Philosophical Transactions/Volume 2/Number 32
Monday, February. 10. 166⅞.
Observations and Tryals about the Resemblances and Differences between a Burning Coal and Shining Wood. An Observation concerning a Blemish in an Horses Eye, not hitherto discover'd by any Author, which may be of a great use in the choice of Horses. An Extract of a Letter, written out of Italy, concerning divers Spots, not long since observed there in the Planet Venus. An Extract of another Letter, printed at Paris, touching a late Cure of an inveterate Phrenzy by the Transfusion of Blood. An exact Narrative of an Hermaphrodite now in London An Account of some books: I. Nouveaux Elemens de Geometrie. II. Synopsis Optica. Authore Honorato Fabri, Soc. Jesu. III. De Vi Percussionis, Jo. Alphons. Borelli. IV. Nicolai Stenonis Musculi Descriptio Geometrica, &c.
Observations and Tryals
About the Resemblances and Differences between a Burning Coal and Shining Wood.
These particulars were already in our hands, when we publish'd the Experiments made on shining Wood and Fish, in the last Papers, (imparted then by the same noble Author Mr. Boyle) that those were; but wanted then room enough to contain these, which now follow, as they were sent in a Letter from Oxford, viz.
And now, Sir, seeing the want of Shining Wood hath kept me ever since I sent you the former Experiments from making any new ones on, that Subject, I shall, by way of amends, subjoyn some of the Observations, that I heretofore intimated to you, I had made of the Resemblances and Differences between a Live Coal and a piece of Shining Wood; in pursuing of which, you will easily discern, that to those particulars, which my Memory and the former Observations, I had noted down about light and luminous Bodies, had suggested to me, I have added some that have been afforded me by those late Tryals made in my Engine, whereof I sent you an account.
The things, wherein I observed a piece of Wood and a burning Coal to agree or resemble each other, are principally these Five.
1. Both of them are Luminaries, that is, give Light, as having it (if I may so speak) residing in them, and not like Looking-Glasses or white Bodies, which are conspicuous only by the incident beams of the Sun, or some other Luminous Body, which they reflect.
This is evident, because both Shining Wood and a Burning Coal shiner the more vividly, by how much the place wherein they are put is made the darker, by the careful exclusion of the adventitious light. 'Tis true, that the Moon and Venus appear brightest at or about Midnight, and yet have but a borrowed light; but the difference between those Planets and the Bodies we treat of, in reference to the difficulty we are considering, is obvious enough. For, though the beholder's Eye, that looks upon those Stars, be advantag'd by being in the dark, which enlarges the pupil of the Eye, yet the Object it self is freely exposed to the beams of the Sun, which if they were intercepted, those Planets would quickly be darken'd, as experience manifests in Eclipses.
2. Both Shining Wood and a Burning Coal need the presence of the Air, and are too of such a density; to make them continue shining. This has been prov'd as to a Coal, by what I long since published in my Physico-Mechanical Experiments, where I relate, How quickly a Coal would be extinguish'd upon the withdrawing the Air from about it: And as to Shining Wood, the Experiments I lately sent you, make it needless for me to add any other proof of the requisiteness not only of Air, but of Air of such a thickness, to make its Light continue. How far this is applicable to Flame is not necessary here to determin; though, when I have the satisfaction of seeing you again, I may tell you something about that Question, which perhaps you do not expect.
3, Both Shining Wood and a Burning Coal, having hem deprived for a time of their light, by the withdrawing of the contiguous Air, may presently recover it by letting in fresh Air upon them.
The former part of this, particular Tryals have often shewn you to be true, when kindled Coals, that seem to be extinguisht in our exhausted Receivers, were presently reviv'd when the Air was restored to them: And the latter part is abundantly manifest by the Experiments, to which this Paper is an Appendance.
4. Both a Quick Coal and Shining Wood will be easily quench'd by Water and many other Liquors.
The truth of this, as to Coals, is too obvious to need a proof and therefore I shall confirm it only as to Wood. For which purpose you may be pleas'd to take the following Transcript of some of my Notes about Light.
I took a piece of shining Wood, and having wetted it with a little common Water in a clear Glass, it presently lost all its light*.*From hence you will easily gather the reason why, when I lately told you of the Trial I made with a piece of Shining Fish under Water in the unexhausted Receiver, I did not propose to have the like Trial made with Shining Wood and Water; but for this Liquor substituted Mercury.
The like Experiment I tried with strong Spirit of Salt, and also with weak Spirit of Sal Armoniack; but in both, the light did upon the Wood's imbibing of the Liquor presently disappear.
And lest you should think, that in the words Many other Liquors, I intended not to comprise any, that consist of soft and unctuous-parts, or that are highly inflamable, I shall subjoyn a couple of Notes, that I find next to those just now transcribed.
I made the like Tryal with rectified Oyl of Turpentine, with a not unlike success. The same Experiment I tried more than once with high rectified Spirit of Wine, which did immediately destroy all the light of the Wood that was immersed in it; and having put a little of that Liquor with my linger upon a part of the whole piece of Wood that shone very vigorously, it quickly did, as it were, quench the Coal as far as the Liquor reach'd; not did it in a pretty while regain its luminousness: (Which whether it recover'd at all, I know not; for this Trial being made upon my Bed, I fell asleep, before I had waited long enough to finish the Observation.)
5. As a Quick Coal if not to be extinguisht by the coldness of the Air, when that is greater than ordinary; so neither is a piece of Shining Wood to be deprived of its light by the same quality of Air.
As much of this Observation as concerns the Coal, will be readily granted, and for proof of the other part of it, I could relate to you more Trials than one, but that I suppose, one may suffice, circumstanc'd like that, which I shall now relate.
