Philosophical Transactions/Volume 2/Number 27
For the Months of July, August, and September.
Munday, Septem. 1667
An Advertisement concerning the Invention of the Transfusion of Bloud. An Account of some Experiments of Infusing Liquors into the Veins of Animals; As also of some new discoveries pretended to be made in the Brain and the Tongue. An Experiment upon Bloud grown cold. Some Observations of Quicksilver found at the roots of Plants; and of Shells found upon in-land mountains; Other Observations made by a curious person in his Voyage from England to the Caribes, concerning the Rusting of Iron by the Sea-air; the Changes of Thames-water carried by sea; The Variety of the Colours of the Sea; The Burning of the same; the Night-winds in the Indies; The Relations of the Seasons of the year rectified; Observables about Tortoises; The condition of English bodies first coming to Jamaica; A way of preserving Ale as far as to the same Island. An Extract of a Letter concerning some Magnetical Experiments; and an Excellent Liquor made of Cyder-Apples and Mulberries. An Account of two or three Books; One, The History of the Royal Society: The other, Disquisitio de Fætu Formato, The third, Musculi Descriptio Geometrica.
An Advertisement concerning the Invention of the Transfusion of Bloud.
The Author of these Papers returning now to his former Exercises, which by an extraordinary Accident he was necessitated to interrupt for some months last past, thought fit to comprise the Transactions of all the Months omitted in one Tract: In the very beginning of which he must inform the Reader, that if himself had published that Letter, which came abroad in July last, Concerning a new way of curing sundry diseases by Transfusion of Bloud, written to Monsieur de Montmor, &c by J. Denis Prof. of Pilosophy, &c. he should then have taken notice, as he doth now, of what is affirmed in that Letter about the time and place of the Conception of that Transfusing design; and intimated to the Curious, that how long soever that Experiment may have been conceived in other parts (which is needless to contest) it is notorious, that it had its birth first of all in England; some Ingenious persons of the Royal Society having first started it there, several years ago, (as appears by their Journal) and that dextrous Anatomist, D. Lower, reduced it into practice, both by contriving a method for the Operation, and by successfully executing the same: wherein he was soon overtaken by several happy Trials of the skilful hand of D. Edmund King, and others, encouraged thereunto by the said Society; which being notified to the world Numb. 19. and 20. of these Transactions, Print-Novem. 19, and Decemb. 17. 1666; the Experiment was, soon after that time, heard of to have been tried in forein parts, without hearing any thing then of its having been conceived ten years ago.
An account of some Experiments of injecting Liquors into the Veins of Animals, lately made in Italy by Signior Fracassati Professor of Anatomy at Pisa.
1 . Having infused into the Jugular and Crural Vein of a Dog some Aqua fortis diluted, the Animal died presently; and being opened, all the bloud in the Vessels was fixed, but that in the guts not so well. It was also observed, that the great vessels were burst, perhaps by an effort of Nature; even as in the greatest part of those that die of an Apoplexy, the vessels of the Lungs are found broken. Upon which Experiment the Author maketh these Reflections: First, That an Apoplexy being often caused by a like Coagulation of the bloud (as hath been observed by the opening, made of sundry persons, who died of that distemper) it might be cured by a timely infusing some Dissolvent into the veins. Secondly, That it is likely, that that useful secret, by which Monsieur de Bills dissected Animals without any effusion of bloud, consists in some such Infusion.
2. There was afterwards infused into another Dog some Spirit of Vitriol, which had not so present an effect; for the Animal complained a great while, and foam'd like Epilepticks, and had its respiration very thick; and observing the beating of his breast, one might easily judge, the Dog suffered much: who dying at last, his bloud was found fixed in the veins, and grumous, resembling soot.
3. Then there was injected into a Dog some Oyl of Sulphur: But he died not of it, though this Infusion was several times tried upon him. And the wound being closed, and the Dog let go, he went into all the corners of the Room searching for meat, and having found some bones, he fell a gnawing of them with a strange avidity, as if this Liquor had caused in him a great appetite.
4. Another Dog, into whose veins some Oyl of Tartar was injected, did not escape so well: For he complained much, and was altogether swoln, and then died. Being opened, the Spectators were surprised to find his bloud not curdled, but on the contrary more thin and florid than ordinary; which seems to hint, that a too great fluidity of the bloud, as well as its Coagulation, may cause death.
An Account of some Discoveries concerning the Brain, and the Tongue, made by Signior Malpighi, Professor of Physick in Sicily.
1. He pretends to have discovered, that the Exterior and softer part of the Brain, doth not cover only the Corpus callosum, as hath been believed hitherto, but is also inserted into it in many places. He hath also observed, That the Corpus callosum is nothing but a Contexture of small Fibres, issuing from the Medulla Spinalis, and terminating in the said Exterior part of the Brain. And these Fibres, he saith, are so manifest in the Ventricles of Fishes brains, that when they are looked through they represent the figure of an Ivory Comb,
2. The Use, which he ascribes to the Brain, is much different, he saith, from what hath been assigned to it hitherto. He pretends, that as half, or at least, a third of the bloud of an Animal is conveighed into the Brain, where yet it cannot be consumed, the finest Serum of this bloud is filtrated through the exteriour part, and then entring into the Fibres of the brain, is thence conveighed into the Nerves: which he affirms to be the reason, that the Head is so often found full of water, when the Brain hath received a wound, or an alteration by some distemper.
3. He hath taken a particular care of examining the Optique Nerve in divers Animals, it being one of the most admirable productions in the Brain. Having therefore among other Fishes dissected the head of a Xiphias or Sword fish, who hath a very big eye, he hath not observed any considerable cavity in the Optique Nerve, nor any Nervous Fibres; but found, that the middle of this Nerve is nothing else, but a large Membrane folded according to its length in many doubles almost like a Fan and invested by the Dura Mater. Eustachio a famous Anatomist, had written something of this before, but obscurely, and without mentioning the Animal, wherein he had made this observation.
4. The same Malpighi thought he should have met with the same thing in Terrestrial Animals; but he found, that Fishes alone have such a structure of the Optique Nerve: For that of an Ox, Frog, and other such Animals, is nothing but a heap of many small Fibres of the same substance with the Brain, wrapped about with the Dura Mater, and accompanied with many little vessels with bloud. Hence he draws the decision of that great question among Anatomists; Whether the Optique Nerve be hollow or not? For, saith he, it cannot be otherwise, but there must be many cavities in this Nerve; forasmuch as the small filaments, of which it is composed, cannot be so closely joyned, that there should not be some void space betwixt them.
