Portal:US Army Lineage and Honors
Glossary of Lineage Terms
To transfer a constituted Regular Army or Army Reserve unit from the inactive to the active rolls of the United States Army. The unit is usually stationed at a specific location and assigned personnel and equipment at this time; however, a unit may be active at zero strength—that is, without personnel or equipment.
To allocate a unit to one of the components of the United States Army. The present components are the Regular Army (RA), the Army National Guard (ARNG), and the Army Reserve (AR), formerly known as the Organized Reserves and Organized Reserve Corps. During World War I units were also allotted to the National Army, and during World War II to the Army of the United States. An Army National Guard unit is usually further allotted to a particular state or group of states. A unit may be withdrawn from any component except the Army National Guard and allotted to another; the new allotment, however, does not change the history, lineage, and honors of the unit.
To make a unit part of a larger organization and place it under that organization’s command and control until it is relieved from the assignment. As a rule, only assignments to divisions and separate combined arms brigades are shown in unit lineages.
To merge two or more units into a single unit. The unit may retain the designation of one of the former units or it may have a new designation, but it inherits the history, lineage, and honors of all of the former units. In the nineteenth century, consolidation was frequently a merger of several under-strength units to form one full-strength unit. At the present time, in the Regular Army and the Army Reserve, units are usually consolidated when they are inactive or when only one of the units is active; therefore, personnel and equipment are seldom involved. In the Army National Guard, on the other hand, active units are often consolidated and their personnel are combined in the new unit.
To place the designation of a new unit on the official rolls of the United States Army.
To transfer a unit from one branch of the Army to another— for example, from infantry to armor. Such a change always requires a redesignation; however, there is no break in the historical continuity of the unit. Active as well as inactive units may be converted, but if the unit is active, it must also be reorganized under a new table of organization and equipment (TOE).
To remove the designation of a unit from the official rolls of the Army. If the unit is active, it must also be inactivated. This term is used in unit lineages only when referring to the period during and immediately after World War I.
The official name of a unit, consisting usually of a number, a branch or function, and a command echelon, e.g., 145th Medical Battalion, 353d Civil Affairs Command, 1st Cavalry Division. Additional descriptive terms may appear in parentheses, but such parenthetical identifications are not part of the unit’s official designation. Official Army unit designations use Arabic numerals except when referring to corps and armies (10th Cavalry Regiment). Corps are identified by Roman numerals (X Corps), while army numbers are spelled out (Tenth Army).
To remove the designation of a Regular Army or Army Reserve unit from the official rolls of the United States Army. If the unit is active, it must also be inactivated. Disbandment is intended to be permanent and irreversible, except in extraordinary circumstances.
A unit that is assigned to or is part of a larger organization.
- Federally recognize
To accept an Army National Guard unit into the force structure of the United States Army after the unit has been inspected by a federal representative and found to be properly stationed, organized, and equipped in accordance with Army requirements.
To place a Regular Army or Army Reserve unit that is not currently needed in the force structure in an inoperative status without assigned personnel or equipment for a limited period of time. The unit is transferred to the inactive rolls of the United States Army, but it can be activated again whenever needed. Its personnel and equipment are reassigned to one or more active units, but its historical records and properties are placed in storage. Upon reactivation, the unit retains its former history, lineage and honors, and it may retrieve its records and properties from storage. The term "inactivate" has been used only since 1921. Before that time, units either remained active or were removed from the rolls of the Army.
- Order into active federal service
To place an Army National Guard unit on full-time active duty under the control of the United States government. The unit remains in federal service until released by the federal government, at which time it reverts to the control of its home state or states.
- Order into active military service
To place an Army Reserve unit on full-time active duty, usually during a war or a major crisis, such as the Berlin crisis of 1961-62. After completing its active duty, the unit may be inactivated or it may be released from active military service, reverting to reserve status. This phrase does not apply to Army Reserve units on annual active duty for training.
- Organic element
A unit that is an integral part of a larger organization—for example, a lettered company of a battalion or regiment.
To assign personnel and equipment to a unit and make it operative— that is, capable of performing its mission. For Army National Guard units, this term is used instead of activate (see above).
To restore to the official rolls of the United States Army a unit that has been disbanded , demobilized, or had its federal recognition withdrawn. The reconstituted unit may have a new designation, but it retains its former history, lineage, and honors.
