Philosophical Transactions/Volume 2/Number 29

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Numb. 29.

PHILOSOPHICAL

TRANSACTIONS.


Monday, Novemb. 11. 1667



The Contents.

A description of an Instrument for Dividing a Foot into many thousand parts, and thereby measuring the Diameters of Planets to great exactness, &c. as it was formerly promised. An account of making a Dog draw his Breath just like a Wind-broken Horse. Diverse Anatomical Observations on Humane Bodies. Several Instances of Peculiarities of Nature, both in Men and Brutes. A Confirmation of the Experiments mentioned in Numb. 27. to have been made in Italy, by injecting Acid Liquors into Blood. An observation about the double Membrane called Epiploon, which covers the Entrails of Animals, and is filled with Fat. Some Hortulan Communications about the curious Engrafting of Oranges and Lemons, or Citrons, upon one anothers Trees, and of one Individual Fruit, half Orange and half Lemon, growing on such Trees. An imitation of a way of preserving, in the more Northern climates, Orange-trees all Winter long, without any Fire. Enquiries for Greenland. An Account of the Synopsis Novæ Philosophiæ & Medicinæ Fransisci Travagini, Medici Veneti.




A Description

Of an Instrument for dividing a Foot into many thousand parts, and thereby measuring the Diameters of Planets to a great exactness &c. as it was promised, Numb. 25.

If the residence of the worthy Promiser of this Instrument, Mr. Richard Townley, had not been so remote from London, nor some other Impediments intervened (after it was come to hand), First on the Publisher's, then on the Engraver's side; the following Particulars concerning the same, promised some Months ago, had been imparted to the Publick a good while before this time: For the Draught of the Figures, representing the New Instrument it self, and the Description of the same, we are obliged to the ingenuity of Mr. Hook.

 The first, second, and third Figures do represent the several parts of this Instrument; the fourth Figure, part of the Telescope, with the Instrument applied to it, and the fifth, the Rest, on which the whole reposeth.

Fig. 1. Fig. 3
The first Figure represents the brass Box with the whole Instrument, (excepting only the mooveable Cover) and the Screws, by which it is fixt to the Telescope. In this Figure (a a a a) is a small oblong brass Box, serving both to contain the Screws, and its Sockets or Female Screws, and also to make all the several moveable parts of the Instrument to move very true, smooth, and in a simple direct Motion. To one end hereof is screwed on a round Plate of Brass (b b b b) about 3 inches over; the extream Limb of whole outside is divided into 100 equal parts, and numbred by 10, 20, 30, &c. Through the middle of this Plate, and the middle of the Box (a a a) is placed a very curiously wrought Screw of about the bigness of a Goose Quill, and of the length of the Box, the head of which is by a fixed Ring or Shoulder on the inside, and a small springing Plate (d d) on the outside, so adapted to the Plate, that it is not in the least subject to shake. The other end of this Screw is by another little Screw (whose small point fills the Center or hole made in the end of the longer Screw for this purpose) render'd so fixt and steady in the Box, that there appears not the least danger of shaking. Upon the head of this Screw without the springing Plate, is put on a small Index (e e), and above that a Handle (m m) to turn the Screw round as often as there shall be occasion, without at all endangering the displacing of the Index, it being put on very stiff upon a Cylindrical part of the Head, and the Handle upon a Square. The Screw hath that third of it, which is next the Plate, bigger than the other two Thirds of it, by at least as much as the depth of the small Screw made on it: The thread of the Screw of the bigger Third is as small, again, as that of the Screw of the other two Thirds. To the grosser Screw is adapted a Socket (f) fasten'd to a long Bar or Bolt (g g), upon which is fasten'd the moveable Sight (h), so that every turn of the Screw promotes the Sight (h) either a thread nearer, or a thread farther off from the fixt Sight (i). The Bar (g g) is made exactly equal and fitted into two small Staples (k k), which will not admit of any shaking. There are 60 of these threads; and answerable thereto, are made 60 divisions on the edge of the Bolt or Ruler (g g); and a small Index (l) fixt to the Box (a a a) denotes, how many threads the edges of the two Sights (h) and (i) are distant; and the Index (e e) shews on the Circular Plate what part of a Revolution there is more, every Revolution, as was said before, being divided into 100 parts. At the same time that the moveable Sight (h) is moved forwards or backwards, or more threads of the courser Screw, is the Plate (p p. in Fig. 2.) by the means of the Socket (q) to which it is screwed, moved forward or backward, or more threads of the finer Screw: So that this Plate, being fixt to the Telescope by the Screws (r r. in Fig. 2.) so as the middle betwixt the Sights may lye in the Axis of the Glass, however the Screw be turn'd, the midst betwixt the Sights will always be in the Axis, and the Sights will equally either open from it, or shut towards it.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. represents the moveable Cover containing the Screws, to be by the Bookseller cut off by the pricked Line (x x x) from the Paper, and to be fitly placed on Figure 1. according to the pricked Line (y y y) answering thereto; that by the taking off, as it were, or folding up of this Cover, the inward contrivance of the Screws and Sights may appear.