I took a small piece of Shining Wood, and put it into a slender Glass-pipe, sealed at one end, and open at the other, and placed this Pipe in a Glass Vessel, where I caused to be put a strongly frigorifick mixture of Ice and Salt, and having kept it there full as long as I thought would be requisie to freeze an Aqueous Body, I afterwards took it out, and perceived not any sensible Diminution of its light. But to be sure, the frigorifick mixture should not deceive me, I had placed by this Pipe another, almost filed with Water, which I found to be turn'd into Ice; and though I suffered the Wood to remain, a pretty while after, exposed to so intense a Cold, yet when I took it out, it continued shining, and, if I much mistake not, it ceased not to do so, when I look'd on it, 24 hours after. But though the light of Shining Fish be usually (as far as I have observed) more vigorous and durable, than that of Shining Wood; yet I cannot say, that it will hold out against Cold so well as the other: For having ordered one of my Servants to cut off a good large piece of the luminous Whiting, and bury it in Ice and Salt, when I call'd for it in less than half an hour after, I found it much stiffen'd by the Cold, and to have no light, that I could discern in a place dark enough. And for fear, that this effect may have proceeded not barely from the operation of the Cold, but also from that of the Salt (for which suspicion you would see reason enough, if I could shew you my Trials about Shining Fish) I caused another time a piece of Whiting to be put in a Pipe of Glass seal'd at one end, and having seen it shine there, I look'd upon it again, after it had stayed but a quarter of an hour, by my estimate, in a frigorifick mixture, which the Glass kept from touching the Fish; and yet neither I, not a Youth that I employed to look on it, could perceive in a dark place, that it retained any light; which whether the Cold had deprived it of by that great change of Texture, that the Congelation of the Aqueous Juice of the Fish (which I have several times observed to be luminous) may be supposed to have made in the Body invaded by it; or whether the effect depend more principally on some other cause, I shall not now examine.
1. The first difference I observed betwixt a Live Coal, and Shining Wood, is, That whereas the light of the former if readily extinguishable by Compression (as is obvious in the practice of suddenly extinguishing a piece of Coal by treading upon it) I could not find that such a Compression, so I could conveniently give, without losing sight of its operation, would put out, or much injure the light, even of small fragments of Shining Wood. One of my Trials about which I find thus set down among my Notes about Light.
I took a piece of Shining Wood, and having press'd it between two pieces of clear Glass (whereof the one was pretty flat, and the other convex) so that I could clearly see the Wood through the Glass, I could not perceive, that the compression, though it sometimes broke the Wood into several fragments, did either destroy or considerably alter the Light.
This Experiment I repeated with the same success. But what a stronger or more lasting Compression may do in this case, I had not opportunity to try.
2. The next unlikeness to be taken notice of betwixt Rotten Wood and a Kindred Goal, is, What the latter will in very few minutes be totally extinguisht by the withdrawing of the Air, whereas a piece of Shining Wood, being eclipsed by the absence of the Air, and kept for a time, will immediate recover its Light, if the Air be let in upon it again within half an hour after it was first withdrawn.
The former part of this Observation is easily proved by the Experiments that have been often made upon Quick Coals in the Pneumatical Engine; and the truth of the latter part appears by an Experiment about Shining Wood made by us in October last. Neither is it unprovable, that if I had had convenience to try it, I should have found, that a piece of Shining Wood, deprived of its light by the removal of the ambient Air, would retain a disposition to recover it upon the return of the Air, not only for half an hour, (which is all that I lately asserted) but for half a day, and perhaps a longer time.
3. The next difference to he mentioned, is, That a Live Coal being put into a small close Glass, will not continue to burn for very many minutes; but a piece of Shining Wood will continue to shine for some whole days.
The first part of the Assertion I know you will readily grant, and the rather, because it contains matter of fact, without at all determining, whether the Coals not continuing to burn, proceeds from its being, as it were, stifled by its own smoak and exhalations, (which can have no vent in a small close Glass) or from the want of fresh Air, or from any particular cause, which I must not here debate; though I have sometimes made Experiments somewhat odd to facilitate that enquiry. The other part of our Observation may be easily made out by what I tried upon Shining Wood, sealed up Hermetically in very small Glasses, where the Wood did for several days (though I remember not precisely how many) retain its Light.
4. A fourth Difference may be this: That wherein a Coal, as it burs, sends forth store of smoak or exhalations; Luminous Wood does not so.
5. A fifth, flowing from the former, is, That whereas a Coal in shining wasts it self at a great rate, Shining Wood does not.
These two unlikenesses I mention together, not only because of their affinity, but because what concerns the Coal in both, will need no proof; and as for what concerns Rotten Wood, it may be verified by an Observation, that I find by my Notes I made in a piece of it Hermetically sealed up in a small clear Glass; where after it had continued luminous some days, I lookt on it in the day-time to perceive, if any store of spirits or other steams had, during all that while, exhaled from the Wood, but could not find any on the inside of the Glass, save that in one place there appeared a kind of Dew, but consisting of such very small drops (if at least their Size were not below that name) that a multitude of them would go to the making up of one ordinary drop. But in pieces of Shining Fish I found the case much otherwise, as was to be expected.
6. The last Difference I shall take notice of betwixt the Bodies hitherto compared, if, That a Quick Coal is actually and vehemently hot; whereas I have not observed Shining Wood to be so much as sensibly lukewarm.