5. Concerning the Tongue, the same Author hath discovered in it many little Eminences, which he calls Papillary, and believes to be the principal Organ of Taste. ** See Numb. 20. of the Transactions, pag. 366. where a large account is given of this discovery, from the Treatise of Laur. Bellini, de Organo Gustûs. But here is not to be omitted the Observation of Fracassati, importing, that as the Tongue hath towards its point many Eminences, by the means whereof it goes, as it were, to meet objects of Taste; so on the contrary, it hath many cavities towards its root, wherein it receives them. All which cavities terminate in nerves, and seem to serve for Funnels to conveigh the aliment into them. Which maketh the Author think it very probable, that the finest part of the aliment passeth immediately from the Tongue into the Nerves, whence it comes to pass, that Wine, being only taken into the mouth, restoreth vigour presently.
An Experiment of Signior Fracassati upon Bloud grown cold.
When any bloud is become cold in a dish, that part which is beneath the superficies appears much blacker, than that on the top; and 'tis vulgarly said, that this black part of the bloud is Melancholy bloud, and men are wont to make use of this example to shew that the Melancholy humor as 'tis called, enters with the 3 others into the composition of the bloud. But Signior Fracassati maintains, that this blackish colour comes from hence, that the bloud, which is underneath, is not expos'd to the Air, and not from a mixture of Melancholy: to prove which he assures, that upon its being expos'd to the Air it changes colour, and becomes of a florid red.
An Experiment as easie to try, as 'tis curious.
Communicated by Signior Manfredus Septalius from Milan, concerning Quicksilver found at the roots of Plants, and Shels found upon In-land Mountains.
This Italian Virtuoso, famous for his knowledge and curiosity, as well as for his Hospitality to ingenious strangers, did in a late Letter of his to the Publisher, impart the following Particulars.
1. In the Valley of Lancy, which runs between the Mountains of Turin, grows a Plant like the Doronicum, (so also called by the Inhabitants and Botanists;) near the roots whereof you may find pure Quicksilver, running in small grains like Pearls; the juice of which Plant being expressed, and exposed to the Air of a clear night, there will be found as much Mercury, as there is lost of ]uice. * * This may be compared with those Relations, which acquaint us, that in Moravia, Hungary, Peru, and other parts; Mineral juices concreted are found to stick to the roots of Herbs and Trees, some of those juices tinging also the Leaves of Vegetables.
2. In a Voyage he made a few years since to Genoa, when he was to pass some mountains, he met with some Peasants, who digging on the sides of an Hill, had found and gathered very many Cockle-shels of divers kinds; which he wondring at, stopped his intended journey, and went to the very place, where he was satisfied of the truth of the relation, finding great store of different shells, as the Turbinets, Echini, and some Pearl-shells, whereof one had a fair Pearl in it, which, he saith, he put into his Repository.
Observations Made by a Curious and Learned Person, sailing from England, to the Caribe-Islands.
These Observations shall be set down in the Authors own words, as they were obtained from him by Sir R. Moray; viz.
I Took notice at Deal, whence I set sail for Jamaica, of the great difference in the rusting of Iron, in such houses, as front the Sea, in comparison of that effect in the Street immediately placed behind that other, in which I made this observation. They told me that it rusted more at High-floods, than at Neap-tides; the height of the Beach hindring the Saline exhalations. This remark put me in mind of the vanity of the Argument of M. Ligons and others, viz. That the Air of the West-Indies was hot and moist, because of the Rusting of Iron; whereas it indeed arises from some other principle in the Air; for at the point of Cagua, where it scarce raineth 40 showers in a year, Iron rusts as much or more than any where; yet are there other parts of the Island, in which of 9 months not one passes without great Rains: besides, in Jamaica it rusts least in rainy Weather.
The Steams of the Sea are found of such a nature, that our our sweetmeats rotted; Sugar of Roses, and other Lozenges grew moist; notwithstanding that there was no reason to attribute it to any rainy weather. And those Pies and Gammons of Bacon, which had kept well before, after they had been once exposed to the open Air, decayed more in a day or two, than in six weeks before.
On the point Cagua, the Iron Guns at the Fort were so corroded, that some were near become useless, being perforated almost like Hony-Combs: And I could at any time with 2 or 3 stroaks of a Hammer break off some pounds of Rusty Iron, which served for prepared Steel, and in Salves. But the Guns which lay in the Salt-water, were not much endamaged by Rust; as we found, upon taking up of some.
Many things receive damage by the Air: Not only Iron rusts, but even Linnen rots, and Silks once exposed to the Air do rot without losing their colour. If a Lancet be once exposed to they air it will rust, though you presently put it up again; but if it be never exposed to the Air, it will hardly rust.
At Deal certain Ale-seller will warrant, that the Ale, as he orders it, shall be carried good to the West or East-Indies. His way to prepare it is this, as he told me himself, he twice makes it with Fresh-Malt, and twice boils it well; yet all this kept it not from sowring; as I observ'd during my stay there. We bought of it to carry to Jamaica, and then he directed us thus. To every Rundlet of 5 Gallons, after it is placed in the ship, not to be stirred any more, put in two new-laid Eggs whole, and let them lie in it; he said that in a fortnight or little more, the whole Egg-shells would be dissolved, and the Eggs become like Wind-Eggs, inclosed only in a thin skin; after this, the whole White would be prey'd on, but the Yolk would not be touch'd or corrupted. By this means we did preserve the Ale to Jamaica. and it was much better, than at Deal. I was told since by some others that the Experiment is usual with them, to keep Ale in England a quarter of a year: And if Eggs be thus put into March-beer, they preserve it from growing ever harsh. They must be put in, after the Liquor has done working.
