THE DOMESDAY SURVEY of Dover Castle.' ' Anschitil de Ros was similarly a tenant of bishop Odo in both counties. These instances may serve to illustrate the feudal connection between the two counties. It is noteworthy also that the sheriff of Kent, Hamon (Fitz Hamon, the dapifer)^ held lands in both counties, and that * Norman ' his predecessor at Camberwell must have been the ' Norman ' who had similarly preceded him in two Kentish manors. Of the other Norman tenants-in-chief none had large estates or was specially connected with Surrey. Count Eustace of Boulogne, who had obtained in Kent two of the manors of earl Godwine, secured in Surrey the manor of Oxted, which had been held by the earl's widow. Earl Roger of Montgomery, the count of Mortain, and William de ' Braiose,' all had castles and vast estates down in Sussex to the south. Alvred de Merleberge's Surrey manor descended with his Herefordshire castle of Ewias ; the stronghold of William Fitz Ansculf was at Dudley, and that of Robert Malet in Suffolk ; Edward of Salisbury was sheriff of Wilt- shire ; and the great fief of Walter de Douai lay in the west country. Walter Fitz Other was connected with Windsor ; Geoffrey de Mande- ville had his seat in Essex ; Humfrey the chamberlain held estates in no fewer than nine counties, many of which, like his Surrey manor, he owed to the favour of William's queen. A name of special interest is that of 'Albert the clerk,' who held half Addington in 1086, for I have traced him under various disguises, such as Albert the Lotharingian and Albert the chaplain, as a holder of land and of churches in sundry counties, who had enjoyed the favour of king Edward as of his successor William. 2 Another churchman of foreign birth who had settled in England before the Conquest was Osbern bishop of Exeter, whose manor of Woking, like his Bosham estate, had been originally bestowed on him as a Norman chaplain of the Confessor. 3 Of the English landowners on the eve of the Conquest, we can learn, perhaps, more in Surrey than we can in most of the counties. Foremost, as we might expect, we find Harold and his house. It was in the earl- dom, extending over five or six counties, of Leofwine, a younger brother of Harold, that Surrey, Mr. Freeman tells us, was included when that earldom was given him in 1057.* But only Gatton and Cuddington, which then were assessed respectively at 10 and at 30 hides, are assigned to him by Domesday in the county. His mother ' Gida ' had Oxted (20 hides) and his father Godwine Witley (20 hides) in addition to his rights at Southwark. But it is when we come to Harold himself that we are struck by the size of his possessions. Bermondsey, Battersea, Gomshall, Merton, Wotton, Pirford and Limpsfield, reckoned at 183 hides between them, were all in his own hands. He had bestowed on his Waltham foundation 6 hides at Lambeth, and a hide and half at Streatham ; and 1 See Liber Rubeut, Ed. Hall, pp. 617, 710, 720, where (p. 1 120) Bredhurst in Kent is erroneously suggested to be the place.
- See The Commune of London and other Studies, pp. 368.
3 feudal England, p. 320. * History of the Norman Conquest (1870), II. 419, 568. 281