Philosophical Transactions/Volume 1/Number 20
Munday December 17. 1666.
The Method observed in Transfusing the bloud out of one Animal into another.
THis Method was promised in the last of these Papers. It was first practised by Doctor Lower in Oxford, and by him communicated to the Honourable Robert Boyle, who imparted it to the Royal Society, as follows;
First, Take up the Carotidal Artery of the Dog or other Animal, whose Bloud is to be transfused into another of the same or a different kind, and separate it from the Nerve of the Eight pair, and lay it bare above an inch. Then make a strong Ligature on the upper part of the Artery, not to be untied again: but an inch below, videl. towards the Heart, make another Ligature of a running knot, which may be loosen'd or fastned as there shall be occasion. Having made these two knots, draw two threds under the Artery between the two Ligatures; and then open the Artery, and put in a Quill, and tie the Artery upon the Quill very fast by those two threds, and stop the Quill with a stick. After this, make bare the Jugular Vein in the other Dog about an inch and a half long; and at each end make a Ligature with a running knot, and in the space betwixt the two running knots drawn under the Vein two threds, as in the other: then make an Incision in the Vein, and put into it two Quills, one into the descendent part of the Vein, to receive the bloud from the other Dog, and carry it to the Heart; and the other Quill put into the other part of the Jugular Vein, which comes from the Head (out of which, the second Dogs own blond must run into Dishes.) These two Quills being put in and tyed fast, stop them with a stick, till there be occasion to open them.
All things being thus prepar'd, tie the Dogs on their sides towards one another so conveniently, that the Quill may go into each other, (for the Dogs necks cannot be brought so near, but that you must put two or three several Quills more into the first two, to convey the bloud from one to another.) After that, unstop the Quill that goes down into the first Dog's Jugular Vein, and the other Quill coming out of the other Dog's Artery; and by the help of two or three other Quills, put into each other, according as there shall be occasion, insert them into one another. Then slip the running knots, and immediately the bloud runs through the Quills, as through an Artery, very impetuously. And immediately, as the bloud runs into the Dog, unstop the other Quill, coming out of the upper part of his Jugular Vein (a Ligature being first made about his Neck, or else his other Jugular Vein being compress'd by ones Finger;) and let his own bloud run out at the same time into Dishes (yet not constantly, but according as you perceive him able to bear it) till the other Dog begin to cry, and faint, and fall into Convulsions, and at last dye by his side.
Then take out both the Quills out of the Dogs Jugular Vein, and tye the running knot fast, and cut, the Vein asunder, (which you may doe without any harm to the Dog, one Jugular Vein being sufficient to convey all the bloud from the Head and upper parts, by reason of a large Anastomosis, whereby both the Jugular Veins meet about the Larynx.) This done, sow up the skin and dis-miss him, and the Dog will leap from the Table and shake himself; and run away, as if nothing ailed him.
And this I have tryed several times, before several in the Universities, but never yet upon more than one Dog at a time, for want of leisure, and convenient supplyes of several Dogs at once. But when I return, I doubt not but to give you a fuller account, not only by bleeding several Dogs into one, but several other creatures into one another, as you did propose to me, before you left Oxford; which will be very easie to perform; and will afford many pleasant and perhaps not unuseful Experiments.
But because there are many Circumstances necessary to be observ'd in the performing of this experiment, and that you may better direct any one to doe it, without any danger of killing the other Dog, that is to receive the others bloud, I will mention two or three.
First, that you fasten the Dogs at such a convenient distance, that the Vein nor Artery be not stretched; for then, being contracted, they will not admit or convey so much bloud.