And because it is conceived by some ingenious Men, that it will be more convenient, instead of the Edges of the two Sights (h and i) to employ two Sights fitted with Hairs, therefore is added Figure 3. representing the two Sights (r and s) so fitted with Threads (t and u) that they may be conveniently used in the place of the solid Edges of the Sights (h and i).

Fig. 4.
The fourth Figure represents, How the Screws are to be put on. The Tube A D is divided into 3 lengths, of which (as in ordinary ones) B C is to lengthen or contract, as the Object requires: But A B is here added, that at A you may put such Eye-Glasses as shall be thought most convenient, and to set them still at the distance most proper for them, Indexes or Pointers, which here are supposed to be at B, which length alters also in respect of divers persons Eyes. E is a Screw, by which the great Tube can be fixt so, as by the help of the Figures any smaller part of it can immediately be found, measuring only, or knowing the Divisions on B C, the distance of the Object-glass from the Pointers. F is the Angular piece of Wood, that lies on the upper Screw of the Rest. This Rest is represented by Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

As for a Descriprion of the Uses of this ingeniously contrived and very curious Engine, the Reader is desired to look back to the before-alledged Numb. 25.

An Account

Of making a Dog draw his Breath exactly like a Wind-broken Horse, as it were devised and experimented by Dr. Richard Lower; with some of his Instructive Observations thereon.

This Experiment was made before the Royal Society, Octob. 17. 1667. after it had been tried by the Author in private some while before. The Account of it in his own words, is as follows.

 After I had often considered the manner and way of Respiration, and by many Observations been induced to believe, that the Diaphragme is the chief Organ thereof, I thought there could be no Way more probable to try it, than by breaking the Nerves, by which its Motion is perform'd; which may be easily (as it was actually) done after the following manner.

First, pierce the side of the Animal between the 6th and 7th Rib in the middle of the Thorax, just over against the Region of the Heart, with a small Incision-knife, passing the Knife but just into the Cavity of the Breast (which you may justly know by finding no resistance to the point of it), then take it out, and put in a Director, or a small Quill made like it, and thrust it in about an inch, directing the end of it toward the Sternum, close to the inside of the Breast. Then cut upon it about an inch on the Intercostal Muscles; by which you may be secur'd from touching the

№ 29.

Lungs with the point or edge of your Knife. This done, put in your finger, and with your nail separate the Nerve, which passeth along the side of the Pericardium toward the Diaphragme. Then put in a Probe, a little inverted at the end like a Hook, and apprehend the Nerve, and pull it to the Orifice of the Breast, and cut it off, and sow the hole up very close. Do the same on the other side, and presently let the Dog loose, and you will plainly see him draw his breath exactly like a Wind-broken Horse: Which yet you will see plainer, if you run him a little in a string after he is cut. But that any one may perform this Experiment the easier, let him first take notice, how the Nerves of the Diaphragme pass along on each side of the Pericardium in a dead Animal, before the Trial be attempted in a living one.

