# Portal:Logic

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Logic (from the Greek λογική, logikē) refers to both the study of modes of reasoning (which are valid, and which are fallacious) and the use of valid reasoning. In the latter sense, logic is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, but in the first sense, is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It examines general forms that arguments may take. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory.—

*Excerpted from*Logic

*on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.*

## Ancient works[edit]

- Organon or Logical Treatises of Aristotle, 4th century BCE by Aristotle, 1853 translation by Octavius Freire Owen
- Categories, 4th century BCE by Aristotle, 1853 translation by Octavius Freire Owen
- On Interpretation, 4th century BCE by Aristotle, 1853 translation by Octavius Freire Owen
- Prior Analytics, 4th century BCE by Aristotle, 1853 translation by Octavius Freire Owen
- Posterior Analytics, 4th century BCE by Aristotle
- Topics, 4th century BCE by Aristotle, 1853 translation by Octavius Freire Owen
- The Sophistical Elenchi, 4th century BCE by Aristotle, 1853 translation by Octavius Freire Owen

## Early modern works[edit]

- A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities (original 1840; translation 1902) by Pierre-Simon Laplace
- The Logic of Chance, 1866 by John Archibald Venn
- A Budget of Paradoxes, 1872 by Augustus de Morgan
- Logic, 1873 by Christoph von Sigwart, 1895 translation by Helen Bosanquet

## Modern works[edit]

- On Denoting, 1905 by Bertrand Russell
- The Distinction between Mind and Its Objects, 1913 by Bernard Bosanquet

## Reference works[edit]

- "Logic," in
*Domestic Encyclopædia*, by A. F. M. Willich, London: (1802) - "Logic," in
*The American Cyclopædia*(1879) - "Logic," in
*The New International Encyclopædia*, New York: Dodd, Mead and Co. (1905) - "Logic," in
*Encyclopædia Britannica*(11th ed., 1911) - "Logic," in
*Catholic Encyclopedia*, (ed.) by Charles G. Herbermann and others, New York: The Encyclopaedia Press (1913) - "Logic," in
*The New Student's Reference Work*, Chicago: F.E. Compton and Co. (1914) - "Logic," in
*Collier's New Encyclopedia*, New York: P. F. Collier & Son Co. (1921)