Secondly, that you constantly observe the Pulse beyond the Quill in the Dogs Jugular Vein (which it acquires from the impulse of the Arterious bloud:) For if that fails, then 'tis a sign the Quill is stopt by some congealed bloud, so that you must draw out the Arterial Quill from the other, and with a Probe open the passage again in both of them, that the bloud may have its free course again. For, this must be expected, when the Dog, that bleeds into the other, hath lost much bloud, his heart will beat very faintly, and then the impulse of bloud being weaker, it will be apt to congeal the sooner, so that at the latter end of the work you must draw out the Quill ofter, and clear the passage; if the Dog be faint-hearted, as many are, though some stout fierce Dogs will bleed freely and uninterruptedly, till they are convuls'd and dye. But to prevent this trouble, and make the experiment certain, you must bleed a great Dog into a little one, or a Mastive into a Curr, as I once try'd, and the little bled out at least double the quantity of his own bloud, and left the Mastive dead upon the Table, and after he was untyed, he ran away and shak'd himself, as if he had been only thrown into water. Or else you may get three or four several Dogs prepared in the same manner; and when one begins to fail and leave off bleeding, administer another, and I am confident one Dog will receive all their bloud, (and perhaps more) as long as it runs freely, till they are left almost dead by turns: provided that you let out the bloud proportionably, as you let it goe into the Dog, that is to live.
Thirdly, I suppose the Dog that is to bleed out into dishes will endure it the better, if the Dogs that are to be administred to supply his bloud, be of neer an equal age, and fed alike the day before, that both their blouds may be of a neer strength and temper.
There are many things I have observed upon bleeding Dogs to death, which I have seen since your departure from Oxford, whereof I shall give you a relation hereafter; in the mean time since you were pleased to mention it to the Royal Society, with a promise to give them an account of this experiment, I could not but take the first opportunity to clear you from that obligation, &c.
So far this Letter: the prescriptions whereof having been carefully observ'd by those who were imployed to make the Experiment, have hitherto been attended with good success; and that not only upon Animals of the same Species (as two Dogs first, and then two Sheep) but also upon some of very differing Species as a Sheep and a Dog; the former Emitting, the other Receiving.)
Note only, that in stead of a Quill, a small crooked thin Pipe of Silver or Brass, so slender that the one end may enter into a Quill, and having at the other end, that is to enter into the Vein and Artery, a small knob, for the better fastening them to it with a thread, will be much fitter than a strait Pipe or Quill, for this Operation: for so they are much more easie to be managed.
'Tis intended, that these tryals shall be prosecuted to the utmost variety the subject will beare: As by exchanging the bloud of Old and Young, Sick and Healthy, Hot and Cold, Fierce and Fearful, Lame and Wild Animals, &c. and that not only of the same, but also of differing kinds. For which end, and to improve this noble Experiment, either for knowledge, or use, or both, some Ingenious men have already proposed considerable tryals and inquiries; of which perhaps an account will be given hereafter. For the present we shall only subjoyn some
Considerations about this kind of Experiments.
1. It may be consider'd in them, that the bloud of the Emittent Animal, may after a few minutes of time, by its circulation, mix and run out with that of the Recipient. Wherefore to be assured in these Tryals, that all the bloud of the Recipient is run out, and none left in him but the adventitious bloud of the Emittent, two or three or more animals (which was also hinted in the method above) may be prepared and administred, to bleed them all out into one.
2. It seems not irrational to guess afore-hand, that the exchange of bloud will not alter the nature or disposition of the Animals, upon which it shall be practised; though it may be thought worth while for satisfaction and certainty, to determine that point by Experiments. The case of exchanging the bloud of Animals seems not like that of Graffing, where the Cyons turns the Sap of the Stock, graffed upon, into its nature; the Fibres of the Cyons so straining the juice, which passes from the stem to it, as thereby to change it into that of the Cyons, whereas in this transfusion there seems to be no such Percolation of the bloud of Animals, whereby that of the one should be changed into the nature of the other.
3. The most probable use of this Experiment may be conjectured to be, that one Animal may live with the bloud of another; and consequently, that those Animals, that want bloud, or have corrupt bloud, may be supplyed from others with a sufficient quantity, and of such as is good, provided the Transfusion be often repeated, by reason of the quick expence that is made of the bloud.
In the last Transactions was also promised an Accompt by the next, of Monsieur Hevelius his accurate Calcul. of the late Solar Eclipses Duration, Quantity, &c. But this being to be accompanyed with a Scheme, the Graving whereof met with a disappointment, it must be still referred to another Opportunity.
