Page:VCH Surrey 1.djvu/340

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A HISTORY OF SURREY followed here upon the Conquest. Not only did the new and highly favoured foundation of Edward at Westminster obtain Battersea and Pirford from the Conqueror in exchange for Windsor ; it also secured lands at Tooting from a rich citizen of London. 1 On the other hand, the lands which the ill-fated Harold had bestowed on the canons of his house of Waltham passed into the grasping hands of Robert count of Mortain (fo. 34). The foreign abbeys of St. Wandrille and Croix St. Leufroy shared with the Conqueror's own foundation, at Battle, in the spoils of Surrey ; and Richard ' de Tonebrige ' did not forget that abbey of Bee Hellouin which always enjoyed in a special degree the favour of his mighty house.* Leaving now the lands of monasteries and of bishop's sees, we find a great part of Surrey treated as an appanage of Kent. That is to say, the largest fiefs outside the lands of the church were those of Odo bishop of Bayeux, who acted as earl of Kent and who had special charge of Dover, and of Richard ' de Tonebridge,' who already possessed, as the style assigned to him implies, the stronghold of Tunbridge Castle. It was obviously intended that the wide estates bestowed, in Surrey, on these magnates should assist them in providing for the guard of Kent and securing the approach to London. 3 On the Norman settlement of Surrey the fief of bishop Odo exercised an influence that deserves some little attention. For most of his tenants were well-known men, whose hold- ings afterwards developed into independent baronies. Among the vassals who followed him from the Bessin were Hugh de Port (en Bessin), who held of him largely in Kent and Hampshire and to some extent in Surrey, and Adam Fitz-Hubert, whose home at Ryes was not far from that of Hugh, and who is twice mentioned under Surrey.* The ' Ilbert ' who held Cuddington of the bishop can be shown to be no other than that Ilbert de Laci, lord of Pontefract, who had also been his vassal. 5 Wadard, who held of him in several counties, and who was the pre- decessor of the house of Arsic, is actually depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry, with the legend ' Hie est Wadard.' Gatton and Weybridge were held of the bishop by a Herfrey, who also held of him three estates in Kent. A renowned fellow-prelate of Odo, Gilbert Maminot, bishop of Lisieux, held land of him at Peckham and Hatcham, as he also did at Greenwich. It was thus that Peckham and Hatcham came to form part of the barony of Maminot, and that Bretinghurst manor, at Peckham Rye, became liable to pay ' 10 sh. every 32 weeks to the ward 1 The donor had obtained it from earl Waltheof by the means which subsequently brought so much land into the hands of citizens of London, that is by lending money on its security.

  • The countess of Boulogne, who held Nutfield, bestowed it on St. Wulmer of Boulogne, but

there is no mention of the gift in Domesday, and it may have been made later. The canons of Bayeux received from their bishop lands at Mitcham and at Ashstead. 3 The importance of the Kentish strongholds was seen within two years of Domesday, when the castles of Rochester and of Tunbridge were held by Odo and by Gilbert de Clare against William Rufus.

  • He is found acting as a Domesday commissioner in Worcestershire.

5 See my paper on ' Bernard the Scribe ' in EngTub Historical Review, XIV. 4.30. 280