The most obvious Observations from this Experiment, are,

1. That the whole manner of Respiration is quite alter'd. For as in a sound Animal, in Inspiration the Belly swells by the lifting up the Bowels by the Contraction of the Diaphragme; and in Expiration the Belly falls by the Relaxing of the same: In a Wind-broken Dog or Horse 'tis quite contrary; for in them it is to be seen plainly, that when they draw their breath, their Belly is drawn in very lank and small, and when they breath up, their Belly is relaxt and swells again.

2. It being certain, that the Lungs do not move of themselves at all, but wholly depend upon the Expansion of the Thorax by the Intercostal Muscles, and the Diaphragme; by this Experiment it doth appear, how much the single motion of either of them doth particularly contribute to Respiration. For all Inspiration being made by the Dilatation of the Thorax, and that Dilatation being caused partly by the Intercostal Muscles drawing up the Ribs, and partly at the same time the Diaphragme by its Contraction drawing downward the lower small Ribs to which 'tis joyn'd, and also lifting up the Viscera of the lower Belly, by which they do jointly make all the space they can for the Air to come in and distend the Lungs: It must hence necessarily follow, that the Intercostal Muscles and the Diaphragme being constituted for two distant Employments (though both to the same end) and neither being able to perform the others Office, where one ceaseth from its work, the other for the exigence of Nature mull take more pains to supply the others defect: Which is very evident to be seen; For the Diaphragme being made useless by loosing its Nerves, the Intercostal Muscles do dilate the Ribs much more than formerly, even to the utmost distance they can, when there is need for it; as, when you make the Dog run a little after he is cut, or when you gallop a Wind-broken Horse, doth manifestly appear.

3. The manner of Respiration being the same in a Dog, whose Diaphragme Nerves are cut, and in a Wind-broken Horse, 'tis more than probable, that the Cause may be as nearly the same, as the Signs are; and that, though there may be other faults found in the Lungs of such Creatures, yet 'tis very likely, they may be induced from the weakness of Respiration, but that they had their occasion from the Relaxation or Rupture of the Nerves of the Diaphragme at first; which will seem more credible, if we remember, that by the straining of the Midriff too much (by which the Nerves may be quite broken or stretcht beyond their proper tone) most commonly that accident happens.

Anatomical Observations on a Humane Body, dead of odd Diseases; as they were communicated by Dr. Nathanael Fairfax.

A young Maid of Rumborough in Suffolk, when she was about thirteen years of Age, took Chalybeats for the Green-sickness, and found some relief by it, but was after much pent in her wind. From 16 to 22 she much afflicted her self for the Death of her Father and Mother, and the misbehaviour of a Brother; during which time, she had every year an acute Disease or two. At 18, she was very weakly, clogg'd in her Chest, and melancholy. If she went out in a windy day, she was fain to make hast in, for the Wind, she said, was ready to choak her. She was a very slow walker, going up Hill or up Stairs with much difficulty. She was now observed to be very thirsty, usuall drinking at Bedtime, and in the night too, sometimes; else, she said, she should be choakt with drought. Between 21 and 22 of her age, going down stairs, she heard a frightful jolking in her Breast; which she then made known to the rest of the house, who when she shew'd them the manner of it by shaking her Body, joyn'd all with her in the wonder, concluding (as most would have done by the noise) that her Breast was almost full of Water, She took several things of Dr. Browne and others at Norwich for about six Months time, without finding Relief. Half a year after, toward Michaelmass, upon taking a slight cold, she was so stopt up, that she could only whisper; nor could she lie flat, but rear'd up with pillows. I being sent for, caused presently a Vein to be open'd, as an Expedient only to make way for a freer Circulation, and room for Nature to disburthen her self. Within less than an hour she got breath, and soon after grew as well as she was before. She affirm'd, she never sweat in her life, nor could it be procur'd by ordinary Sudorificks. Being desirous to add an Empirical remedy, I gave her three of Matthew's Pills, which did sweat her lightly, but beyond what ever she remember'd. Several daily Doses of Lockier's Pills, 4 per Dose, remov'd the julking, as she said, lower to the Midriff: when she, fearing an Hyper-catharsis, laid them by for two or three days, and then taking them up again, could find no further alteration by them. She could never lie on her left side. In the 23d year of her Age, in Winter, she had a dangerous Feaver, with a Diarrhœa, but came off. In her 24th, in Winter again, she got cold, was quite stopt up, after five or six days fell into a Convulsion e're she was bled, through want of care in those about her. By late bleeding he had present ease, and chear'd up in the Evening, but died the next Morning.