To change a unit’s official name. Active as well as inactive units may be redesignated, but personnel and equipment of an active unit are not changed unless the unit is reorganized at the same time. Redesignation is a change of name only; the unit’s history, lineage, and honors remain the same. (See also convert.)
To change the structure of a unit in accordance with a new table of organization and equipment (TOE) within the same branch of the Army—for example, from mechanized to light infantry. When referring to the Army National Guard, this term also means to organize an active unit again.
- Withdraw federal recognition
To remove the designation of an Army National Guard unit from the official rolls of the United States Army. Federal recognition is withdrawn when the unit no longer meets Army requirements or is no longer needed in the force structure.
- Lineages for combat arms battalions contain one special marking, commonly referred to as an earned honor device. Honors that are marked with an asterisk are those that were earned by the battalion or its predecessor. The asterisk indicates that the campaign is an earned honor and is represented on the campaign streamer by a laurel wreath. Units organized under the U.S. Army Regimental System often share regimental honors, but an asterisk indicates that the regimental element actually participated in that specific campaign. Separate regimental companies, batteries, and troops (such as Troop D, 4th Cavalry) display only earned honors because there is no additional means to indicate earned honors on the campaign silver bands.
- The campaign or decoration streamers displayed on the battalion’s colors representing those earned honors carry a special embroidered laurel wreath to distinguish them from honors shared by the regiment’s elements based on having been earned by one of the other battalions.
- The letters "AP" stand for Asiatic-Pacific Theater and "EAME’ represent the European-African-Middle Eastern Theater. World War II campaign streamers have campaign names embroidered on streamers that reflect the color design of the theater service ribbon. Guidon-bearing units display campaign participation credit using silver bands instead of the colorful campaign streamers. Campaign names are engraved on the silver bands and, due to limited space, the theater is denoted by engraving either "AP" or "EAME."
- The phrase with arrowhead is used on Lineage and Honors Certificates to indicate that a unit participated in an assault landing, either amphibious or airborne, during that campaign. This is represented on the campaign streamer by an embroidered arrowhead.
- The 1731 streamers currently displayed on the Army flag represent named campaigns. There are, however, smaller battles that do not fall under these campaigns. When a location (a state, foreign country, or province) and date appear as campaigns, it means that a significant portion of the unit fought an action in that area during a particular year.
- US Army Combat Arms Units
- US Army Combat Support Units
- US Army Combat Service Support Units
- US Army Special Units
- US Army Armies and Corps
Section I: General Reference Works
U.S. Army Center of Military History
- All the series listed below are published by the Government Printing Office. A brochure is available upon request.
US Army Series
- UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR I. CD-ROM publication, 1998.
- UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. This series consists of 78 volumes, published from 1947 to 1998, covering virtually every aspect of the conflict.
- UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR. This series contains five volumes covering the operations of the conflict. It also contains several monographs, in particular:
- Bowers, William T., William M. Hammond, and George L. MacGarrigle, Black Soldier/White Army: The 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea. 1996.
ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES
- This series is an open-ended program that contains works prepared for publication on the Army’s role in American history and on selected military subjects of importance to the education of the Army. Of special interest are:
- Matloff, Maurice, gen. ed. American Military History. 1969. rev. ed., 1973.
Raines, Edgar F., Jr. Eyes of Artillery: The Origins of Modern U.S. Army Aviation in World War II. 2000.
- Raines, Rebecca R. Getting the Message Through: A Branch History of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. 1996.
ARMY LINEAGE SERIES
- The Army Lineage Book: Volume II:Infantry. 1953.
- Finnegan, John Patrick and Romana Danysh. Military Intelligence. 1998.
- Dzwonchyk, Wayne M. Aviation.
- Mahon, John K. and Romana Danysh. Infantry, Part I: Regular Army. 1972, 1984.
- McKenney, Janice E. Air Defense Artillery. 1985.
- McKenney, Janice E. Field Artillery. 1985.
- Stubbs, Mary Lee and Stanley Russell Connor. Armor-Cavalry, Part I: Regular Army and Army Reserve. 1969, 1984.
- Stubbs, Mary Lee, Stanley Russell Connor, and Janice E. McKenney. Armor-Cavalry, Part II: Army National Guard. 1973.
