Tennessee; John McKinley, Alabama; Peter V. Daniel, Virginia; Samuel Nelson, New York; Levi Woodbury, New Hampshire; Robert C. Grier, Pennsylvania; Benjamin R. Curtis, Massachusetts; John A. Campbell, Alabama; Nathan Clifford, Maine; Noah H. Swayne, Ohio; Samuel F. Miller, Iowa; David Davis, Illinois; Stephen J. Field, California; William Strong, Pennsylvania; Joseph P. Bradley, New Jersey; Ward Hunt, New York; John M. Harlan, Kentucky; William B. Woods, Georgia; Stanley Matthews, Ohio; Horace Gray, Massachusetts; Samuel Blatchford, New York; Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Mississippi; David J. Brewer, Kansas; Henry B. Brown, Michigan; George Shiras, Jr., Pennsylvania; Howell E. Jackson, Tennessee; Edward D. White, Louisiana; Rufus W. Peckham, New York; Joseph MeKenna, California; Oliver W. Holmes, Massachusetts; William R. Day, Ohio. They hold office for life, and yet up to 1903 the average term of office of the Chief Justices had been 13 5-12 years, and of the associates 15 9-12 years.
That the work of the court has not only developed a national idea, but also has done much to give stability to republican institutions, is now conceded by all. See Constitution of the United States; Court; Federal Government. Consult Curtis, Jurisdiction of the United States Courts.
SURABAYA, so͞o′rȧ-bä′yȧ. The most populous residency in Java. Area, 2091 square miles. The soil is fertile and produces an abundance of rice, coffee, sugar-cane, indigo, and tobacco. Capital, Surabaya. Population, in 1897, 2,217,120.
SURABAYA, or SOERABAYA. The largest city in Java, and the capital of the Residency of Surabaya, situated in the eastern part of the north coast, at the mouth of the Kediri River, two days by rail from Batavia; latitude 7° 12′ S., longitude 112° 34′ E. (Map: East India Islands, D 6). It has regular steam communication with the other cities in the island and archipelago. It has a good harbor and strong fortifications and is the military and naval headquarters of the Dutch East Indies. The houses are generally separated by gardens. Simpang, the suburb, contains the home of the resident and a large hospital. The shipbuilding industry is important. The trade in rice, coffee, cotton, sugar, tobacco, and cocoanuts is very extensive. Population, in 1897, 142,980, of whom 6988 were Europeans, 121,075 natives, and 12,133 Chinese.
SURAKARTA, so͞o′rȧ-kär′tȧ. A residency in the central part of Java, between Samarang and Surabaya. Area, 2404 square miles. The residency is one of the so-called independent States, and is governed by a native ‘emperor,’ who is subsidized by the Dutch and wholly under their control. Capital, Surakarta. Population, in 1897, 1,226,368.
SURAKARTA, or SOERAKARTA. The capital of the Residency of Surakarta, Java, on the left bank of the Solo River and on the railway between Samarang and Surabaya (Map: East India Islands, D 6). It is the residence of the native prince, whose palace is directly opposite the great fort called Vastenburg in the middle of the city. Population, in 1897, 86,074.
SURAT, so͞o-rät′. The capital of a district of the same name, Bombay, British India, 150 miles by rail north of Bombay and about 15 miles from its port, Swalli, at the mouth of the Tapti, in the Gulf of Cambay (Map: India, B 4). The town is surrounded on the landward side by a brick wall. It has numerous mosques and several Hindu and Parsi temples and the palace of the former Nawab of Surat. The Tapti, owing to a sand-bar, affords entry only to small vessels, and the commerce of Surat, which from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth century was very extensive, has been steadily diverted to Bombay. Surat is a place of military importance, with a castle dating from 1540, centrally situated on the river front, and a cantonment, the residence of a British military commandant and other dignitaries. Surat rose into importance as the spot whence the Mohammedans of Hindustan embarked on their pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1612 the English East India Company established a factory here, which for some time was their principal trading station in India. In 1759 the castle was made over to the English and in 1800 they assumed the administration of the town. Population, in 1901, 118,364.
SUR′BITON. A town in Surrey, England, on the Thames, one mile south of Kingston, with which its industries are identified. Surbiton Common witnessed the last stand of the Royalists in the Civil War. Population, in 1891, 12,178; in 1901, 15,019.
SURDS. See Irrational Numbers.
SURESNES, sụ′rā̇n′. A town of the Department of Seine, France, at the foot of Mont Valérien, on the left bank of the Seine, seven and a half miles west of Paris (Map: France, B 6). In 1593 a conference was held here which resulted in the adoption of Catholicism by Henry IV. Population, in 1901, 11,225.
SURETTE, so͞o-rĕt′, Thomas Whitney (1862—). An American organist and composer. He was born in Concord, Mass., and studied music under Arthur Foote and J. K. Paine. In 1883 he became organist in his native town, and in 1894-96 was organist and choirmaster of Christ Church, Baltimore. In 1896 he became interested in the University Extension movement, and devoted most of his time to lecturing under its auspices on musical subjects. He also lectured on music at the University of the State of New York, Albany; at Oxford University, England; and at Mill Hill Abbey, London. As a composer he became known by his operetta Priscilla (1899), which has been frequently performed. In the same year he produced in Pittsburg a romantic opera named Cascabel, and also set Keats's Eve of Saint Agnes as a dramatic ballad.
SURETYSHIP (from surety, from OF. surete, seurte, Fr. sûreté, from Lat. securitas, freedom from care, from securus, free from care, from se-, apart + cura, care, anxiety). The engagement by which one person becomes legally bound to another for the liability of a third. It therefore involves three parties: the creditor, the principal debtor, and the surety. The distinction between this term and another which is often used interchangeably with it has been pointed out under Guaranty (q.v.), and need not be repeated here.
It is generally held that surety agreements are subject to the ordinary rule of interpretation that a written contract is to be construed strong-