Concerning the Thames-water, it is not only observable, that in eight months time it acquires a Spirituous quality, so as to burn like Spirit of Wine; and some East-India ships, I am informed, have run the hazard of firing by holding a Candle near the Bung hole at the first opening of the Cask;) but also that the stinking of it is no corruption, nor perhaps unwholesome; for we drank it all the way, so as to hold our Noses, yet had no sickness, but we had proportion of Brandy each week, which perhaps might correct it. If you take off the Bung from any Cask that stinks, and let the Air come to it, it will in 24 hours become sweet again. And if you take a Broomstick, and stir it about well, it will become sweet in 4 or 5 hours casting a black Lee to the bottom, which remixes with it, and so occasions a third or fourth fermentation, and stench; after which it stinks no more. But, though Thames-water upon stench do not putrifie, yet other Waters (as far as hath been hitherto observed) do become irrecoverable upon stinking, and dangerous to drink.
I observ'd at Sea, that though Glauber say, the water, as it grows Salter, becomes Greener, yet that is false. For, after we were out of the Narrow, the Sea grew darkish, and after perfect Azure, yet was it much more Salt, the farther we went: as I tried by a Water-poise of Glass, with Quick-silver at the one end, it rose about half an inch above the Sea-water in the Downs; and at 24 degrees more, 2 inches. But after that, I never observed any difference unto Jamaica, the Sea being probably so impregnated with Salt, as not to imbibe more; which crosses another observation, that the nearer the Tropiques and the Line, the Salter the Sea.
As to the Colour of the Sea, I conceive there is as great variety in it and its steams, as in Grounds at Land; which may occasion the siekness in some places more than in others: For the Sea smells differently in the Narrow and Main. And as to colour, it is of a Sea-green (and more sickly) in the Downs, than at Torbay, and on Plymouth coast more, than past the Lands-end; and in the Bay of Biscay, than in the Long-reach. Something perhaps may be imputed to the difference of the waves, which are short, and make a Copling Sea in the Bay of Biscay (yet we came not within 80 Leagues of Cape Finis Terræ:) in the Long-reach it is along rolling wave, but never breaks. About Florida, Virginia, and New-England it is a great rolling wave, but breaks. And as the Sea coloureth from green to darkish, and so to blue; so in our return it colour'd from blue to dark, and so to green. When we were in the Latitude of Barbadoes, and had sailed so for two daies, and apprehended out selves to be within 70 or 80 Leagues, I observed the Sea was black and thick, not transparently blue, as before, and the foam against the Ship-sides was turbid, and of another consistence, than before. I had never seen the like before, yet was I willing to think the Sun not high enough, to give the water its due colour. I attended the Suns progress, but behold, it turn'd Green; whereupon I asked the Master, who told me, we were within 60 leagues of Barbadoes, and that the Sea was there soundable, whereas before it was not so. But at Barbadoes in the anchoring places, it was Blue; and as we row'd ashore, in the shallow it was Whitish: And so at Jamaica near the shore it is transparently White, but within three yards more, transparently Blue.
As to the Burning of the Sea, I could never observe so great a Light, as to perceive Fishes in the Sea of the Stern, though I frequently looked, as well as M. Ligon; yet was the light great, and at sometimes more than other. I suppose several subject Earths, Currents, and Winds do vary it. I observ'd, it burned more at Deal the night before we set sail, than ever in the Voyage: all the water ran off our Oars, almost like liquid fire; the wind was then South-East, and the Sea-men told me, that at East and South-winds it burned most. And it did never burn so much during our stay at Deal, as then, the wind having been alwaies Westerly. But in the Harbour of Jamaica I observ'd, that it did not burn equally there. As you pass the Current (which thwarts the middle of the Harbour with a motion, different from the water on both sides) the water scarce seems white at the stroak of an Oar,
I shall not trouble you with an account, how two contrary Winds poise each other, and make a Calm in the midst, ships at a distance sailing with contrary gales at the same time.
It is observable, that in the Indies such places, as have any high Mountains, have also every night a Wind, that blows from the Land, Maugre the Levantine Wind, which blows at Sea (but with a slacker gale all night; which seems to shew it depends not only on the motion of the Earth, but Sun.) Whence this Wind should come, may be considered; there is none at Barbadoes or Saona, but at all the other Islands. And in Jamaica every night it blows off the island every way at once, so that no ship can any where come in by night, nor go out but early in the morning, before the Sea-brise come in. I have often thought on it and could imagine no other reason, but that those Exhalations, which the Sun hath raised in the day, make haste (after his strength no longer supports them) to those Mountains by a motion of Similar Attraction,** Possibly it may be more plain, to say, That those Exhalations, condensed by the cool of the night and impelled downwards, fall by their weight, and then first of all meeting with the higher parts of the Earth, must needs gather and settle about the same, in clouds. and there gather in Clouds, and break thence by their own force and weight, and occasion a wind every way. For, as the Sun declines, the Clouds gather, and shape according to the Mountains, so that old Searnen will tell you each Island in the afternoon towards Evening by the shape of the Cloud over it. And this Attraction appears further, not only from the Rain that gathers on the Tree in the Island of Ferro, spoken of by J. Hawkins in his Observations, and Is. Vossius upon Pomponius Mela, as also Magnensis de Manna; but also from the Rains in the Indies, there being certain Trees which attract the Rain, though Observations have not been made of the kinds; so as that if you destroy the Woods, you abate or destroy the Rains. So Barbadoes hath not now half the Rains, it had, when more wooded. In Jamaica likewise at Guanaboa they have diminisht the Rains as they extended their Plantations. But (to return to Jamaica) that this night-wind depends much upon the Mountain, appears by this, that its force extends to an equal distance from the Mountain, so that at Portmorant, which is the Easter-most part of the Island, there is little of Land-brise, because the Mountain is remote from thence, and the brise spends its force along the land thither. I shall further illustrate this kind of Attraction. In the harbor of Jamaica there grow many Rocks, shap'd like Bucks and Stags horns: there grow also several Sea-plants, whose roots are stony. Of these stone-trees (if I may term them so) some are insipid, but others perfectly Nitrous. Upon those other Plants with petrified roots there gathers a Lime-stone, which fixes not upon other Sea-fans, growing by them. It is observab1e also, that a Monchinel-Apple, falling into the Sea, and lying in the water, will contract Lanugo of Salt-peter: which is confirmed by the Author of the History of the Antiles. To conclude this particular, the Captain of our Ship ventured to give me a reason for these winds, which I will not conceal from you, since it may put you upon an Experiment, which he said he had often made: viz. That the Sun did heat the Air, and exhale the Vapours, which after did settle on those hills, and as they grew cold, took up more room than before, and so made a wind by their pressure; as water, put hot into a Cask and closed, would, he said, as it cooled, break the Cask.