An account of some Sanative Waters in Herefordshire.
This account was communicated by Dr. B. in these words.
There are two Springs in Herefordshire, whereof one is within a Bolt, or at least Bow-shoot of the top of the near adjoyning lofty Hill of Malvern, and at great distance from the Foot of the Hill; and hath had a long and old fame for healing of eyes. When I was for some years molested with Teters on the back of one and sometimes of both my hands, notwithstanding all endeavours of my very friendly and skilful Physitians, I had speedy healing from a neighbouring Spring of far less fame. Yet this Spring healed very old and Ulcerous sores on the Legs of a poor Fellow, which had been poyson'd by Irons in the Gaol, after other Chirurgery had been hopeless. And by many tryals upon my hands, and the Tetters, I was perswaded, that in long droughts, and lasting dry Frosts, those waters were more effectually and more speedily healing, than at other times. And not to omit this circumstance, I did hold this water in my mouth till it was warm, and perchance somewhat intermingled with fasting Spittle, and so dropping it upon the Teter, I there could see it immediately gather a very thin skin upon the raw flesh, not unlike that which is seen to gather upon Milk over a gentle fire. This skin would have small holes in it, through which a moisture did issue in small drops, which being wip'd away, and the water continued to be dropp'd warm out of the mouth, the holes would diminish, and at last be all quite healed up.
For the Eye-waters, I conceived them more strongly tersive, and clearing the Eyes; and they had a rough smartness, as if they carryed Sand or Gravel into the Eye.
I have known and try'd three or four healing Fountains of late discovery, or of no old fame that I could hear of.
I did once put rich Marle[errata 1] for some days in a vessel of water; to try whether the water would acquire a healing vertue; but my Experiments were interrupted. I had in my thoughts many other ways of Tryal; which may resume hereafter.
This comes from the same hand as follows;
I formerly mention'd to you, that, if that Pool of Mr. Philip's, which seems to be of Vitriolate-water, were on my ground, I would drain it, and search the head of the Spring, pursuing the source, till I could well discern, through what lay of Earth or Gravel it does pass. Now I shall tell you, that I have taken order for the further tryal of the said Water, by boiling a greater quantity in a Furnace, &c. But just as we were in readiness for the tryal, a stream of Rain-water fell into the Pool, and so discourag'd us for the present. I have also taken a course to turn the falling Waters aside, and to drain the Pool, that we may see, what the Native Springs (whether one or more) may be. Of which more hereafter.
I wish (so he goes on) we had a full Accompt of our Salt-Springs at Droyt-wych near Worcester, and at Nant-wych in Cheshire (what other Salt-Springs we have in England, I know not:) It should be inquired, at what distance they are from the Seas, or from Salt-fluxes, from Hills, and how deep in the Vales? What the weight? Whether in droughts or long Frosts the proportion of Salt or weight increaseth? Whether the Earth near the Springs, or in their passage hath any peculiar ferment, or produceth a blackishness, if it rests, after it is well drained.
Inquiries for Turky.
Though many Relations and Descriptions of Turky be extant in Print, yet they leave in many a desire of fuller information in the following particulars, lately drawn up, for the most part by Mr. H. and recommended to an Ingenious Gentleman, bound for that Country; and desired also to be taken notice off by others, that may have occasion to visit the same.
*Rusma is a kind of Earth, used in Turky to take away hair. 1.In what part of Turky the * Rusma is to be found; and in what quantity? Whether the Turks employ it to any other Uses, besides that of the taking away of Hair? Whether there be differing kinds of it? How it is used to take off hair, and how to get store of it.
2.Whether the Turks do not only take Opium themselves for strength and courage, but also give it to their Horses, Camels and Dromedaries, for the same purpose, when they find them tired and faint in their travelling? What is the greatest Dose, any men are known to have taken of Opium? and how prepared?
3.What effects are observed from their use, not only of Opium (already mention'd) but also of Coffee, Bathing, shaving their Heads, using Rice; and why they prefer that which grows not unless water'd, before Wheat, &c?