What is said of the Coals heat, being as manifest as its light, I shall need only to make out what relates to the Shining Wood. To assist me wherein, I meet among my Notes that, whose Transcript I shall subjoyn, when I have premis'd, that (if my memory do not deceive me) the piece of Wood to be mentioned was one, that shone so vividly, that waking in the Night some hours before I tryed it, and perceiving, as it lay near me on the Bed, how luminous it was, I was invited to reach out to a place near the Beds-head, where there stood several Books, and, laying the Wood on that which came to hand, I could discern by the light of it, that the Book was an Hebrew Bible, and that of the Page I lighted on, the wrong end was turned upwards: To which intimation having added; that the little Glass-Instrument, mention'd in the Note, is such an one, is you may find described in my Preliminaries to the History of Cold, save that part of this was a little bending inward at the Basis, that, it may sometimes stand by it self, and sometimes receive a small body into the dimple at its Basis: Having, I say, premised this, and, that as Shining Wood did not feel at all warm to me, so I also found Shining Fish palpably cold, I shall conclude your trouble with the premised Note, which speaks thus:
[I put upon a large piece of Wood, which was partly shining, and, as near as I could, upon one of the most luminous parts of it, one of those Thermoscopes, that I make, with a pendulous drop of Water. But as had formerly try'd, that by laying the tip of my Nose or Finger upon it, when it shone vividly enough, to enable me to discern both the one and the other, at the time of contact I could not perceive the least of heat, but rather an actual coldness; so by this Trial I could not satisfie my self, that it did visibly raise the pendulous drop; though the Instrument were so render; that by approaching one Finger near it;, yet without actually touching of it, it would manifestly be impelled up, and upon this removal of my Finger, would presently descend again.]And I remember, that having put such an Instrument upon on a shining Fish, that was pretty large., I could not thereby perceive, that it had any degree of heat, but rather the contrary. For, having divers times taken off the Glass, to apply it with the more advantage to several parts of the Luminous Fish, I divers times (for I remember not, whether 'twere alwayes) took notice, that upon the removal of the Glass into the Air, the pendulous drop would manifestly rise a little, and subside again when the Glass was applied to the Fish. But whether this part of the Experiment will hold in all temperatures of the Air, I had not opportunity to try.
Concerning a Blemish in an Horses Eye, not hitherto discover'd by any Author, which may be of great use in the Choice of an Horse to those who are Curious; made by Dr. Richard Lower at the Royal Society, January 23. 166⅞.
Among the many defects and distempers in the Eyes, the Eyes of Horses are peculiarly affected with one, which no Animal besides is troubled withall (as far as I have observed) neither do I remember any Author hitherto to have taken notice of it; and that is a Spungy Excrescence (commonly of a dark musk colour) which grows out of the edge of that Coat of the Eye called the Uvea; which Spunge, if it grow large, or increase in number (as it frequently happens) it depraves the sight very much, or totally intercepts it. But that you may more easily conceive the manner how 'tis done, you may remember, that the Uvea is a musculous part, the use of it being chiefly to contract and dilate itself for the admission of the Objects with as much light as the Eye can conveniently bear; so that the brighter and more refulgent the light is, to which the Eye is expos'd, that Membrane contracts it self into a narrower compass; and the more dark the place is, it dilates it self the more, as you may see in a Cats Eye more readily perform'd, than in any other Animal I have yet observ'd': So that if that spungy substance, which grows out of the edge of the Uvea, be so great, or the number of them such, as that they grow in several places about the pupil of the Eye, where it contracts it self, the pupil or sight is very much (if not totally) obstructed, and consequently the Horse sees very little or nothing at all: As I have many times taken exact notice in some Horses, which being brought into the Sun-shine, could not see at all but suffer'd me to touch the sight of their Eye with my finger without the least winking; which Horses being led back into the Stable, the Uvea in that obscure place dilating it self, they could see very well again, and would not suffer me to shew my finger near to the Eye without frequent closing their Eye-lids and tossing their Heads. The same Horses I understood by the Owners were very apt to stumble in the day-time, if it were bright and Sun-shine, but travell'd very well and securely in the evening, and in dark, cloudy weather.
What the cause may be of that fungous Excrescence, or why Horses are peculiarly obnoxious to it, or what kind of Horses most, I have not considered. But, I cannot think, it comes from (training in great draughts and races, or from hard travel, because I have seen very large Spunges (as I may call them) in young Horses eyes of 2 and 4 years old, before they were backed; which, after they have been taken up from Grass, and kept with dry meat, have very much abated, and afterwards being turn'd to grass in the Spring to cleanse and cool their bodies, have increased again to the wonted bigness. But whether it were from their moist Feeding, or holding down their heads to eat (whereby there might be a greater deflux of humours to that part) I cannot determine. But for as much as there are few Horses quite free from this evil, and many render'd very inconsiderable by it, I will recount the most remarkable Cases, which make Horses most useless and suspected.
1. The more and greater those Excrescences are, the more the pupil of the Eye or the Sight is in danger of being quite obstructed; which you may farther examine by turning the Horses eye to the light, and observing how much of the pupil they do obstruct.
2. These Spunges on the upper edge of the Uvea are apt to grow the largest, and hinder the Sight most.
3. That which grows on the middle of the Uvea, does more hinder the fight by diffracting the Object, than that, which grows in either Corner or Angle of it.
As for the Cure, I suppose there can be none expected, but from a drying kind of diet; though perhaps outwardly something may be devised to shadow the Eyes, and keep them from being nakedly expo&d to the Sun, whereby the pupil will not be so closely contracted, and consequently the Sight not so much obstructed.
Of a Letter written by Signor Cassini Professor of Astronomy in Bononia, to Monsieur Petit at Paris, and Englished out of the Journal Des Scavans, concerning several Spots lately discover'd there in the Planet Venus.
To give you some account of my present Studies, I shall acquaint you, that having been a good while very assiduous and' careful in making Observations of Venus, to see, whether that Planet did not turn about its Axis, by a motion like to that of Jupiter and Mars; I met at first with many difficulties, but at last considering, that I should succeed better in my Observations at a time when Venus is at a good distance from the Earth, than when she is near thereto, I attentively observ'd, when she was risen somewhat high above the Horizon, and shin'd brighter, whether I could not discern in her some part remarkable either by its brightness or obscurity, among the rest, especially about the middle of her Disk. And this I did not in vain; for I discover'd at last towards the middle of her Body a part clearer than the rest, by which one might judge of the Motion of the Rest of this Planet.