It is commonly affirmed, That the Seasons of the Year betwixt the Tropicks are divided by the Rains and Fair weather, and six Months are attributed to each Season. But this observation holds not generally true: For at the Point in Jamaica scarce fall (as was, on another occasion, hinted above) forty showers in a year, beginning in August to October inclusively. From the Point you may look, towards Port-morant, and so along to Ligonce, six miles from the Point, and you'l scarce see, for eight or nine months, beginning from April, an afternoon in which it rains not. At the Spanish Town it rains but three Months in the Year, and then not much. And at the same time, it rains at Mevis, it rains not at the Barbadoes. And at Cignatea (otherwise called Eleutheria) in the Gulph of Barbadoes it rains not sometimes in two or three years; so that that Island hath been twice deserted for want of rain to plant in.
At the Point of Jamaica, where-ever you dig five or six foot, water will appear, which ebbs and flows as the Tide. It is not salt but brackish, unwholsome for men, but wholsome for Hogs. At the Caymans there is no water, but what is brackish also; yet is that wholsome for men, insomuch that many are recovered there, by feeding on Tortoises, and yet drink no other water.
The Bloud of Tortoises is colder than any water, I ever felt there; yet is the beating of their Heart as vigorous, as that of any Animal (as far as I have observed.) and their Arteries are as firm as any Creatures I know: Which seems to shew, It is not heat that hardens the coats of the Arteries, or gives motion to the Heart. Their Lungs lie in their belly below the Diaphragm, extending to the end of their Shell. Their Spleen is Triangular, and of a firm flesh (no Parenchyma) and floridly red. Their Liver is of a dark green, inclining to black, and Parenchymatous. In the Oesophagus are a sort of Teeth, with which they chew the grass, they eat in the Meadows, which there grow at the bottom of the Sea.
All the Tortoises from the Caribes to the Bay of Mexico and Honduras, repair in Summer to the Cayman Islands, to lay their Eggs and to hatch there. They coot for fourteen daies together, then lay in one night some three hundred Eggs, with white and yolk, but no shells: then they coot again, and lay in the sand, and so thrice. Then the Male is reduced to a kind of gelly within, and blind, and is so carried home by the Female. Their fat is green, but not offensive to the stomach, though you eat it as broth, stew'd. Your Urine looks of a yellowish green, and oily, after eating it.
There is no manner of Earth, but Sand, at the Point; yet I have eaten admirable Melons, Musk and Water-Melons, that have grown there, A great many trees also grow there, especially Mangranes and Prikle-pears, In other parts it is ordinary to ride through woods, that are full of very large Timber, and yet have nothing of Earth, only firm Rock, to grow in.
In some ground that is full of Salt peter, your Tobacco, that grows wild, flasheth as it is smoked.
The fruit of Trees there of the same kind ripen not at one time: There is a Hedge of Plum-trees of two miles long, as on go to the Spanish Town; on it I have many times remarked some Trees in Flower, others with Ripe, others with Green fruit, and others to have done bearing, at the same time. The like I have observed in other Trees. Jasmins I have seen to blow before their leaves, and also after their leaves are fallen again.
The Sower-sop, a pleasant fruit there, hath a flower with three leaves; when these open, they give so great a crack, that I have more than once run from under the Tree, thinking it all to be tumbling down.
There is a Bird, called a Pellican, but a kind of Cormorant, that is of taste Fishy, but if it lie buried in the ground but two hours, it will lose that taste, as I have been told for certain.
I tried some Analysis of bodies by letting Ants eat them; and I found that they would eat Brown Sugar White, and at last reduce it to an Insipid powder. So they reduced a pound of Salet-oil to 2 drams of powder.
At our first coming there, we sweat continually in great drops for 3 quarters of a year, and then it ceaseth: During that space I could not perceive my self or others more dry, more costive, or to make less urine, than in England. Neither does all that sweat make us faintish. If one be dry, it is a thirst generally arising from the heat of the Lungs, and affecting the Mouth, which is best cooled by a little Brandy.
Most Creatures drink little or nothing there, as Hogs; nay, Horses in Guanaboa never drink, nor Cows in some places of the Island for six months; Goats drink but once perhaps in a week, Parrots never drink, nor Parrokets; nor Civet-Cats but once a month.
The hottest time of the day to us, is Eight in the Morning, when there is no Brise. I set a weather-glass in the window, to observe the weather, and I found it not to rise considerably at that time, but by two of the clock it rose two inches.
Venice-Treacle did so dry in a Gally-pot, as to be friable; and then it produced a Fly, called a Weavil, and a sort of white-worm. So did the Pilulæ de Tribus produce a Weavil.
I shall conclude with an Observation of a strange Quality of a piece of Land: There is in the midst of the Island a Plain, called Magotti Savanna, in which whensoever it rains (and the rain passes along the Island before it falls there) the rain, as it settles upon the seams of any garment turns in half an hour to Magots; yet is that plain healthful to dwell in; and an hundred, that have seen the thing, assured me of it.
Infinite might the observations be, if I had alwaies enjoyed my health, for the speculative Philosophers; almost every thing there being new, and Nature being luxuriant in her Productions in those parts: But I shall not trouble you with imperfect Memorials, &c.
So far this curious observer; whose laudable Example may both quicken and direct other Travellers in the Particulars, to be taken notice of in their Voyages.
Extract of a Letter, written by Mr. Sam. Colepress to the Publisher, containing an Account of some Magnetical Experiments; as also of an excellent Liquor made of Cyder-Apples and Mulberries.
Presuming, what e're tends to the farther discovery of the, Magnetick vertue, will not be unwelcome to you, encouraged by a hint, given in pag. 423. of your Phil. Transact. I shall not scruple to relate to you two or three Experiments of mine own, performed in the presence of Sir William Strode.
1. I took at Loadstone unpolish'd, which attracted but meanly; and I heated a Lath-nail glowing hot, nimbly applying the North-pole of the said Magnet to it, which quickly took it up, and held it suspended a great while, till I put down both the Magnet and Nail.
