Page:United States Statutes at Large Volume 110 Part 2.djvu/108

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110 STAT. 1282 PUBLIC LAW 104-132—APR. 24, 1996 (8) the international community has become increasingly concerned over the illegal possession of nuclear and nuclear byproduct materials; (9) the potentially disastrous ramifications of increased access to nuclear and nuclear byproduct materials pose such a significant threat that the United States must use all lawful methods available to combat the illegal use of such materials; (10) the United States has an interest in encouraging United States corporations to do business in the countries that comprised the former Soviet Union, and in other developing democracies; (11) protection of such United States corporations from threats created by the unlawful use of nuclear materials is important to the success of the effort to encourage business ventures in these countries, and to further the foreign relations and commerce of the United States; (12) the nature of nuclear contamination is such that it may affect the health, environment, and property of United States nationals even if the acts that constitute the illegal activity occur outside the territory of the United States, and are primarily directed toward foreign nationals; and (13) there is presently no Federal criminal statute that provides adequate protection to United States interests from nonweapons grade, yet hazardous radioactive material, and from the illegal diversion of nuclear materials that are held for other than peaceful purposes. (b) PURPOSE. — The purpose of this title is to provide Federal law enforcement agencies with the necessary means and the maximum authority permissible under the Constitution to combat the threat of nuclear contamination and proliferation that may result from the illegal possession and use of radioactive materials. SEC. 502. EXPANSION OF SCOPE AND JURISDICTIONAL BASES OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS PROfflBITIONS. Section 831 of title 18, United States Code, is amended— (1) in subsection (a)— (A) by striking "nuclear material" each place it appears and inserting "nuclear material or nuclear byproduct material"; (B) in paragraph (1)— (i) in subparagraph (A), by inserting "or to the environment" after "property"; and (ii) so that subparagraph (B) reads as follows: "(B) circumstances exist, or have been represented to the defendant to exist, that are likely to cause the death or serious bodily injury to any person, or substantial damage to property or to the environment;"; and (C) in paragraph (6), by inserting "or to the environment" after "property"; (2) in subsection {c)— (A) so that paragraph (2) reads as follows: "(2) an offender or a victim is— "(A) a national of the United States; or "(B) a United States corporation or other legal entity;"; (B) in paragraph (3)—