The first time I saw it, was October 14. 1666. h. 5. 45. p.m. and then this bright part was very near the Center, on the North side. And at the same time I observed Westward two obscure spots, somewhat oblong; but I could not then see that resplendent part long enough to conclude any thing from thence, not was I able to see any thing well of those parts till April 28. 1667. on which day, a quarter of an hour before Sun-rising, I saw again a bright part, scituated near the Section, and distant from the Southern Horn a little more than ¼ of its Diameter. And near the Eastern Ring I saw a dark and somewhat oblong spot, which was nearer to the Northern than the Southern Horn. At the rising of the Sun I perceived, that this bright part was then no more so near the Southern Horn, but distant from it ⅓ of its Diameter. This gave me great satisfaction. But I was surprised at the same time to find, that the same Motion, which was made from South to North in the inferiour part of the Disk, was on the contrary made from North to South in the superiour part; whence the determination of the Motion may be better taken: For we have no Example of the like motion, except it be in that of the Libration of the Moon.
The next day, at the rising of the Sun, the said bright part was not far from the Section, and distant from the Southern Horn ¼ of the Diameter. When the Sun was 4 degrees high, the lame was scituated near the Section, and remote from the Southern Horn ⅖ of the Diameter. The Sun being high 6 deg. 10 min. it seem'd to have been passed the Center, and that the Section of the Disk did cut the same. The Sun being 7 deg. high, it appeared yet more advanced Northward, together with two obscure Spots seated between the Section and the Circumference, and equally distant from one another, and from each Horn on both sides. And the Sky being very clear, I observ'd the motion of the bright part for 1⅛ hour, which then seem'd to be exactly made from South to North, without any sensible inclination Eastward or Westward. Mean-time I perceiv'd in the motion of the dark Spots so great a Variation, that it cannot be adscribed to any reason in Opticks.
May 10. and 13. before Sun-rising, saw still the bright part near the Center Northward.
Lastly, June 5. and 6. before the rising of the Sun, I saw the same between the Northern Horn and the Center of this Planet, and I noted the same irregular Variation in the obscure Spots. But when Venus began to be further removed from the Earth, it was more difficult to observe these Phænomena.
I shall not presume to declare my sentiment touching these Apparences so boldly, as I did concerning the Spots formerly discover'd in Jupiter and Mars. For those Spots I could very well observe for a whole night together, during the opposition of those Planets to the Sun: I could consider their Motion for the space of several hours; and at last, seeing them return regularly to the same place, I could judge whether they were the same spots or not, and in how much time they absolv'd their Relation. But it was not so here with the Apparences in Venus; for one sees them but for so small a time, that it is far more difficult, certainly to know, when they return to the same place.
Yet this I can say, (supposing that this bright part of Venus, which I have observ'd, especially this year 1667, hath always been the same) that in less than one day it absolves its motion, whether of Revolution or Libration, so as in near 23 hours it returns about the same hour to the same scituation in this Planet; which yet happens not without some irregularity. Now to affirm, (supposing it to be always the same bright part) whether this Motion is made by an entire Revolution, or by a Libration, I dare not yet do, in regard I could not see the Continuity of the Motion through a great part of the Arch, as I did in the other Planets: And for this very reason, that will always be difficult to determine.
Of a Letter, written by J. Denis, Doctor of Physick, and Professor of Philosophy and the Mathematicks at Paris, touching a late Cure of an Inveterate Phrensy by the Transfusion of Blood.
This Letter was lately sent by the Author himself to the Publisher, as it was printed at Paris in French; the substance whereof is in English, as follows.
It is now almost a twelve-month that I declared my self publicly in this matter of Transfusion, and after I had grounded my Conjectures upon divers reasons, and a number of Experiments which I made joyntly with M. Emmerez, I resolv'd to expect in the sequel a further confirmation, by carefully observing all that should happen in the several Trials I intended to practice.
In this revolution, we have since let slip no occasion to improve this Operation, which hath been follow'd with good success, and I could here alledge some particular Relations, the circumstances of which would appear curious enough, if I did not rather choose to referr them to a Collection, which possibly I may send you within some time, to have the more room to enlarge in this Letter on the circumstances of a Story, whereof you will be very glad to learn the event.
You have doubtless heard of a Mad-man, that hath been late cured and restored to his Wits by the means of the Transfusion. Some spread a rumour, that he died soon after the operation; others bore the people in hand, that he was relapsed into a greater madness than that before, and in short, it hath been so diversly discoursed of up and down, and with such differing reflections thereon, that I thought my self obliged, for the cleaning up of what false rumours had darken'd, to give you a faithful and exact account of the condition, to which this poor man was reduced before the Transfusion; of what passed during that Operation, and the surprising effects that have followed upon it hitherto.
The Patient is about 34 years of age. His Phrensy began first of all to appear 7 or 8 years ago, and, as far as can be judged, it was occasion'd by a disgrace he received a little before, in some Amours, where he hoped to find a very considerable fortune. This first fit of Extravagance was very violent, and lasted 10 months without any good interval; but returning afterward by little and little to his wits, and having given all the possible marks of a sound understanding, he was married to a young Gentlewoman, who was persuaded, that this madness of his was the relick of a Sickness he had before, and that there was no appearance he would ever relapse into it. But this was far from proving so, as was imagined, and even the very first year of his Marriage ended not without his returning to his former Extravagancies.
Thus then he relapsed, and was several times restored these 7 or 8 years last past. But what is here chiefly to be observed, is, that the fit never lasted with him less than 8 or 10 months, without any respit, notwithstanding all the care and means used to relieve him. For it is also fit to take notice, that a person of Quality, having once taken a purpose to attempt his Cure by all manner of ways, caused him to be bled in his Feet, Arms, and Head, even 18 times, and made him bathe himself 40 times, not to mention innumerable Applications to his Forehead, and Potions. But instead of amendments, the distemper seem'd to be provoked by those Remedies, and this poor creature fell into that rage, that there was a necessity to bind him up from doing mischief. His Madness hath been always periodical, and never abated but by little and little, and that abatement hath befallen him rather at such times, when nothing was done to him, than when he was tormented with Medicines.