2. I took the same stone, and cast it into the Fire, letting it remain there, till it was thorow hot, altering its colour from black to red; and being red-hot, I applied the North-pole to another Lath-nail cold, and untoucht before, which it took up but faintly, yet held it suspended for some time.
3. Two or three daies after, I took the same Loadstone, and found that it attracted then as strongly, as before it was cast into the Fire. Whence I insert'd, that the Fire somewhat lessen'd its Attractive faculty, but did not deprive the Stone of it.
Cyder-season approaching, I know not how to conceal from the delicate and curious Cyder-drinker (though I my self find the pleasures of all liquors in one, even that of fountain water *)* This Gentlemans constant drink is spring water. the notice of a liquor as commendable, as yet rare. It is a composition of the Juyces of good Cyder-apples and Mulberries, producing the best tasted and most curiously coloured liquor, that many ever saw or tasted. Of which the experiment may be easily made by those that are furnisht with Mulberry-trees, without any considerable cost.
An Account of some Books.
I. The History of the Royal Society of London, for the Advancement of Experimental Philosophy, by Tho. Sprat.
It was indeed highly sutable, that the History of the Royal Experimenting Society should be dedicated, as the Candid Author of it hath done, to that King, who is the first of all the Kings of Europe, that confirmed this Noble Design of Experiments, both by His own Example, and by a publick Establishment.
The Discourse it self, which is modest and elegant, is divided by the Author into these three general Heads:
The First gives a short view of the Ancient and Modern Philosophy; and of the most Famous Attempts that have been made for its Advancement, by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Grecians, Arabians, Romans, of olds and then, by several New waies of Philosophy, the compass of our memories, and the Age before us, representing what hath been attempted by the Modern Dogmatists, the Revivers of ancient Sects, the late Experimenters, the Chymists, and the Writers of Particular Subjects: All which he deduceth, to the end, that by observing, wherein others have excelled, and wherein they have been thought to fail, he might the better shew, what is to be expected from these new Undertakers; and what moved them to enter upon a way of Inquiry, different from that, on which the former have proceeded.
The Second, consists of the Narrative it self in which the Historian, out of the Registers and Journals of the Royal Society (which he hath been permitted to peruse) relateth the first Occasions of their Meetings, the Encouragement, and Patronage they have received; their Patent, their Statutes, the whole Order and Scheme of their Design, the Qualifications of their Members; the Largness of their Number; their weekly Assemblies; the manner of their Inquiry; their way of Registring; and their Universal Correspondency; together with a particular Enumeration of the principal Subjects, about which the have been employed since they were made a Royal Corporation, and this to silence that importunate demand, What they have done all this while? And here the Historian hopes, that all reasonable men will find satisfaction, when they shall consider, First, That besides that this Society hath past through the first difficulties of their Charter and Model, and overcome all oppositions, which use to arise against the beginnings of great things; their Aim, and the nature of their Design, and the Extent of their task do admit of no violent and hasty dispatch. Next, That, though their work hath not been exposed to open view, yet their Registers are stored with a good number of Particulars they have taken pains about; As,
- Queries and Directions, they have given abroad.
- Proposals and Recommendations, they have made.
- Relations, they have received.
- Experiments, they have tried.
- Observations, they have taken.
- Instruments, they have invented or advanced.
- Theories, that have been proposed.
- Discourses, they have written or published.
- Histories of Nature, and Arts, and Works, they have collected.
The Particulars upon which Heads are more numerous, and of greater moment and variety, than perhaps Detractors and Cavillers imagine or expect: they exceed indeed the number of 700; of which the Experiments and Observations both together amount to above 350; the Relations, to about 150; the Queries, Directions, Recommendations, and Proposals, to above 80, the Instruments, to about 60; the Histories of Nature and Art, to above 50; and the Theories and Discourses to as many.
To these he adds an Account of the Library and Repository, they have obtain'd by the bounty of two of their Members; and gives withall some Example of their Experiments; Histories both of Nature and Art; Queries answered; Proposals recommended, &c. Which done, he concludeth, That if any shall yet think, they have not usefully employed their time, he shall be apt to suspect, that they understand not, what is meant by a diligent and profitable labouring about Nature; and that such men seem not capable of being satisfied, unless the Gentlemen of this Society immediately profess to have found out the Squaring of the Circle, or the Philosophers Stone, or some other such mighty Nothings; which only argues the extravagance of the Expectations of such men. Mean time, the Author esteems, that, since the Society promises no Miracles, nor endeavours after them, and since their Progress ought to be equal and firm, by Natural degrees, and thorow small things, as well as great, going on leisurely and warily, it is therefore fit, that they alone, and not others, who refuse to consider the nature of their work, and to partake of their burthen, shou1d be Judges by what steps and what pace they ought to proceed.
The Third Part, is affecting both the Advantage and Innocence of this Design, in respect of all Professions, and particularly of Religion; and how proper, above others, it is for the present Temper of the Age, wherein we live: And this is done, to free it from the Cavil of the Idle and Malicious; and from the Jelousies of Private Interests; all which the Author shews to have nothing but Humor, or Envy, Prejudice, or Mistake, to bear themselves upon.
The promoting of Experiments, according to the Model of the Royal Society will be so far from injuring Education, or from being dangerous to the the Universities, that it will both introduce many things of greater concernment and benefit to supply the place of what may be laid aside; and be mainly conducive to recover that Divine Dignity of Humane Nature, which consists in the Knowledge of Truth, and the Doing of Good.
The First years of Men being secured by this new Experimental Way; it is made out to all Professions and Practical lives, that they can receive no ill Impressions from it, but that it will be the most beneficial and proper study for their Preparation and Direction, Whereas other Learning is charged to consist in Arguing and Disputing; and to be apt to make our Minds lofty and Romantick; presumptuous and obstinate; averse from a practical Course, and unable to bear the difficulties of Action; Propense to things, which are no where in use in the world; and careless of their own present times, by dating on the past: This Experimental Philosophy will turn men to Trials and Works; cure their minds of Romantick swelling, by shewing all things familiarly to them, just as large as they are; free them from perversity, by not permitting them to be too peremptory in their Conclusions: accustome their hands to things, which have a near resemblance to the business of life: and draw away the shadows, which either enlarge or darken humane affairs: And of the Crafty, the Formal, and the Prudent (the usual Titles, by which men of business are wont to be distinguished:) Our Author resembles the Crafty, to the Emperick in Philosophy; the Formal, to the meer Speculative Philosopher; but the Prudent man, to him, who proceeds on a constant and solid course of Experiments: the one in Civil life, rejecting neither the wisdom of Ancient, nor that of Modern times; the other in Philosophy, having the same reverence for former Ages, and regard for the present; both raising their Observations unto Use not suffering them to lie idle, but employing them to direct the actions, and supply the wants of humane life.
