Putting on the End Papers.
Two single leaves of white paper, somewhat thicker than the paper used for making the ends, are to be cut, one for each side of the book. The end papers are to be laid down on a board, or on a piece of paper on the press to keep them clean, with the pasted or made side uppermost, the single leaves on the top. They should then be fanned out evenly to a proper width, about a quarter of an inch for an 8vo., a piece of waste paper put on the top, and their edges pasted. The slips or cords thrown back, the white fly is put on the book, a little away from the back, and the made ends on the top even with the back, and again left to dry with the weight of a few boards on the top.
If, however, the book or books are very heavy or large, they should have "joints" of either bookbinders' cloth or of leather of the same colour as the leather with which the book is to be covered. Morocco is mostly used for the leather joints. If the joints are to be of cloth, it may be added either when the ends are being put on, or when the book is ready for pasting down. If the cloth joint is to be put on now, the cloth is cut from 1 to 3 inches, according to the size of book, and folded quite evenly, the side of the cloth which has to go on the book being left the width intended to be glued; that is, a width of 1 inch should be folded ¾ one side, leaving ¼ the other, the latter to be put on the book. The smallest fold is now glued, the white fly put on, and the fancy paper on the top; the difference being, that the paper instead of being made double or folded is single, or instead of taking a paper double the