The last time that he relapsed into his Extravagancy, was about 4 months since, in a place 12 Leagues distant from Paris. And his Wife hearing of it, went immediately to him to relieve him. She soon shut him up, and was even constrained to tye him for some time, because he was in such an extraordinary rage as to beat her. But for all her care, one time he got loose stark naked, and ran away streight for Paris, no body knowing how he could find his way in the dark night. His Wife had him searched for in all the neighbouring Villages, whilst he ran here in Paris up and down the Streets, without finding any place to retire to, in regard that those, who had the charity of receiving him into their Houses the first days, knew very well the danger they were in, of having their Houles burnt over their heads.
He was not less outrageous in this last fit, than in the former. He hath spent 3 or 4 months without sleep, and his greatest divertisement during that time was, to tear the Clothes that were given him, to run naked abroad, and to burn in the Houses where he was whatever he could meet with. He mov'd to compassion all good people that saw him, and especially those in the Marais du Temple, where he was known to most, and where he had been wont to be seen before this distemper as well cloathed and fashioned, as any one of his condition could be.
Monsieur De Montmor, among others, was the person most touched with it, and resolved to employ his interests to procure him a place in one of the Hospitals. But first he thought on the Transfusion, and believed, there would be no danger in trying it upon this Man, being so persuaded by many Experiments we had already made in his presence. He therefore had been taken up for that end, and having sent for me and M. Emmerez to ask our opinion of the fitness of trying the Transfusion upon this man, we answer'd, that we could indeed give good assurance for his Life, and that this Operation was in it self not capable to cause the death of any one, if discreetly managed; but as to the Cure of such an Extravagance, as that appeared to us, we had not yet experience enough to dare to promise him that, and that our Conjectures went no farther, than to think, that the blood of a Calf by its mildness and freshness might possibly allay the heat and ebullition of his blood, being mixed therewith. The matter having been sufficiently examined; we resolv'd to carry this Man into a private house; and there we appointed for his Gardian that Porter, on whom we had already practised the Transfusion 8 months ago, both that the Thing might not appear so new to him, as it might do to others, that never had seen the Experiment before, and that he might serve us the more to assure our Patient, and others, who should be present at the Operation, that there was no danger in it at all.
Decemb. 19. we used what art we could to dispose the fancy of our Patient to suffer the Transfusion, which we resolv'd should be tried upon him that night about 6 a Clock. Many persons of Quality were present, together with several Physicians and Chirurgeons, too intelligent to suspect them of being capable of the least surprise. M. Emmerez open'd the Crural Artery of a Calf and did all the necessary preparations in their presence; and after he had drawn from the Patient about 10 ounces of blood out of a Vein of the right Arm, we could give him no more again than about 5 or 6 ounces of that of the Calf, by reason that his constrained posture, and the crowd of the Spectators; interrupted very much this Operation.
Mean time. he found himself as he said, very hot all along his Arm, and under the Armpits, and perceiving, that he was falling into a swoon, we presently stopped the blood running in, and closed up the wound: Yet he supped two hours after, and notwithstanding some dulness and sleepiness he was in now and then, he yet passed that night with singing, whistling, and other extravagances usual with him.
But yet next morning we found him somewhat less exorbitant, both in his actions and words; and that induced us to believe, that by reiterating the Transfusion once or twice, we might find a more remarkable change in him. We therefore prepar'd our selves to repeat it upon him the next Wednesday at 6 a clock in the Evening again, in the presence also of several very able Physicians, Bourdelot, Lallier, Dodar, de Bourges, and Vaillant. But in regard that this man appear'd very thin, and that it was not at all probable, that his blood was peccant in the quantity after three or four months continual watching, and after the hunger and cold he had suffer'd in running naked in the Streets without finding harbour at nights, we took but two or three ounces of blood from him, and having put him into a more convenient posture, we made this second Transfusion into his left Arm more plentiful than the first. For considering the blood remaining in the Calf after the operation, the Patient must have received more than one whole Pound.
As this second Transfusion was larger, so were the effects of it quicker and more considerable. As soon as the blood began to enter into his Veins, he felt the like heat along his Arm, and under his Arm-pits, which he had felt before. His pulse rose presently, and soon after we observ'd a plentiful sweat over all his face. His pulse varied extreamly at this instant, and he complain'd of great pains in his Kidneys, and that he was not well in his Stomach, and that he was ready to choak unless they gave him his liberty.
Presently the Pipe was taken out that convey'd the blood into his Veins, and whilst we were closing the wound, he vomited store of Bacon and Fat he had eaten half an hour before. He found himself urged to Urine, and asked to go to stool. He was soon made to lie down, and after two good hours strainings to void divers Liquors, which disturbed his stomach, he fell asleep about 10 a Clock, and slept all that night without awakening till next morning, was Thursday, about 8 a Clock. When he awakened, he shewed a surprising calmness, and a great presence of mind, in expressing all the pains, and a general lassitude he felt in all his limbs. He made a great glass full of Urine, of a colour as black, as if it had been mixed with the foot of Chimneys.
Hearing of some of the Company that we were in a time of Jubilee, he asked for a Confessor, to dispose himself to be made participant of it. And he confessed himself according to M. de Veau with that exactness, that the Confessor gave him the publick testimony of a found understanding, and even judged him capable to receive the Sacrament, if he continued in that state and devotion.
He remained sleepy all the rest of that day, spake little, and prayed those that came to importune him with interrogatories, to give him rest; And he went on to sleep well also the whole night following. Friday morning he filled another Urinal with his water, almost as black as that of the day before. He bled at the Nose very plentifully, and therefore we thought it proper to take two or three small Porringers of Blood from him.