And as this Experimental way will afford much help to our Publick duties, and Civil actions, so it is proved to be very useful for the Cure of mens Minds and the management of their private motions and passions, by keeping them from idleness with full and earnest employments, and by possessing them with innocent, various, lasting, and even sensible delights.
From hence our Author proceeds to make a defence of the Royal Society, and this new Experimental Learning, in respect of the Christian Faith; fully evincing, that as it is not at all dangerous to Religion in general, so it is not to the Doctrine of the Gospel, nor that of the Primitive Church, or of the Church of England.
This done, he declares, on what account the Study of Experiments is the most seasonable study for the present Temper of the English Nation; and then goes on to manifest the probable Effects of Experiments, in respect of all the Manual Trades, which have been heretofore found out and adorned. This Argument he dispatches in a clear Resolution of these Four Questions:
1. Whether the Mechanick Arts are still improvable by humane Industry?
2. If they be, whether they may be advanced by any others, besides, the Mechanick Arts themselves?
3. Whether there be any ground of hope from Experiments towards this Work?
4. Whether, if such Arts shall hereby happen to multiply, they are likely to prejudice those Trades, that are already setled?
In these Particulars our Author doth so answer his Readers doubts, that it will easily he granted him, That it is not in vain or impossible Design, to endeavour the increase of Mechanick contrivances; that the enterprise is proper for a Mixt Assembly of Experienced Naturalists and Mathematicians; that the Course which the Royal Society observes towards it, will be effectual; and the Increase of such Operations, inoffensive to others of the same kind, that have been formerly discovered.
Hence he proceeds to shew, That these Experiments are a proper study for the Gentlemen of this Nation, in which he finds them already well engaged: As also, that they will be beneficial to our Wits and Writers, who, if truly worthy men, will find in the works of Nature an inexhaustible Treasure for Fancy and Invention, which will be disclosed proportionably to the increase of their knowledge: Further, that they are advantageous to the Interest of the Nation, by enlarging the Trade and Power thereof.
Upon which and several other accounts (not possible to be contracted here) our Historian concludes his Discourse, with giving us a Catalogue of those, which at this present compose the Royal Society, amounting to near two hundred; whereof the Kings Majesty is Founder and Patron. Among the Fellows are three of the Greatest Princes of Europe, his Royal Highness the Duke of York his Highness Prince Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine; and his Highness Ferdinand Albert, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg: then, the two Archbishops of England, and four Bishops; of Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons, English and Scotch, twenty nine; of Knights, thirty five; of Doctors and Batchellors of Divinity, fourteen; of Doctors and Candidates of Physick, twenty one; of Esquires, and other Gentlemen, and Merchants, sixty four; of Strangers, sixteen.
After the Enumeration of which, he recommends this Undertaking to the English Nation; to the bravest people, the most generous Design, which at once regards the discovering of New secrets and the Purifying and Repairing all the profitable things of Antiquity: and here he represents, that if now this Enterprise should chance to fail for want of Patronage and Revenue, the World would not only be frustrated of their present Expectations, but have just ground to despair of any future Labours, towards the increase of Practical and Useful knowledge. But he hopes and presages, that the English Nation will lay hold on this opportunity, to deserve the Applause of Mankind for having encouraged and supported a Work, which, instead of barren Terms and Notions, is able to impart to us the Uses of all the Creatures, and to enrich us with all the Benefits of Real Knowledge, true Honour, great Plenty, and solid Delight.
II. DISQUISITIO ANATOMICA DEFORMATO FOETU: Authore Gualtero Needham, M.D. Londini, in 8°
This Disquisition consists of seven Chapters, full of the Learned and Ingenious Author, who was lately elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, his own Experiments and Observations.
In the first he inquires into the Passages, by which the Nourishing Juyce is conveighed into the Womb of the Animal: where he examines the Assertion of Everhard, importing, that some of the Lacteous Vessels carry the said Juyce to the Uterus; which vessels are pretended to have been seen by himself in the dissection of Rabbets. Which engaged our Author to take up again the Anatomical knife and to dissect with all possible accurateness both some of the bigger Animals, as Cows and Mares and some of the smaller kind, as Rabbets, which are instanced by Everhard.
But having spent all his labour and care herein in vain, and besides, evinced by Ligatures, that the pretended Vessels are neither those that are described by Bartholin under the name of Lymphatick, nor others, presumed to be known by Everhard alone, as immediately carrying the Chyle out of its Receptacle to the Womb and Breasts; he imputes the cause of this mistake to the Trunk of the Lymphaticks, running over the Vena cava into the Receptacle near the Emulgents, which Ductus he affirms to have often found filled with Chyle from the Intestinum Rectum, or the Ileum or Cæcum a Dog having no Colon;) but maintains withall, that by Ligatures it is manifest, that that Ductus goes to the Receptacle, and there deposites its liquor; which he proves to be alike true of all the Milky vessels, so that they carry nothing back and consequently are unfit to conveigh any thing to the Womb. This he illustrates by a Noble Experiment of that Learned and Expert Anatomist, Dr. Lower, using to open sometimes the right side of the Thorax, and with his fingers to break the Receptacle; and sometimes on the left side the Ductus Thoracicus, a little under the Subclaviar; whereby it hath come to pass, that Dogs, well fed all the while, have thrown out all the Chyle into the opened part of the Thorax, and, though plentifully fed, were starved within three daies: there appearing mean time in the Veins opened a crass blond, destitute of Serum, but not any mixture of transmitted Chyle.
