2. Camp in high places,
Not on high hills, but on knolls or hillocks elevated above the surrounding country.
facing the sun.
視生=面陽. Tu Mu takes this to mean “facing south,” and Ch‘ên Hao “facing east.” Cf. infra, §§ 11, 13.
Do not climb heights in order to fight.
隆 is here simply equivalent to 高. The T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan read 降.
So much for mountain warfare.
After 山, the T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan insert 谷.
3. After crossing a river, you should get far away from it.
“In order to tempt the enemy to cross after you,” according to Ts‘ao Kung, and also, says Chang Yü, “in order not to be impeded in your evolutions.” The T‘ung Tien reads 敵若絶水 “If the enemy crosses a river,” etc. But in view of the next sentence, this is almost certainly an interpolation.
4. When an invading force crosses a river in its onward march, do not advance to meet it in mid-stream. It will be best to let half the army get across, and then deliver your attack.
The T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan read 度 for 濟, without change of meaning. Wu Tzŭ plagiarises this passage twice over: — ch. II ad fin., 涉水半渡可擊; ch. V, 敵若絶水半渡而擊. Li Ch‘üan alludes to the great victory won by Han Hsin over 龍且 Lung Chü at the 濰 Wei River. Turning to the Ch‘ien Han Shu, ch. 34, fol. 6 verso, we find the battle described as follows: “The two armies were drawn up on opposite sides of the river. In the night, Han Hsin ordered his men to take some ten thousand sacks filled with sand and construct a dam a little higher up. Then, leading half his army across, he at-