Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/435

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missionaries of the Scandinavian Alliance Mission mentioned above, was appointed as a sub-agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society for Mongolia. Since that time he has travelled far and wide throughout Mongolia, his wife also enduring great hardship either with him or in the solitude of his absences. In 1902, with headquarters at Kalgan, he travelled 2000 miles to the east and north-east; in 1904 he took three long journeys as far as Urga and Uliassutai.

During 1905 Mr. Larson made three more long journeys and sent home some interesting information concerning the Dalai Lama's visit to Urga, in his flight from Lhasa. Although living in a temple within two miles of the residence of the Urga Grand Lama, he would have no communication with him, in fact, the feeling was one of estrangement. In addition to the few workers mentioned above, it must be remembered that through the work done at Kalgan by the American Board, and by the members or associates of the China Inland Mission located at Hsiianhwa in Chihli and in the north of Shansi, quite a little work is done for the Mongols who come in touch with those centres. Remembering that Wu-tai-shan, their sacred mountain, is in the north of Shansi, that district is visited by many thousands of Mongol pilgrims yearly.

Mr. Larson describes the Grand Lama at Urga as a drunken profligate, he having himself seen him intoxicated in the street. He states that he has no influence with the southern Mongols, who have broken away from his authority and have established a Lama of their own.

In closing this article, one can hardly do better than quote a few paragraphs from some interesting articles which have been recently appearing in the North China Herald from the pen of the Eev. John Hedley, F.E.G.S.:—

No account of Mongolia would be complete without some special reference to Lamaism, that system of the Buddhist religion which, carried here from Tibet, so completely dominates the Mongol mind and character. Never have I seen a more "religious" people than the Mongols. Their Lama temples are