- Wilson, John B. Armies, Corps, Divisions, and Separate Brigades. 1987, 1998.
- Wilson, John B. Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. 1998.
- Wright, Robert K., Jr. The Continental Army. 1983.
- Wright, Robert K., Jr. Military Police. 1992.
- American Battle Monuments Commission. American Armies and Battlefields in Europe: A History, Guide, and Reference Book. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1938. Reprint. 1992, 1995.
- The Army Almanac. 2d edition. Harrisburg: The Stackpole Company, 1959.
- Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4 vols. New York: The Century Company, 1884-1888.
- Bauer, Jack K. The Mexican War, 1846-1848'. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
- Beers, Henry P. Bibliographies of American History. Paterson, New Jersey: Pageant Books, Inc., 1959. Reprint of 1942 edition.
- Birkhimer, William E. Historical Sketch of the Organization, Administration, Materiel and Tactics of the Artillery, United States Army. Washington: James C. Chapman, 1884.
- Clendenen, Clarence C. Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
- Coffman, Edward M. The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
- Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
- Controvich, James. United States Army Unit Histories: A Reference and Bibliography. Manhattan, Kansas: Military Affairs/Aerospace Historian, 1983. With supplements in 1987, 1996, and 1999.
- Cosmas, Graham A. An Army for Empire: The United States in the Spanish-American War'. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1971. Expanded edition printed by White Mane Press, 1995.
- Craven, Wesley Frank and James Lea Cate, eds. The Army Air Forces in World War II. 7 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948-58.
- Cullum, George W. Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy. 7 vols. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1891-1930. Also additional supplements published by the Association of Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy.
- Dornbusch, Charles E., Histories, Personal Narratives, United States Army. A Checklist. Cornwallville, New York: Hope Farm Press, 1967. One of the most comprehensive bibliographies of unit histories, though now somewhat dated. Includes those volumes then held by the New York Public Library, one of the foremost such collections in the nation.
- Dornbusch, Charles E. Regimental Publications and Personal Narratives of the Civil War. A Checklist. Cornwallville, New York: Hope Farm Press, 1961. Bibliographies published in volumes by state or region.
- Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Military Heritage of America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.
- Dyer, Frederick H., compiler. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines: Dyer, 1908. Republished in 1959 in 3 volumes by Thomas Yoseloff, New York.
- Esposito, Vincent J., chief ed. The West Point Atlas of American Wars, 1689-1953. 2 vols. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
- Freidel, Frank, ed. Harvard Guide to American History. rev. ed. 2 vols. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1974.
- Gugeler, Russell A. Combat Actions in Korea: Infantry, Artillery, Armor. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1954. Reprinted by U.S. Army Center of Military History. 1970, 1987.
- Hamersley, Thomas H. S., ed. Complete Regular Army Register of the United States for One Hundred Years, 1779-1879. Washington: T. H. S. Hamersley, 1880.
- Heitman, Francis R. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army. 2 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903.
- Heller, Charles E. and William A. Stofft, eds. America’s First Battles, 1776-1965. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1986.
- Herr, John K. and Edward S. Wallace. The Story of the U.S. Cavalry, 1775-1942. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1953.
- Higgenbotham, Don. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
- Jessup, John E. Jr. and Robert W. Coakley. A Guide to the Study and Use of Military History. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1979, 1988, 1990.
- Journal of Military History. (formerly Military Affairs). Published by the Society of Military History. In addition to its regular articles, each issue includes a list of recent journal articles in the field. The journal also publishes, on an annual basis, a list of recent doctoral dissertations. (See Millett, below.)
- Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: Free Press, 1975.
- Leach, Douglas E. Arms for Empire: A Military History of the British Colonies in North America. New York: Macmillan, 1973.
- Millett, Allan R. and Peter Maslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. New York: Free Press, 1984.
- Millett, Allan R. and B. Franklin Cooling, Jr., compilers. Doctoral Dissertations in Military Affairs. Manhattan: Kansas State University Library, 1972. Updated annually in Journal of Military History (formerly Military Affairs).