I had leave from her self, whilst living, and from her Relations, when dead, to open her Body, which I did accordingly.

First therefore I cleav'd asunder the Breast-bone from the Cartilage, called Ensi-formis, to the Neck; when, laying open the hollow of the Thorax, there steam'd out at first a very offensive smell, notwithstanding the sharp frost there was at that time, it being about Christmas. Then making way to lay open either side of the Sternum, I was surprised to see (as I thought) almost the whole Cavity of the Thorax empty above, (as the Body lay supine) and filled with nothing but thick Milk beneath. But searching further, I found there was only all the right side of the Chest, and about a third part of the left, in that condition. It took up in the part to the Neck-ward a hand-breadth, and ran three fingers thickness to the left of the Mediastinum. The Liquor was like Cream, or rather like a size of Spanish White, having a cast of yellow like Beestings; for putting a spoon into it, from the bottom I took up a thick clammy matter, just like that Spanish White, that sinks to the bottom of its size. In quantity it might be about three Pints, contain'd in a Bag, which was capable to hold as much more and better. The bag ran along from the left shoulder, to the utmost of the right side of the Midriff; not streight along, nor stifly stretcht, but about a hand-breadth from its rise it went directly down to the Midriff, with which it closed all along. Its skin or coat was thicker than that of the stomach, as well as its capacity larger, in as much as the Flexures of the Ribs joyn'd with it, and made up above half the compass. Where it adher'd to the Midriff, 'twas near a finger thick: And in one place, where I endeavour'd to separate it from the Midriff, I hit upon a thinner Bag, whence issued out two or three spoonfuls of sheir water: How it got in, I found not. The Mediastinum was either wholly wasted, or else woven into the thickness of the Bag, as was also the Pleura, as far as the Bag reach'd. It lay loose and slapping from the left Axillar to the Chest, having been before filled and distended either with Lenid or the Liquor. All the hollow was bedabled with the wallowing of the Liquor about, as is the Ouse by the Ebbings and Flowings of the Tide in a Channel. That Lobe of the Lungs, which should have been on the right side, was gone, and that on the left, wasted to near a third part. In the Lower Belly all was well.

Dr. Brown saith, he hath met with the like in an Italian Author. His opinion was to salivate her. I had thoughts of a Paracenthesis, or Tapping between the Ribs; for by the noise of the Liquor, and by her not enduring to lye on the left, I concluded it must be in a Cystis on the right. But if that had been done, the Bag being too thick might have mortified. The Jolking was exactly like that of Water or Milk. This Woman was as Flat-breasted as a Man. Whether the Liquor proceeded from the falling down of the Chyle from the Axillars, is a Quære, but seems to carry in it somewhat of probability. But I must not reflect.

Two other Anatomical Observations, imparted by the same hand.

1. A certain Serving-man about 27 years of age, died Hydropical, which Disease he was molested with 4 years before his death. He was ever a listless, dull, and melancholy fellow, never chearful nor smiling, especially for ten years before he died. His words came from him as if forced, and speaking but a little, he would end with a sigh. When open'd, he was found to have the left Lobe of the Lungs almost quite wasted; but no Ulcer, nor ought preternatural appearing in the remaining part, except its wasting. The heads of the Vessels and branches of the Wind-pipe as big as in the other Lobe. That Lobe of the Liver, which buts on the Mid-riff, was black outwardly for about a hand breadth, and about a thumbs breadth within the Parenchyma, . Other parts sound.

2. The other day I took notice in the Corps of a Felon, that whereas ordinarily the Preparing Vessels arise on the right side, out of the Cava, as on the left, out of the Emulgent, his right Vas preparans sprang clearly from the right Emulgent.