4.How their Damasco-steel is made and temper'd?
5.What is their way of dressing and making Leather, which though thin and supple, will hold out water?
6.What method they observe in breeding those excellent Horses, they are so much famed for?
7.Whether they be so skilful in Poisoning, as is said; and how their Poysons are curable?
8.How the Armenians keep Meat fresh and sweet so long, as 'tis said they do?
9.What Arts or Trades they have worth Learning?
10.Whether there be such a Tree about Damascus, call'd Mouslac, which every year about the Month of December is cut down close by the root, and within four or five Months time shoots up again apace, bringing forth Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit also, and bearing but one Apple (an excellent Fruit) at once?
11.Whether about Reame in the Southern part of Arabia Fælix, there be Grapes without any grains? And whether the people in that Country live, many of them, to a hundred and twenty years, in good health?
12.Whether in Candia there be no poysonous Creatures; and whether those Serpents, that are there, are without poyson?
13.Whether all Fruits, Herbs, Earth, Fountains, are naturally saltish in the Isle of Cyprus? And whether those parts of this Isle, which abound in Cyprus-trees, are more or less healthful, than others?
14.What store of Amianthus there is in Cyprus; and how they work it?
15.Whether Mummies be found in the sands of Arabia, that are the dryed flesh of men buried in those sandy Deserts in travelling? And how they differ in their vertue from the Embalmed ones?
16.Whether the parts about the City of Constantinople or Asia Minor, be as subject to Earth-quakes now, as they have been formerly? And whether the Eastern winds do not Plague the said City with Mists, and cause that inconstancy of Weather, it is said to be subject to?
17.Whether the Earth-quakes in Zant and Cephalonia be so frequent, as now and then to happen nine or ten times a Month? And whether these Isles be not very Cavernous?
18.What is the height of Mount Caucasus, its position, temper in its several parts, &c?
19.With what declivity the Water runs out of the Euxine-Sea into the Propontis? With what depth? And if the many Tides and Eddies, so famous by the name of the Euripi, have any certain Period?
20.If in the Euxine-Sea there can be found any sign of the Caspian Seas emptying it self into it by a passage under ground? If there be any different Colour, or Temper as to Heat or Cold; or any great Current or Motion in the Water, that may give light to it?
21.By what Inland passages they go to China; there being now a passage for Caravans throughout those places, that would formerly admit of no Correspondence by reason of the Barbarisme of the Inhabitants?
22.Whether in the Aquæducts, they make, they line the inside with as good Plaister, as the Ancients did? and how theirs is made?
23.To inquire after these excellent Works of Antiquity, of which that Country is full, and which by the ignorant are not thought worth notice or preservation? And particularly, what is the bigness and structure of the Aquæducts, made in several places about Constantinople by Solyman the Magnificent? &c.
An Observation of Optick Glasses, made of Rock-Crystal.
This is contained in a Letter, of Eustachio Divini, Printed in Italian at Rome, as the 39. Journal des Scavans. extracts it; vid.
Though it be commonly believed, that Rock-Crystal is not fit for Optick-Glasses, because there are many Veins in it; yet Eustachio Divini made one of it, which he saith proved an excellent one, though full of Veins.*
*It may be queried whether those were true Veins, or only Superficial Strictures, and slight scratches.
An accompt of the Use of the Grain of Kermes for Coloration.
This was communicated by the Ingenious Dr. Croen, as he received it from one, Monsieur Verny, a French Apothecary at Montpelier; who having described the Grain of Kermes, to be an excrescence, growing upon the Wood, and often upon the leaves of a Shrub, plentiful in Languedock, and gather'd in the end of May, and the beginning of June, full of a red Juyce; subjoynes two Uses, which that Grain hath, the one for Medicine, the other for Dying of Wool. Waving the first, notice shall only be taken here of the latter, vid. That, for Dying, they take the Grain of Kermes, when ripe, and spread it upon Linnen: And at first, whilst it abounds most in moisture, 'tis turn'd twice or thrice a day, to prevent its Heating. And when there appears red powder amongst it, they separate it, passing it through a Searce; and then again spread abroad the Grain upon Linnen, untill there be perceived the same redness of the powder; and at the end, this red powder appears about and on the surface of the Grain, which is still to be pass'd through a Searce, till it render no more.
