Page:Zionism 9204 Peace Conference 1920.pdf/33

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Zionism]
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MODERN ZIONISM

to keep the ball rolling, founded La Libre Parole. Drumont is the father of the Anti-Semitism of the Dreyfus trial of 1898.

A whole literature arose around Anti-Semitism in general and the Dreyfus trial in particular. The Jews did not confine themselves to apologetic propaganda. Their leaders, in the more enlightened countries of the West, formed institutions with the express object of protecting their less-favoured co-religionists from oppression and injustice. But above all 'Zionism' came into being a positive remedy for the alleged homelessness of the disfranchised Jew. The term appears to have been first used in 1886, but was popularized by Herzl ten years later.

 

§9. The Origin of Modern Zionism

Already in 1862, Moses Hess, one of the early leaders of the Social Democratic movement in Germany, wrote a book, Rom und Jerusalem, in which he discussed the Jewish problem. Persecution of the Jew throughout the world had convinced him that Jews were likely to remain strangers wherever they dwelt, that emancipation was difficult to reconcile with Jewish national feeling, and that a Jewish Nationality was the only solution of the problem. But the views of Hess fell upon deaf ears among Western Jewry; and emancipation still appeared to them the preferable solution.

Dr. Leon Pinsker of Odessa, in a pamphlet, Auto-Emancipation, published in 1882 and translated into Hebrew and most of the European languages, urged that Jews must help themselves. Writing under the stress of the Russian pogroms he declared that 'neither miracles from above, nor the kindness of Gentiles, nor the progress of nationalism would solve the Jewish problem. They could only become a living nation by beginning to live as a nation and strive for the realization of their national aspirations. ... A home must be found for oppressed Jews, especially Russian Jews.' His chief disciple, the well-known Hebrew writer and