Divers Instances

Of Peculiarities of Nature, both in Men and Brutes; communicated by the same.

1. One Mr. Morley of Bury St. Edmonds, in an Asthmatick distemper, was advised by some to take down a spoonful of good English Honey; which being done, the Patient fell into an Universal swelling, as if he had swallow'd the worst of Poysons. Mr. Goodrich being hastily called in to save life, prescribed him a common Sudorifick, which in competent time relieved him. They then made enquiry at the Apothecaries, Whether nothing were amiss in the Honey? and they protested, it was altogether right. But to be assured of it by Experiment, they afterwards got the like quantity at another place, which was given with the very same frightful event, and the party was cured by the Chirurgeon (who is my Author) the same kind of sweat*.* The like Example hath been more than once related to the Publisher by a very credible person, of a Noble Lady in Ireland, who having received a small hurt on her Leg, and the Chirurgeon mingling in the Application, he made to it, a little Honey (from which she had an utter Aversion, which was then unknown to the Chirurgeon, as was to the Patient the mixture;) the place affected did soon after rankle, and grow so bad, that the Lady was constrained to send for him that had applied it, who being examined about the Ingredients, and declaring one of them to be Honey, the Lady soon acquainted him with her Antipathy to that substance; whereupon that Application was immediately removed, and another more proper for the Patient put in the place, with good success.

2. Mr. Twisse, a Minister of Metigham in Suffolk, about forty years of age, having been accustomed for some time to drink warm or rather hot Beer, and coming from his House about Midsummer to a House near Rumburch-Church, where he was offered a Cup of cold Beer, out of modesty, or a humour to prevent the being wonder'd at, took it off thus cold, after he had taken a Pipe of Tobacco. Which done, he presently took Horse, and rode with other Company towards Framlingham. Coming at Haleswith, he found himself sick, his stomach much out of order. He lighted once or twice by the way and vomited, but coming at his Journeys end, his vomiting grew worse, and he was constrained to betake himself to his bed. Next day he grew yet worse, could find no help by Physick, but died the very next morning.

It may be worth noting (adds the Author) that one, who is wont to drink cold Beer, is not, for ought we know, endanger'd by a draught of hot Beer: But I cannot tell, whether it may be thence inferr'd, that hot things are more agreable to the natural Tone of the Stomach, than cold. That it was not barely the coldness of Particles, sensible to the Touch, appears, because the same Party could drink cold Wine, as I was informed from my own Father.

3. Madam Mary Brook of Toxford hath such an Aversion to Wasps, that whilst their season of swarming about in Houses lasteth, she is forc'd to confine her self to a little close Chamber, and dares not then come out to Table, lest their coming there should put her into such Distempers, as Cheese doth those, who have an utter Antipathy against it.

4. Mrs. Raymund of Stow-market, when ever she hears Thunder, even afar off, begins to have a bodily distemper seize on her. She grows faint, sick in her stomach, and ready to vomit. At the very coming over of it, she falls into a right-down Cholera, and continues under a Vomiting and Loosness as long as the Tempest holds, and that in a more violent way than is commonly procured by such Medicaments as are usually exhibited for those very purposes. And thus it hath been with this Gentlewoman from a Girl.

5. I know at Woman in Stow-market, who, during her Green-sickness, was invited by her Pica or longing to suck the Wind out of Bellows, which, as often as she could, she took into her Body with open mouth, forcing it in by blowing with her own hands, the Bellows inverted. I know another that was for crackling Cinders under her feet. From which kind of Instances I am inclin'd to doubt, whether that Distemper begins at the Depravation of the Acid liquor in the Stomach, and not rather at the Uterus, which next infects the Brain, such kind of things gratifying the Fancy some ways misled, more than the Appetite natural any ways depraved.

6. Somewhat like to this is to be found in Brutes. In May last a Greyhound Bitch at Brightwel-Hall, about five or six days before she cast her Whelps, had such a Wild kind of Hunger, (though she was fed sufficiently every day with usual food) that finding another Bitches Whelps, she devoured them all (4 or 5, as I remember) and fell next upon the Bitch her self, who made a shift to get from her as well as she could, being helped. From this, and from Sows devouring whole Litters of Pigs, I am prone to think otherwise of the Longings of Teeming-Women, than is the common opinion.