And in the beginning, when the small red Grains are seen to move (as they will do) they are sprinkled over with strong Vinegar, and rubb'd between on's hands: afterwards, little Balls are form'd thereof, which are expos'd to the Sun to dry.
If this red powder should be let alone, without pouring, Vinegar or some other accid liquor upon it, out of every Grain thereof would be form'd a little Fly, which would skip and fly up and down for a day or two, and at last changing its colour, fall down quite dead, deprived of all the bitterness, the Grains, whence they are generated, had before.
The Grain being altogether emptyed of its pulp or red powder, 'tis wash'd in Wine, and then expos'd to the Sun. Being well dryed, 'tis rubb'd in a Sack to render it bright; and then 'tis put up in small Sacks, putting in the midst, according to the quantity, the Grain has afforded, 10. or 12. pounds (for a Quintal) of the dust, which is the red powder, that came out of it. And accordingly, as the Grain affords more or less of the said powder, Dyers buy more or less of it.
'Tis to be noted, That the first red powder, which appears, issues out of the Hole of the Grain, that is on the side, where the Grain adhered to the Plant. And that, which about the end appears sticking on the Grain, hath been alive in the husk, having pierced its cover; though the hole, whence it commonly issues, remains close as to the Eye.
An Account of some Books lately published.
1. PINAX Rerum Naturalium BRITTANIARUM continens VEGETABILIA, ANIMALIA & FOSSILIA, in hoc insula reperta, Inchoatus, Auth. Christophoro Merret, Med.D. & utriusque Societatis Regiæ socio.
The Learned and Inquisitive Author of this Book, hath by his laudable example of collecting together, what Natural things are to be found here in England, of all sorts (which he has done upon, his own expences) given an invitation to the curious in all parts of the world to attempt the like, thereby to establish the much desired and highly useful commerce among Naturalists, and to contribute every where to the composing of a genuin and full History of Nature.
In the Preface he intimates, that his stock does still encrease dayly; and that therefore the Reader may expect an Appendix to this collection.
In the Body of the Book, he enumerates all the Species, Alphabetically: And, as to Vegetables, he reckons up about 410. sorts; and gives their Latine and English Names, and the Places and Times of their growth: reducing them afterwards to certain Classes, hitherto used by Botanick Writers in their Histories of Plants: Adding the Etymology of their Generick Names, and a compendious Register of the Time, when and how long the English Plants do shoot and flourish.
As to Animals, he finds of them about 340. kinds in England, whereof the four-footed are about 50. Birds 170. and Fishes 120. Insects are innumerable, which yet he endeavours to enumerate, and to reduce to certain Classes; into which he also brings the three former kinds.
Concerning Fossils, he first takes notice of the Metals found in English Mines; as Silver, Tin, Copper, Iron, Lead, Antimony, and some Gold extracted out of Tin. Next of the Stones, of which he finds about 70 sorts; & amongst them, Bristol-Diamonds, Agates, Hyacinths, Emerods, Load-stones, Toad-stones (which last yet he affirms to be nothing but the grinding-teeth of the Fish Lupus) Pearls, Corals, Marble, Alablaster, Emery: To which he adds the various kinds of Coals; as also Bitumens, Turfs, and Jets. And thirdly of the various kinds of Allum, Vitriol, Niter, Sea-salt, Pit-salt. But fourthly of the various Earths, of which he reckons up 15. peculiar sorts (besides those that serve for Husbandry, which are not easily numbred;) and amongst them Read-lead, Black-lead and Fullers-earth.
He concludes all with mentioning the several Meteors appearing in England; and the Hot Springs, and Medical Waters; also, the Salin, Petrifying, and some more unusual Springs: Item, Subterraneous Trees, Subterraneous Rivers, Ebbings and Flowings of Wells, &c.
