pieces are dry, mark the back, head and tail, for the pallets or other tools with a folding-stick. Apply with a brush paste all over the back. With a thick folding-stick, or with the handle of an old tooth brush, which is better, rub the paste into the back. Before it has time to dry, take the overplus off with rather a hard sponge, dipped in thin paste-water. The learner will perhaps wonder why paste of full strength should be used for the back, and only paste-water for the sides. The reason is, that through the stretching of the leather over the back in covering, the pores are more open, and consequently require more filling up to make a firm ground. Much depends upon the groundwork being properly applied; and a general caution with regard to the working in general may not be here amiss. Finishing, above all other departments, demands perfect cleanliness. A book may have the most graceful designs, the tools be worked perfectly and clearly, but be spoiled by having a dirty appearance. See that everything is clean—paste-water, size, glaire, sponges, and brushes. Do not lay any gold on until the preparation be perfectly dry, or the gold will adhere and cause a dirty yellow stain where wiped off.
Should the calf book be intended to have only a pallet alongside the bands, it is only necessary, when the paste-wash is quite dry, to glaire that portion which is to be gilt: this is usually done with a camel's hair brush, by laying on two coats. When dry, cut the gold into strips, and take one up on the pallet and work it on the calf. This is what is termed calf neat. The band on each side is gilt, leaving the rest of the leather in its natural state. Some binders polish their backs instead of leaving them dead or dull. This, however, is entirely according to taste, whether so large a space be left polished only.
Full Gilt Back.—Run-up. Make a mark up the back on both sides a little away from the joint with a folder and