Saturday morning, the last day before Christmas, he desired again to go to confess, and so to dispose himself for the Communion. Then one Mr. Bonnet examined him in hearing him confess, and after he had found him to have all the reason necessary to receive the Sacrament, he presently gave him the Communion. The same day his Urine clear'd up, and after that time it resumed by little and little its natural colour.
His Wife mean time, that had sought him from Town to Town, came to Pairs, and having found him out, when he saw her, he soon expressed much joy to see her, and related to her with great presence of mind the several Accidents that had befallen him, running up and down streets; how the Watch had seized on him one night, and how Calves blood had been transfused into his Veins.
This Woman confirmed yet more to us the good effects of the Transfusion, by assuring us, that at the season we were now in, her Husband should be outrageous, and very mad against her self, and that instead of the kindness he shew'd to her at this Full of the Moon, he used to do nothing but swear, and beat her.
'Tis true, that comparing his calm condition, wherein he now was, with that, wherein every body had seen him before the Transfusion, no man scrupled to say, that he was perfectly recover'd. Yet to speak the plain truth, I was not so well satisfied as others seem'd to be, and I could not perswade my self, that he was in so good a temper as to stop there, but I was inclin'd to believe by some things I saw, that a third Transfusion might be requisite to accomplish what the two former had begun.
Yet in delaying the execution of these thoughts from day to day, we observed so great an amendment in his carriage, and his mind so clear'd up by little and little, that his Wife and all his Friends having assur'd us that he was restored to the same state he used to be in before his Phrenzy, we entirely quitted that resolution. I have seen him almost every day since; he hath expressed to me all manner of acknowledgment, and been also with M. de Montmor, thanking him very civilly for his goodness in recovering him out of that miserable condition he was in, by a remedy which he should remember as long as he lived.
He is at present of a very calm spirit, performs all his functions very well, and sleeps all night long without interruption, though he saith, he hath now and then troublesom Dreams. He hath carried himself so discreetly in some visits he made this week, that divers Physicians, and other persons worthy of Credit, that have seen him, can render an authentic testimony to all the circumstances here advanced by me, who shall not employ against cavils and contradictions any other Arguments than the experiment it self. The last year I published my Conjectures and my Reasons. Of all those that have undertaken to combate them, there is not one that hath so much as touched the state of the Question; and this hath made me silent to them all. I have confined my self to the Experiments alone; this, whereof I now send you the particulars, will perhaps open the eyes to some that are opinionated. I would not relate the story but very plainly, without embarassing it by any Ratiocinations; not but that there was good matter to discourse upon, both during the time of the Transfusion, and after it. Some believed, that the vomiting came from the eating much Bacon half an hour before the Operation: Others, considering the pain in his Kidneys during the Transfusion and the swelling of his Stomach, which was presently follow'd by Evacuations above and below, do believe, that the new Blood entring in great quantity, caused a plenitude, and a fermentation in the great Vessels, which could not but be follow'd by all those effects. To which may be added, that almost all those, into whose Veins other Liquors than blood have been injected, have found the same Accidents.
It is also not yet agreed on, what was the cause of the lassitude, that obliged this man to keep his bed for some whole days: Some say, it proceeded from the disorder consequent to the entry of new blood into his Veins: Others have look'd upon it as the effect of a kind of Rhumatism he had got, lying stark naked in the streets; and have thought that he became not sensible of those pains, but after the recovery of his reason; just as those that have a hot Feaver do never complain of weariness, but after the abatement of the Fit.
There hath also been very differing discourse of that black colour in his Urine some days after the Transfusion; some alledging, that it was caused by some Veins, which having been opened from too great a fulness, discharged themselves into the Kidneys and Bladder: Others believing, that it was a black choler, discharging it self by the Veins, and which being retain'd before, sent up Vapours to the Brain capable to trouble the functions thereof.
I shall here suspend my judgment, resolved not to declare my thoughts, till have made many Experiments more; for I know very well, that in 50 we have made upon Brutes, we have found it but twice that the recipient Animal pissed blood after it, and, as far as I can judge, I believe I have infallible ways of preventing all such disorders; and I have proposed to my self, a manner of preparation and treatment, which the Patient may be made to observe both before and during the operation, to render it more beneficial. For 'tis not to be doubted, but measures are to be taken to dispose the body for Transfusion, as well as for all other operations to be undertaken with success. But we need not repent for not having observed them in this case; it appeared much better what the Transfusion all alone could do, and no cause hath been given to prejudiced men to impute this cure to the Preparation, rather than to the Operation it self.
We hear of many other sick persons, who possibly may find relief from this Experiment. I shall not fail to let you know the success of it in good time.
An exact Narrative
Of an Hermaphrodite now in London.
This was communicated by the ingenious Dr. Tho. Allen (now a Fellow of the Royal Society) to a friend of his in a Latine Letter, in which as it was imparted to the said Society, so it was thought fit to publish it here for the view of the Learned; viz.
Inter varios insolentesque Naturæ lusus, dicam? an errores, quos apud eos, qui de Androgynis egerunt (quorum scripta sedulo deditaque opera perlustravi) in lucem productus adhuc videre mihi contigit, vix alium quenquam notatu digniorem memini occurrere hoc ipso, quem tibi, Erudite Vir, impræsentiarum exhibeo. Neque enim hunc, quem jam descriptum eo, Hermaphroditum, aut spurcissimis illis fæminis, quæ apud Græcos τριβάδες audiunt, apud Ægyptios vero frequentissime reperiebantur, annumerandum, aut cum discriptione quacunque hactenus quod sciam evulgata, ullatenus quadrare existimo. Unde nec prorsus, indignus mihi videtur, qui nativis depictus coloribus, absque omni verborum fuco, Illustrissimæ Lectissimæque Regiæ Societatis & tuis oculis usurpandus veniat.
