ā as in ale, fate. Also see ĕ, below.
ắ “ “ senate, chaotic. Also see ĕ, below.
â “ “ glare, care.
ă “ “ am, at.
ä “ “ arm, father.
ȧ “ “ ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. In rapid speech this vowel readily becomes more or less obscured and like the neutral vowel or a short u (ŭ).
a “ “ final, regal, where it is of a neutral or obscure quality.
a̤ “ “ all, fall.
ē “ “ eve.
ḗ “ “ elate, evade.
ĕ “ “ end, pet. The characters ĕ, ā, and ắ are used for ä in German, as in Gärtner, Gräfe, Hähnel, to the values of which they are the nearest English vowel sounds. The sound of Swedish ä is also indicated by ẽ.
ẽ “ “ fern, her, and as i in sir. Also for ö, oe, in German, as in Göthe, Goethe, Örtel, Oertel, and for eu and oeu in French, as in Neufchâtel, Crèvecœur; to which it is the nearest English vowel sound.
e “ “ agency, judgment, where it is of a neutral or obscure quality.
ī “ “ ice, quiet.
ḯ “ “ quiescent.
ĭ “ “ ill, fit.
ō “ “ old, sober.
ṓ “ “ obey, sobriety.
ô “ “ orb, nor.
ŏ “ “ odd, forest, not.
o “ “ atom, carol, where it has a neutral or obscure quality.
oi “ “ oil, boil, and for eu in German, as in Feuerbach.
ōō “ “ food, fool, and as u in rude, rule.
ou “ “ house, mouse.
ū “ “ use, mule.
ǜ “ “ unite.
ŭ “ “ cut, but.
ụ “ “ full, put, or as oo in foot, book. Also for ü in German, as in München, Müller, and u in French, as in Buchez, Budé; to which it is the nearest English vowel sound.
û “ “ urn, burn.
y “ “ yet, yield.
B “ “ the Spanish Habana, Córdoba, where it is like a v made with the lips alone, instead of with the teeth and lips.
ch “ “ chair, cheese.