Having rejected the Lacteous and Lymphatick vessels from this office, he declareth, that we must rest in the Ancient Doctrine, which layeth the task of conveighing the Succus nutritius, to the Breasts and Womb, upon the Arteries; unless the Nerves be call'd in for aid, for conveighing some of the Spirtuous Juyce, to be mixed with the Nutritious, to give life and vigour; And having proved this, he takes notice of the Anastomoses, remarkable in the womb of pregnant Creatures; and subjoyns a discussion of the way how the Alimental Juyce is in the womb severed from the mass of the bloud: whether by meer Percolation, or by some Ferment, working upon the Bloud, and thence precipitating what is proper for the use of that part.
In the Second Chapter he treats of the Placenta's and Glandules, and shews, How many waies the Juyce is derived from the Womb to the Fœtus: First, simply from the Membrane of the Uterus to the Membrane of the Fœtus, as in all Oviparous Creatures; and among Viviparous, in a Sow all the time of her bearing; in a Mare, for half the time; and in a Woman, the first month only. Secondly, by a Mass of flesh, filtring the Juyce; as in all Cake-bearing (called by the Latines, Placentifera) and in all Kernel-bearing (called Glandulifera) or Ruminating Animals. Where he giveth a particular account of the double Placenta or Cake, to be found in Rabbets, Hares, Mice, Moles, &c. and examines the learned Dr. Whartons Doctrine, assigning a double Placenta to at least all Viviparous Animals, so as one half of it belongs to the Uterus, the other to the Chorion: shewing how far this is true, and declaring the variety of these Phænomena, together with a very ingenious assignation of the Cause of that variety. Where do occur many uncommon Observations concerning the difference of Milk in ruminating and other Animals; the various degrees of thickness of the Uterin liquor in Oviparous and Viviparous creatures; the property of the humour, turning into Eggs, with a hint of the cause of their being excluded, and not quickned and formed within; as also, of the cause of Moles in the womb, and of many kernelly and fleshy substances in other parts of the body: where he takes notice of a concretion seen by himself grown to the Cone of the Heart, of nine ounces weight in an healthy Body, that died of a violent death; and of the like adhering to the Spleen, Kidneys, Liver, without any perceived trouble to the Animal; yea, of some found within the heart it self.
He adds the Number, Shape, and Use of these Placentas; and first observes that those that are Kernel-bearing Animals, or chewing the Cud, have many, and those that are Cake-bearing, have for the most part, one Cake for each Fœtus; but a woman commonly but one, though she happen to have many Embryo's.
He annexes a particular description of the Placenta of a Woman, as the most considerable, and teaches, how it may be most conveniently severed from the Vessels, to render them conspicuous, which are a numerous off-spring of Arteries, Veins, and Fibres; of the last whereof he inquires, whether they be the capillaries of the Arteries, and Veins, or nervous.
The Shape of that in at Woman is Orbicular, about a foot large, and two inches thick; one of its Superficies's, convex, but uneven, the other concave, and every where sticking close to the Chorion.
The Use of the Placenta's is known to be, to serve for conveighing the aliment to the Fœtus. The difficulty is only about the manner. Here are examined three opinions, of Curvey, Everhard, and Harvey. The two former do hold, that the Fœtus is nourished only from the Amnion by the Mouth; yet with this difference, that Curvey will have it fed by the Mouth when it is perfect, but, whilst it is yet imperfect, by filtration only through the pores of the body, and by a kind of juxtaposition: but Everhard, supposing simultaneous formation of all the instruments of nutrition together at first, and esteeming the Mass of bloud by reason of its asperity and eagerness unfit for nutrition, and rather apt to prey upon than feed the parts, maintains, that the liquor is sucked out of the Amnion by the mouth, concocted in the stomach, and thence passed into the Milky Vessels, even from the beginning. Mean time they both agree in this, that the Embryo doth breath, but not feed, through the Umbilical vessels.
This our Author undertakes to disprove; and having asserted the mildness of, at least, many parts of the bloud, and consequently their fitness for nutrition, he defends the Harveyan doctrine, of the Colliquation of the Nourishing Juyce by the Arteries, and its conveyance to the Fœtus by the veins.
In the third Chapter, the Membranes and Humors of Embryo's are considered, The Membranes are in some, three, in others, four, in an Egg, six. All Placentiferous Animals (if I may assume this word) he affirms to have three Membranes, and Sows, Mares, and Women also; but only two Humors. Again, Bitches, Cats, and Conies, four Membranes, and three Humors; so that the Number of the Membranes hath been hitherto observed alwaies to exceed that of the Humors.
Giving the History of both, he begins from Sheep, Cows, and other Ruminating Animals, describing first the Chorion, assigning its Use, and comparing it with that in Deer, Sows, Mares, Women, Rabbets, Bitches, and Cats, when with young. Then he proceeds to the description of the Allantiodes (the Membrane immediately encompassing that skin, wherein the Fœtus is wrapped) and thence to that of the Amnion, wherein the Embryo it self lieth, swimming in its alimental liquor. And lastly to that which is observed to be in Bitches, Cats, and Rabbets, and contains a very good and nourishing Juyce; which how it comes thither, is a difficult inquiry, as well as that other, how the liquor gets into the Amnion. To resolve both which our Author, having disproved the Filtration of the liquor, held by Carvey and Everhard out of the Chorian into the Amnion, and evinced, that the liquor in the Allantoides, interjected between these two is Urinous, he concludes, that the alimentary Juyce passes through the Umbilical Vessels by a proper Artery, depositing it in those Membranes we speak of, and referring it there for the use of the Fœtus.
Concerning the Humors, he affirms, that all of them in all Animals are Nutritive, except that in the Allantoides. He observes also, that most of Oviparous Fishes have Eggs or Spawn, as to sense one only colour, and but one humor; yet that the Spawn of a Skate hath a White and a Yolk. Birds have mostly three nutritious substances, that are visible, viz. a Yolk and a double White: to which upon incubation, comes a fourth, colliquated out of the former; the tender Embryo feeding upon the two Whites, till they being consumed, the Yolk of the Chick now to be hatcht, is shut up in the Abdomen, and thence by a peculiar Ductus conveighed into the guts; and so serves the young bird for breasts, it is fed by, until the twentieth day.
