a selection of various sizes), the type-case must be warmed before the type is put in. The heat of the case should impart sufficient heat for the type to be worked properly. If the case and type be put on the stove, the type will probably be melted if not watched very narrowly. Hand letters are letters fixed in handles, each used as a single tool. The letters should be arranged in alphabetical order round the finishing stove, and as each letter is wanted it is taken from the order, worked, and replaced. They are still very much used in England, but where two or more books are to have the same lettering, brass type is very much better. It does its work more uniformly than hand letters, however skillfully used.
When this simple finishing can be executed properly and with ease, a more difficult task of finishing may be attempted, such as a full gilt back. This is done in two ways, a "run-up" back and a "mitred" back. As a general rule morocco is always mitred. Place the book on its side, lift up the mill-board, and make a mark head and tail on the back, a little away from the hinge of the back. Then with a folder and straight edge mark the whole length of the back: this is to be done on both sides. Make another line the whole length down the exact centre of the back. With a pair of dividers take the measurement of the spaces between the bands, and mark the size, head and tail, for the panels from the top and bottom band; with a folder and strip of parchment make a line across the back, head and tail, at the mark made by the dividers. Work a thin broad and narrow pallet alongside the bands in blind. Prepare the whole of the back with vinegar and glaire, as above described, but lay the glaire on with a sponge. When dry, lay the gold on, covering the whole of the back with it, mending any breaks. For mitreing, take a two-line pallet that has the ends cut at an angle of 45°, so that the joint at that angle may be perfect. Work this on the side at the