A Confirmation

Of the Experiments mentioned in Numb. 27. to have been made by Signor Fracassati in Italy, by injecting Acid Liquors into Blood.

 The Honourable Robert Boyle having seen the particulars inserted in Numb. 27. concerning some Experiments made by Signor Fracassati, and recollecting what himself had experimented of that nature several years ago, was pleased to give to the Publisher the following Information about it, by the favour of a Letter, written to him from Oxford, Octob. 19. 1667. viz.

SIR,

I hinted to you in my last something the Original of the Experiments made in Italy, by injecting Acid Liquors into Blood: To explain which, I shall now tell you, That about this time three years**The Journals of the Royal Society being looked into by the Publisher (who, by the honour of his Relation to that Illustrious Body, hath the advantage of perusing them, as he by his Office hath the care of seeing them faithfully managed) do fully agree with the Affirmation of this Noble Person, as well in the circumstance of the Time, as the substance of the Matter in question; it being in the Month of December, of An. 1664. when, what is now alledged in this Letter, was publickly related by its Author. I mentioned at Gresham Colledge to the Royal Society, an odd Experiment I had formerly made (not by Chance, but Design) upon Blood yet warm, as it came from the Animal, viz. That by putting into it a little Aqua-fortis, or Oyl of Vitriol or Spirit of Salt, these being the most usual Acid Menstruums) the Blood not only would presently lose its pure colour, and become of a dirty one, but in a trice be also coagulated; whereas if some fine Urinous Spirit, abounding in Volatil Salt, such as the Spirit of Sal Armoniack, were mingled with the warm Blood, it would not only not curdle it, or imbase its Colour, but make it look rather more florid than before, and both keep it fluid, and preserve it from putrefaction for a long time.

This Experiment I devis'd, among other things, to shew the Amicableness of Volatil Spirits to the Blood. And I remember, 'twas so much taken notice of that some very inquisitive Members of the Society came presently to me, and desired me to acquaint them more particularly with it; which I readily did, though afterwards I made some further Observations about the same Experiments, that I had no occasion to relate.

This having been so publickly done, though I shall not say, that Signor Fracassati may not have hit, as well as I, upon the Experiments published in his Name, yet there is so little difference between the warm Blood of an Animal out of his Veins and in them, that 'tis not very improbable, that he my have had some imperfect Rumour of our Experiment without knowing whence it came, and so may, without any disingenuity, have thence taken a hint to make and publish what now is English'd in the Transactions. If it be thought fit, that any mention be made of what I related so long since, I think I can send you some other Circumstances belonging to it: For I remember, I tried it with other Liquors (at Spirit of Wine, Oyl of Tartar, Oyl of Turpentine) and I think also I can send you some Remarks upon the Colour of the upper part of the Blood. And I shall on this occasion add, in reference to Anatomical matters in general, that after I saw how favourably the usefulness of Experimental Philosophy was receiv'd, I was invited to inlarge it in another Edition; and for that, I provided divers Anatomical as well as other Experiments, and designed many more, so that I have by me divers things that would not, perhaps, be unwelcome to Anatomists, &c.

An Observation about the Epiploon, or the double Membrane, which covers the Entrails of Animals, and is filled with Fat.

This Observation should have been added to those that were publish'd in Number 27. and made by Fracassati and Malpighi; for it is contain'd in an Execitation De Omento, annexed to the Tetras Anatomicarum Epistolarum Marcelli Malpighii and Caroli Fracassati de Lingua & Cerebro, printed in Bononia. Since it was then omitted, it was thought worth the inserting now, viz.