In Viviparous Creatures are found sometimes two, sometimes three humors and in Bitches, Cats, and Rabbets four; which perplexeth the Author, as to the giving a reason for it. These Humors, he saith, he hath examined, by concreting, distilling, and coagulating them, where he furnishes the Reader with no vulgar Observations. He concludes this Chapter by observing, that there is also Air in the said Membranes; which besides other Arguments, he proves from the crying of Infants in the Womb (of which he alledges a memorable and well attested example in a Child of an English Lady in Cheshire, the Child being yet alive and in good health;) and from Chickens, often heard to peep in the Egg, both before the breaking of the shells, and after, the Membranes being yet entire; adscribing the production of this Air to the spirituous liquor in the Membrane, apt to ferment, and thereby causing store of exhalations.
The fourth Chapter discourses of the Umbilical Vessels; and observes first, that they differ in different Animals, and hold proportion to the Membranes and Liquors, so as those that have two Liquors, have four Membranes, and three Liquors have six: the Oviparous also being furnished with a Ductus, passing to the Guts, because they want breasts, and their yolk is shut up in the belly.
The Umbilical Arteries, belonging to the Placenta, and commonly said to he derived from the Crurals, are by him affirmed to proceed from the end of the Aorta. They are here described, and their several portions distributed for the Chorion and Amnion. Then an account is given of the Hepatick Vein, corresponding to the Arteries. It is in Viviparous Animals inserted into the Vena Porta, passing again with the remaining Bloud thorow the Canalis Venosus into the Cava, without percolation made in the Liver. In Birds it enters not into the Liver, but passes over its convexity into the Cava. A description is also made of the Urachus, found in all Viviparous Creatures, though by many Writers denied to be in Man, who notwithstanding hath need, as well as other such Animals, somewhere to lodge his Urine. The Oviparous want this Umbilical funiculus, but yet are furnished with fit sanguineous Vessels, which here also are explained; especially the Ductus Intestinalis, said to be omitted by Dr. Harvey, and to have been known to the Author long before Mr. Steno claimed the discovery of it; for which he appeals to the testimony of Mr. Boyle, and three worthy Physicians, Willis, Millington, and Lower; as also to that of two ingenious Frenchmen, Guison, and Fiard, to whom our Author affirms to have shewed Anno 1659, when they were going over into Holland, not only this Ductus, but also the Ductus Salivales, and the Passages of the Nostrils, published afterwards by the said Steno.
The use of this Ductus Intestinalis is esteemed to be the conveighing of the Yolk into the Guts for a second coction, there made by the Pancreatick Juyce, acknowledged to be excellently handled by the Learned Sylvius, and his ingenious Scholar, De Graeff, from the former of whom our Author yet diissents, about the mixture of the Gall with the said juyce in the Heart refuting it by several Experiments.
The fifth, explains the Communion of Vessels in Embryo's: In whom, he saith, three Anastomoses are usually observed, which, as soon as the Fœtus is born, are closed. They are called Foramen Ovale, Canalis Arteriosus, and Venosus. The two former to be met with about the Heart; the last in the Liver. All three here described by the Author, who also compares, as Harvey does, the Fœtus yet in the Womb with the manner of operation of those Animals, that are provided but with one cavity in the Heart, and with no Lungs; the bloud of the Fruit, as long as it is unborn, passing neither through the Parenchyma of the Lungs, nor that of the Liver. Lastly, the necessity of Respiration is explicated, and how the defect of the Lungs, and of one of the Ventricles of the Heart, is supplied in Fishes, viz. by comminuting and mixing the bloud in the Gills. To which is annexed the manner of Respiration in Amphibia's, which are furnisht with Lungs and two Ventricles of the Heart, and yet, if Bartholin misinforms us not, keep the Foramen Ovale all their life time open; which yet our Author calls in question, alledging, to have seen no Diving Animals, which had not the said Foramen closed after their being born.
The Sixth makes a digression, to discourse of the Biolychnium, and the Ingres of the Air into the Bloud, for the Generation of Spirits, and the pretended kindling of a vital Flame. But our Author can see nothing that may prove either the existence, or the necessity of such a Flame: On the contrary, he finds the Bloud unfit for taking Fire, and judgeth it very difficult to assign either the place or the manner of this accension; which is not made in the Lungs, nor in the Heart, which he holds to be destitute of all ferment. To which he adds, first, that the Heat of the Bloud is not sufficient to cause such an inflammation, seeing how much even good Spirit of Wine must be heated, before it will flame, which it doth not without the actual application of fire. Next, That Examples are very rare of Liquors kindled by ventilation. Further, That Fishes and Frogs, which yet have life, motion, and sense, are not thought to have this flame, as being actually cold. Besides, That the Animal Spirits are not found in the form of flame; which he endeavours to prove from the Willisian doctrine of the manner, in which they are in the Brain severed from the Bloud. Lastly, that it is doubted by some, whether any Air at all is received into the mass of bloud, which yet is not questioned by our Author, who only doubteth, whether through the Lungs there be a high way for the Air to the Bloud.
After this, our Author gives his thoughts both of the true Use of the Lungs, and of Sanguification.
The Lungs, he saith, serve chiefly, by their constant agitation to comminute the bloud, and so to render it fit for a due circulation; which office he thinks to be performed in Fishes by the continual motion of their Gills, a Succedaneum to Lungs.
Sanguification, according to him, is chiefly performed and perfected by the frequent pulsions of the Heart, and the repeated ccontractions of its left Ventricle at the passing of the Sanguineous liquor from thence into the Aorta.
The Seventh and last Chapter contains a Direction for the younger Anatomists, of what is to be observed in the dissection of divers Animals with young: and first, of what is common to all the Viviparous; then, what is peculiar to several of them, as a Sow, Mare, Cow, Ewe, She-Goat, Doe, Rabbet, Bitch, and a Woman: Lastly, What is observable in an Egg, Skate, Salmon, Frog, &c.
All is illustrated by divers accurate Schemes.
III. ELEMENTORUM MYOLOGIÆ Specimen; seu MUSCULI Descriptio Geometrica, Authore NICOLAO STENONE.
This Book is not yet come into England; only the Excellent Septalio having in his Letter above-mentioned given us notice of its being published and dedicated to the great Duke of Tuscany, we thought it not amiss to inform the Curious of it.
LONDON, Printed for John Martyn, Printer to the Royal Society, and are to be sold at the Sign of the Bell, a little without Temple-Bar, 1667.