of about 60,000. Surrounding tlie district and bay is a neutral zone, Avhose outer limit is 30 miles from high water mark on the coast, its area being about 2,500 square miles, and population about 1,200,000. For the year 1899-1900 the sum required for administration expenses is 8,500,000 marks. The garrison consists of marines and marine artillery, alaout 1,500 in all. There are judicial officers for Eiiropean residents, with an appeal to the German consular court at Shanghai ; Chinese residents are subject to this jurisdiction only in specified cases.
At present, Chinese owners are forbidden to sell land to any but the Government, whose purpose is stated to be to resell to European settlers, with a view to the formation of a European commercial, self-governing munici- pality, Avith an improved harbour and other facilities for shipping. The ex- tensive coal-fields of Wiehsien and Pashan are less than 100 miles distant ; these, by agreement, are to be worked Avith German capital ; and concessions have by the treaty been granted for the construction of railways, one of which will pass through the coal-fields to the boundaiy of the province, and the other to Chin-chao, Avith a branch to Tsinan.
The German Government, while reserving its liberty of action, has ex- pressed its intention of making Kiau-Chau a free x>ort.
In the Western Pacific.
1. Kaiser Wilhehn's Land. — Kaiser "Wilhelm's Land, the northern section of south-east New Guinea, Avas declared a German protectorate in 1884. In- cluding Long Island, Dampier Island, and some other small islands, it has an estimated area of 70,000 square miles, and a population of about 110,000. In 1896 (April) the European population of the Protectorate, including the Bismarck Archipelago, numbered 164 (97 German) ; 1897 (March) in the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands 198 (71 German). Three Protestant and two Catholic missionary societies are at Avork. The development of the Protectorate has been entrusted to the German New Guinea Company, Avhich has extended its operations also to other German possessions in this ocean. Negotiations are in ])rogress for the transfer of the administration to the Imperial Government. Arcca and sago palms, bamboos, ebony, and other woods are among the natural riches of the protectorate. There are plantations of cotton (590 acres) and tobacco (yield in 1897, 79,000 lbs.), and care is bestowed on the maintenance of the coco-palms (over 36,000 trees) ; coffee is also cultivated (33,400 trees in 1897). The natives barter copra, mother- of-pearl, and trepang. Horses, cattle, and goats flourish on the island, Avhich seems less adapted for sheep. Gold has recently been found in the Bismarck Mountains. Three steamers and several sailing ships are engaged in the trade of the New Guinea Company. The chief harbours are Friedrich- AVilhelmshafen, Berlinhafen, Konstantinhafen, Finschhafcn, and Stephansort (the seat of Government). Estimated revenue for 1896-97, 93,000 marks ; expenditure, 273,000 marks ; subvention for 1899, 657,000 marks.