 The Epiploon, being look'd upon by a good Microscope, is like a great Sack full of abundance of other small Sacks, which do inclose gatherings of Grease or Fat. There are many Vessels which may be call'd Adipous or Fatty, which issue out of this Membrane, and spreading themselves all over the Body, conveigh Fat to it, just as the Arteries carry the Blood all over the same. Whereever is Fat or Grease, there is found store of these little Sacks, wherein that is inclosed; whence it is, that in lean and emaciated Bodies, instead of Fat, you find nothing but Skins.

The structure of these small Sacks, and of the adipous Vessels, sufficiently sheweth, that the Fat is not formed accidentally out of the thick Vapours of the Blood, as is the common belief: Nor is its chief use to foment the natural Heat; but it seems rather to conduce to the allaying of the Acrimony of the Salts, that are in the Blood and the Serosities. And indeed (saith this Author) lean persons, and those whose Epiploon hath been cut, are more subject than others to Rheumatisms, Lienteries, and the like diseases that are caused by the sharpness of the Humours. And those that are fat, are not so easily seized on by them, in regard the Acrimony of the Serosities is corrected by the mixture of the Fat, just as the sharpest Lixivium will lose its force, if Oyl be mingled therewith.

Some Hortulan Communications about the curious engrafting of Oranges and Lemons, or Citrons, upon one anothers Trees, and of one Individual Fruit, half Orange and half Lemon growing on such Trees, &c.

1. We have here Orange-trees, (saith the Intelligence from Florence) that bear a fruit, which is Citron on one side, and Orange on the other. They have not been brought hither out of other Countries, and they are now much propagated by Engrafting.

2. This was lately confirmed to us by a very ingenious English Gentleman, who asserted, that himself not only had seen, but bought of them An. 1660. in Paris, whither they had been sent by Genoa Merchants; and that on some Trees he had found an Orange on one branch, and a Lemon on another branch; as also (consonantly to the Florentine information) one and the same Fruit half Orange and half Lemon; and sometimes three quarters of one kind, and one quarter of the other.

3. A Provencial at Paris pretends to keep Orange-trees in that Town all the Winter long without any Fire, though they remain in the Earth, and not be put in Cases or Boxes. This is thought to be effected by a peculiar sort of Dung used for that purpose, and wrought deep into the Ground.

Q, Why should not the Experiment of some such thing be made about London, whose Latitude is but so little more Northward than that of Paris?

Enquiries for Greenland.

To discharge our Promise made in the last Transactions, we shall subjoyn the following Queries, which we also purpose to recommend in due season, to some of those English Masters of Ships, and other fit papers, that shall Sail into Greenland for the Whale-fishing; intreating withall, as many as have conveniency, to assist us in these recommendations.

The Enquiries are,

1. What, and how much is the heat of the Sun there in the midst of the Summer, compar'd with the heat of it in England? to be observed with a seal'd Thermometer.

2. What is the most constant weather there in Summer, whether Clear, Cloudy, Rainy, Foggy? &c.

3. What weather is most usual at such and such times of the year?

4. What constancy or unconstancy there is of the Wind to this or that quarter of the Horizon, or to this or that part Of the year?

5. What the Temperature of each particular Wind is observ'd to be? And particularly, whether the North-Wind be the coldest? If not, what, wind is? whether is the colder, the East or West, &c.

6. What Wind is observed to bring most Ice, and what to make a clear Water at Sea?

7. What Currents there are? How fast, and which way they set? Whether those Currents are not stronger at one time of the Moon than at another? Whether they always run one way?

8. What is observable about the Tides, Spring or Neap? How high the High-water Mark is above the Low-water? Which way it floweth? Which way it ebbeth? What time of the Moon the Spring-tides fall out?

9. Whether the Ice that floats in the Sea be of salt Water or fresh?

10. What Rivers there are in the Summer, and what fresh Water can be had?

11. What fowl are found to live there, and what Beasts? How they are thought to subsist in Winter? How they breed and feed their young?

12. What Vegetables grow there, and whether they yield any Flowers or Fruits? &c.

13 . Whether there have been any Thunder or Lightning observed in those parts?

14. How deep the Cold penetrates into the Earth? Whether there be any Wells, Pits, or Mines so deep, that the Cold does not touch the bottom thereof?