Nomen ipsi est Anna Wilde; natus vero est (condonandus enim Hermaphrodito solæcismus) Mense Februario, ipso Purificationis festo, Anno salutis, 1647 in pago non ignobili Agri Hamptoniensis, vulgo Ringwood. Sexto ætatis anno inter saltandum colluctandumque cum pueris coætaneis (quos omnes viribus facile superabat) extuberationes duæ, Herniarum Βουβωνοκηλῶν dictarum, primum emicuere; quibus in ordinem redigendis (id enim illis animi erat) Chirurgi diu operam luserunt. Testiculi enim erant, qui jam prægrandes facti, scrotis cautaneis, corrugatis, pilisque obsitis inclusi, non alio discrimine a Virilibus naturaliter se habentibus distinuuntur, quam quod singuli testes suo proprio divisoque ab invicem hic scroto gaudeant, ita tamen elongato, ut ex utriusque productione consingantur labia Vulvæ.
In sinu Muliebri (ut jam a Mercurio ad Venerem transeamus) Nymphæ & Carunculæ Myrtiformes, integra satis se produnt: Quin & membranula quadam, a Perinæo sursum tendente, media pars Vulvæ tegitur. Clitoris non apparet. Uterus ejusque cervix a communi sequioris sextus lege ne minimum quidem recedunt. Usque ad tertium supra decimum ætatis annum pro famella habitus, & fæmineo vestitu indutus, munera illi sexui destinata inter fæminas assidue obibat. Cum forte vero pan subigendo strenuam navaret operam, en derepente Priapus, ad id temporis latens, magno cum impetu foras prorupit, accedente non levi ipsius Μεταμορφομένου stupore. Erectus penis quator circiter pollices æquat. Locum Virgæ virilis ipsissimum occupat; in glandem pariter desinit; præputio, quod illi etiam frænulo, ut in Viris fit, annectitur, instructum: sed Glans imperforta (ita tamen ut tenuis membranula eam obturans facile pertundi posse videatur) femini, per Urethram, seu potius Virge canaliculum viam affectanti, exitum negat; unde per pudendum muliebre (refluum forte) excernitur.
Cum annorum esset se decim, Menstrua periodice & modo debito fluere caperunt, atque per biennium perseveraverunt. Quo elapso, iisdem non amplius comparentibus pullulavit Barba, & exinde totum corpus pilosum conspicitur; Vox corporisque habitus virilem æmulantur. Crinis se habet virorum ad instar: Mammæ nullæ exsurgunt: papillæ perquam exiguæ. Pectus latum est. Ischia non ita dissita. Nates quam sunt fæminarum contractiores.
Se ad utrumque sexum comparatum asserit, sed fæminis misceri præoptare; quas etiam cum videt, & concupiscit, erigitur Penis, qui quoties Virum appetit, flaccidus manet.
Unum hoc, idque nec extra oleas putem, Coronidis loco subnectam; Quod nempe, cum nocte quadam, quam rotam tripudiis, compotationibus, cæterisque id benus lasciviæ incitamentis, cum aliquot ejusdem farinæ congerronibus insumpserat, oculos in virum quendam formæ venustioris conjecerat, mox cum adeo deperibat, ut sequenti die, præ amoris œstro, in passionem hystericam incideret, quam revera talem fuisse, non solum Elevatio abdominie, Cantus, Risus, Fletus, (notissima illius intemperiei symptomata) sed & juvantiæ, satis liquido comprobarunt: Applicato quippe Emplastro ex Galbano regionis Umbilici, exhibitisque remediis hystericis ilico convaluit.
An Account of some Books.
1. Noveaux Elemens de Geometrie:
Or a Mathematical Treatise, entitled, New Elements of Geometry, printed at Paris in quarto, Anno 1667.
Divided into 15 Books or Sections, containing
A new Method and Order, and new Demonstrations of the most common Propositions in Geometry.
New ways to discover what Lines are incommensurable.
New measures of Angles not hitherto considered.
New ways of finding out, and demonstrating the Proportion of Lines.
Wherein we observe, that the Author delivers by a new Method and Order of his own, grounded upon Algebraical Elements, divers new Demonstrations of the more common Propositions, contained chiefly in the first six Books of Euclid's Elements, and without recourse to Euclid, or any other Geometrical Writer, for proof of any thing asserted in those new Elements.
Whereto is added, the Solution of an Arithmetical Problem, which the Author Calls Magick Squares, viz.
A Square of Cells being given, even or odd, filled with Numbers, either in an Arithmetical or Geometrical Progression; so to dispose all those Numbers into another like square of Cells, that all the Numbers of each band, whether to the right or left, upwards or downwards, or diagonally, the Number given being in an Arithmetical Progression, added together, do always make the same Sum, and those in a Geometrical Progression, multiplied into one another, do always make the same Product.
II. Synopsis Optica, Auth. Honorato Fabri, Soc. Jesu. Lugduni Gall. in 4°. Ann. 1667.
This Author pretends to have comprised in this Treatise, containing 58 Propositions, besides many Corollaries, all what hath been hitherto discover'd in Opticks, and to have added thereto many curious and useful remarks, not mentioned in other Authors.
He begins with that part which is the most simple, and considers the streight Ray, called by the general name of Opticks; where he shews, what is the cause of those surprizing effects of the Perspective, which so pleadingly deceive the eye; examining there many curious Experiments.
In the second part (the Catoptricks, that have for their Object Rays, reflected) he gives an account of all the Apparences in Looking-Glasses, Convex, Concave, Cylindrical, &c.
In the third (the Dioptricks, that consider Rays refracted) he treats largely of Telescopes of all sorts, Spherical, Elliptical, Hyperbolical' as also of Microscopes, and the effects of all of them: Where, among many other particulars, he delivers and commends, as an invention of Eustachio Divini, the way of furnishing a Telescope, with two Eye-Glasses, outwardly flat, and inwardly convex, so as that they touch one another in the center of their convex Superficies.