II. PLACITA PHILOSOPHICA Guarini. The chief subject of this Treatise is Natural Philosophy; upon many important questions whereof it inlargeth, as those of the Motion of the Celestial Bodies, of Light, of Meteors, and of the vital and animal functions; leaving sometimes the common opinions, and delighting in the defence of Paradoxes.
E.G. That the material substantial Form, is nothing but mera potentia, and subsists not by it self: by which means the Author judges, he can free himself from many great difficulties touching Generation and Corruption, which do perplex the other Philosophers.
He holds Epicycles to be impossible, and Excentricks, not sufficient to explicate the motion of the Stars; but that all the irregularities of this motion may be salved by the means of certain Spiral Lines; largely proving this Hypothesis, and particularly explicating the motion of each Planet.
He denies the middle Region of the Air to be cold; and believes that cold is not necessary to condense the vapours into Water.
He admits not that received Axiome, That the generation of one Body is the corruption of another; maintaining that there are Generations, to which no corruption ever preceeded; and that it may happen, that one Animal without dying may be changed into another Animal.
He alledges several reasons to evince, that the Air breathed in, enters not only into the whole capacity of the Chest, but also into the lower belly.
He is of opinion, that the Air, which is commonly believed to corrupt easily, is incorruptible; alledging among other reasons, this for one, that experience shews, that if a Botle be exactly stop'd, there is never any mixt Body form'd in it; wherefore, saith he, the Air is not corrupted there.
He maintains, that 'tis not the Magnet that draws the Iron, but rather the Iron that attracts the Magnet. To explain which he affirms, that the Load-stone spreads abroad out of it self many Corpuscles which the substance of the Iron imbibes; and that, as dry things attract those that are moist, by the same reason Iron draws the Load-stone.
He rejects the species Intentionales, Vital and Animal Spirits and holds many other uncommon opinions, touching Light, the Iris, the Flux and Re-flux of the Sea, &c.
This Author propelling to himself to discover both the principal Organ of the Taste, and the nature of its object, begins with the latter, and examines first, what is Taste? He judges that it is caused by nothing but Salts, which being variously figured, affects the tongue variously: alledging this for his chief reason, that the Salt which is extracted by Chymists out of any mixt body whatever it be, carries away with it all its taste, and that the rest remains taste-less. He adds that the Teeth in grinding the Food, serve much to extract this Salt: And he notes by the by, that the Teeth are so necessary for preparing the aliment, that certain Animals which seem to have none, have them in their stomach; and that nature has put at the entry of the palat of those that are altogether destitute of them, certain moveable inequalities, which are to them instead of Teeth.
But then secondly, concerning the Organ of Taste, he esteems, that 'tis neither the Flesh, nor the Tongue, nor the Membrans, nor the Nerves found there, nor the Glanduls, called Amygdalinæ; but those little eminences, that are found upon the tongue of all Animals. To obtain which, he observes,
1. That from the middle of the Tongue to the root, as also towards the tip, there are found innumerable little Risings called Papillares; but that from the tip of the Tongue unto the string there is observed none at all.
2.He hath experimented, that if you put Sal Armoniack upon the places of the Tongue, where those Eminencies are not, you shall find no Taste; but that you will find it presently, as soon you put any such Salt, where they are to be met with. Ergo, saith he, those Eminencies are the principal Organ of Taste.
3.He assures, that with a Microscope may be seen in those Risings many little holes, at the bottom whereof there are small nerves, terminating there: But he directs, to observe this in live and healthy, not in dead or sick Animals.
Having laid down these Observations, he concludes, that the manner, after which Taste is perform'd, is this, That the particles of Salt passing through those pores, which pierce the Papillary Eminences, and penetrating as far as to the nerves, that meet them there, do by the means of their small points prick them; which pricking is called the Taste.
In the mean time he acknowledges, that before him Signior Malpighi, Professor at Messina, had made some of these discoveries.
The notice of these two last Books we owe to the French Journal.
Pag. 342. lin. 33. read mixt Ores instead of mixt with Ores.
Correct in this present Numb. 20.Page 359. line 13. Read Marle for Pearle.
- Original: Pearl was amended to Marle: detail