15. How the Land tends? and whether the Parts under or near the Pole be by those, that have gone farthest that way, thought to be Sea or Land? How near any hath been known to approach the Pole, and whether the Cold increaseth with the increase of Latitude?

16 . To make, if possible, some Experiments and Observations about the Magnet or Needle; and particularly, how much the Declination is there? and whether they do exactly observe the Degrees of Declination in their course? Likewise to make Observations about the Height of the Sun, and other Celestial Bodies, and their Diameter, Refractions? &c.

17. What is their opinion concerning the North-east passage?

18. What Fish do most frequent those Seas, besides Whales? Any thing observable in their Fishing, as the usual or unusual bigness, strength, and the several sorts of Whales; and particularly to observe whether that kind of Whales they call Trompa, have in their Heads the Sperma Ceti, and in their Entrails the Ambergreese, looking like Cows-dung, as was alledged out of Purchas in Numb. 28. pag. 538?

19. To give in an an exact Relation of the Whale-fishing, throwing the Harp-Irons, following the Fish, &c.

20. To describe the whole manner of making the Oyl of Whales.

An Account of the

Synopsis Novæ Philosophiæ & Medicinæ

Francisci Travagini Medici Veneti.

 Some Months since there were two Letters sent hither from Venice from Signor Francisco Travagino, giving notice of a Treatise of his ready for the Press, under the Title of Nova Philosophia & Medicina. Those Letters came accompanied with a Synopsis in Print, giving a brief Account of the Contents of the said Treatise to this effect, viz.

That this Author hath compos'd a System of Natural Philosophy by Observations and Experiments, accommodated to the benefit of Humane Life, and subservient to Physick and other subalternate Arts; which Philosophy he pretends to have raised on Principles that are certain Bodies drawn out of Mixts; which, though in themselves invisible and incoagulable, yet become, according to him, visible by their Contrariety and mutual Operation upon one another, and so do constitute the Temperaments of Concretes, and cause not only their Dissolution, but also their Redintigration.

These Principles he undertakes to prove to be Two Salts, call'd by him Acidum and Salsum; which, as they work more or less on one another, when blended, so they lose more or less of their Volatility, and the degrees of their Contrariety: And from their various Complication (in which he places the whose business and moment of Philosophy) he holds, that that great multiplicity of Concretes, which is in the Universe, does result.

In particular, he deduceth from the said Principles the cause of Ferments and their variety, the nature Of Generations, Concretions, Putrefactions, Precipitations, &c. and sheweth how those Principles run through all Minerals, Vegetables, and Animals, by their manifold Combinations, and various ways of acting on one another.

He explains al so the mixtures of Alkaly's, Vitriols, Armoniacks, Sulphurs, Mercuries, and explicateth the properties of Dissolvents; as also Tasts, Odours, Colours, &c. all from the same Principles.

And having raised this Structure of his as far as he judgeth it sufficient for Subordinate Arts, he proceeds to adapt it to the Art of Physick. And applying it to Animal Bodies, he thence draws the diversity of Humours and Tempers, the beginning and duration of Vital Heat, the motion of the Limbs, the faculties of Entrails, the origin, vitality, and properties of the Blood, and the various Fermentations therein; shewing the Distempers of the Ferments and juices in Animals, the nature of Coagulations, Dissolutions, Feavers, and other Symptoms; as also the original of Poysons in Animal Bodies; concluding with an Indication of the proper Remedies (as he conceives) of many Diseases.

Whether this Philosophy be new, is easie to judge.

A Note to be inserted above, pag. 544. after line 12.

 This Rest (by Mr. Hook's suggestion) may be render'd more convenient, if, instead of placing the Screw Horizontal, it be so contriv'd, that it may be laid parallel to the Equinoctial, or to the Diurnal Motion of the Earth; for by that means the same thing may be perform'd by the single motion of one Screw, which in the other way cannot be done but by the turning of both Screws: As will easily appear to those that shall consider it.


In the Savoy,

Printed by T.N. for John Martyn, Printer to the Royal Society, and are to be sold at the Bell a little without Temple-Bar, 1667.