In this part he explicates the Doctrine of Refractions and Parallaxes; annexing several particulars concerning Comets, the Ring of Saturn, &c. and concluding all with an Appendix, wherein having refuted the Spiral Hypothesis, devised to support the Ptolemaick System of the World, he advanceth a new one, judged by him very suitable to render an account of the Motion of the Celestial Bodies in the same System that supposeth the Earths immobility, which he seems unwilling to desert.
III. De Vi Percussionis, Joh. Alphons. Borelli. Bononiæ in 4°. 1667.
Whereas in the doctrine of Percussion several things are to be accurately distinguish'd, as the Force percussive, the Motion, or the Velocity of the Percussion, and the Resistance of the Body percussed; and then an Estimate to be made of the Proportion of those three to one another. This Author pretends to have both assigned that Difference, and demonstrated the Proportion; adding, that though Galileo saw and acknowledged (vid. at the end of his fourth Dialogue De motu projectorum) That the Force of Percussion was Infinite, or (rather) unlimited, yet he there referr'd discoursing upon that Argument to another opportunity; which not having been performed by him (for ought could be found by any of his Writings, either Printed or Manuscript, which latter were purposely searched after his death to find such a Discourse) our Author pretends, that that Proposition concerning the Infiniteness of the force of Percussion, not having been yet demonstrated by any, he hath in this Book resumed the whole matter concerning Percussion, and clearly demonstrated the true and genuine Nature of it, its Cause, Proprieties, and Effects. In the doing of which, he taketh occasion to discourse also of Gravity, Magnetism, Tremor of Bodies, Pendulums, &c. All which, whilst the Reader is considering, the Author tells him, that he is making ready his other Books concerning the Motions of Animals.
IV. Nic. Stenonis Musculi Descriptio Geometrica, Florentiæ in 4. Ann. 1667.
The Author of this Book declareth, that his design in composing it was to shew, that in a Muscle neither the Parts of it can be distinctly named, nor its Motion duly considered, unless the Doctrine thereof become a part of the Mathematicks. And, he is of opinion, that there is no other cause of the many Errors, which spoil the History concerning the Humane Body, than that Anatomy hath hitherto disdain'd the Laws of the Mathematicks: And therefore inviteth those that are studious in that part of Philosophy, to consider, that our Body is an Engine made up of a thousand subordinate Engines, whose true knowledge whoever thinks that it can be investigated without Mathematical assistance, must also think, that there is matter without Extension, and Body without Figure.
Hereupon he shews, that the very Fabrick of the Muscles imposeth a kind of necessity upon considering Writers to explicate them Mathematically: in conformity whereunto, he pretends to have found, that in every Muscle there is one Parallelepiped of Flesh, and two Tetragonal Prisms of Tendons, defining a Muscle to be a Body composed of divers Series's, or ranks of Fibres, equal, like, and parallel among themselves, and so immediately placed upon one another, that whole Ranks are congruous to whole Ranks. Here he explains the Dimensions of a Muscle, its Contraction and Strength; and adds, that these of this new discovery of the structure of the Muscle, is to demonstrate, That they may swell in their Contraction without the Accession of new Matter.
He subjoins a Letter to Monsieur Thevenot, in which, among other things, he alledges several Experiments, to shew, that the motion of the Heart is like the motion of Muscles; and answers those who pretend, that the true Fabrick of the Heart hath already been observed heretofore; and those likewise who think, that these new Observations of the Muscles are uncertain, concluding this Subject with an enumeration of the Particulars, yet remaining to be be search'd into in the History of the Muscles.
To all these things he adds two Narratives; one, of a dissected Head of a Shark, which he calls Canis Carcharia, where he delivers many curious Observations of the Skin, Eye, Optick Nerves, Ocular Muscles, exceeding smallness of the Brain, as also of the Mouth, and strange Teeth of this Fin, examining withall, whether the Glosspetræ be the Teeth of this Creature, or Stones produced by the Earth; in which Controversie he takes their part, who maintain, that those and divers other substances found in the Earth, are parts of the Bodies of Animals, and endeavours to prove, that such sorts of Earth may be the pediments of Water, and such Bodies, the parts of Animals carried down together with those Sediments, and in progress of time reduced to a stony hardness.*
*This Subject Mr. Hook hath also discoursed of at large in several of his publick Lectures, founded by Sir John Cutler; which Lectures he read about two years since in '"Gresham College, in the presence of many Learned and Curious persons; which also had been long since made publick, had not other indispensable Affairs hindered him from taking care of the Press: where he hath not only shewn the Origin of these Glossopetræ, but of all other curiously figur'd Stones and Minerals; together with that of Mountains, Lakes, Islands, &c. tho from a somewhat differing Hypothesis, of which the Curious may shortly receive a further account.
The other Narrative is of a Female Dog-Fish, dissected also by himself, where do occur no less remarkable Observations than in the former, both of the parts in the Head, and of those in the Body; as touching the small weight of the Brain of this Fish, compared to the weight of its Body; several little Fishes found in the Stomach, untouch'd by any Teeth; the Ureters the Ovarium, and Ovidictus, where he digresses to shew, Mulierum testes esse Ovario analogos, and refers for further proof of this to his intended Treatise, which is, to give an account de partium Genitalium Analogia.
The Publisher hereof gives notice, That a brief Index for the Transactions of this last year, beginning at Numb. 23. in March 1667. shall be printed apart for the use of such as desire to have all those Numbers together.
What the Printer for want of room did omit hitherto, in the giving notice of an Error committed by him in Numb. 29. the Reader is now desired to observe here, viz. That in the said Number, for want of Marks proper to express Multiplication, there was used, pag. 571. l. 5, 7. the mark of Plus or Addition, which yet 'tis thought could hardly occasion any mistake in the intelligent Readers, who might easily see the meaning of the Author by the lines 8, 9, 10 of the next precedent page 570.
In the Savoy,
Printed by T.N. for John Martyn, Printer to the Royal Society, and are to be sold at the Bell a little without Temple-Bar, 1667.