- Morton, Louis, gen. ed. THE WARS OF THE UNITED STATES. New York: The Macmillan Company (Free Press division), 1967-present. Series covering the wars in which the United States has participated and histories of the various branches of the armed forces. Of special interest is: Weigley, Russell F. History of the United States Army. 1967. rev. ed. 1984.
- National Geographic Society. Insignia and Decorations of the U.S. Armed Forces. Rev. ed.., Washington: National Geographic Society, 1944.
- Prucha, Francis. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
- Register of Graduates and Former Cadets of the United States Military Academy. Revised and published annually by the Association of Graduates of the United States Military Academy since 1945. (For earlier graduates see Cullum, above).
- Rodenbough, Theophilus F. and William L. Haskin, eds. The Army of the United States: Historical Sketches of Staff and Line. New York: Charles E. Merrill and Company, 1896.
- Sifakis, Stewart. Compendium of the Confederate Armies. New York: Facts on File, 1992.
- Spaulding, Oliver L. The United States Army in War and Peace. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1937.
- Spector, Ronald H. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan. New York: Free Press, 1985.
- Spiller, Roger J., ed. Dictionary of American Military Biography. 3 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984.
- Stanton, Shelby. Order of Battle U.S. Army, World War II. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1984.
- Stanton, Shelby. Vietnam Order of Battle. Washington: U.S. News Books, 1981.
- U.S. Army Artillery and Guided Missile School. Artillery Unit Histories. Fort Sill, Okla.: U.S. Army Artillery and Guided Missile School, 1955.
- Dastrup, Boyd L. King of Battle: A Branch History of the U.S. Army’s Field Artillery. 1993.
Hogan, David W., Jr. U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II. 1992.
- Risch, Erna. Quartermaster Support of the Army: A History of the Corps, 1775-1939. 1989.
- Risch, Erna. Supplying Washington’s Army. 1981, 1986.
- U.S. Army Military History Institute. United States Army Unit Histories. Special Bibliographic Series Number 4. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978.
- U.S. Army (War Department). Bibliography of State Participation in the Civil War . . . 3d ed. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913.
- _________. Order of Battle of the U.S. Land Forces in the World War. 5 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1937-1949. Facsimile reprint, 1988.
- _________. U.S. Army in the World War 1917-1919. Documentary History. 17 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1948. Reprinted 1988-1992.
- _________. The War of the Rebellion: Official Records. . . Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880-1901. 130 vols. Includes a one-volume index and three volumes of maps. Reprint. Harrisburg: National Historical Society, 1985.
- _________. The Adjutant General’s Office. Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain...the Insurrection in the Philippines and the China Relief Expedition. 2 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902. Reprint. 1993.
- Utley, Robert. Frontier Regulars: The U.S. Army and the Indian, 1866-1891. New York: Macmillan, 1974.
- Utley, Robert. Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865. New York: Macmillan, 1967.
- Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973, 1977.
- Weigley, Russell F. History of the United States Army. New York: Macmillan, 1967. rev. ed., 1984.
- Welcher, Frank J. The Union Army, 1861-1865: Organization and Operations. 2 vols. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1989.
- Westover, John G. Combat Support in Korea. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1955. Reprinted by U.S. Army Center of Military History. 1987, 1990.
- West Point Atlas of Warfare since 1945. U.S. Military Academy, 1994.
Section II: World Wide Web Sites
- The Internet has had a profound effect on the research and writing of military history. The number of sites of value to military historians grows daily. The following is just a sample of sites that may prove useful for Army unit historians and those interested in organizational history.
- Host Agency: Internet Address
- U.S. Army Center of Military History: This continuously updated site provides a wide range of information including lineage and honors certificates for select units and online versions of many of the Center’s publications.
- U.S. Army Military History Institute: This site provides finding aids to the Institute’s extensive collections, including unit histories, as well as reference bibliographies on a wide variety of topics.
- Library of Congress : This site provides an excellent overview of the library’s vast holdings and the tremendous resources it has available for researchers. Be sure to check the section on using the library.
- National Archives and Records Administration : The Archives is in the process of developing an online catalog of its vast holdings. The prototype, know as NAIL, can be accessed through the website.
- Personnel Records Center: The records center requires requests for information to be submitted in writing, but the order form can be downloaded from the website.
- New York Public Library: This institution houses a large collection of published unit histories. The library’s website offers an online searchable catalog of its holdings.
- U.S. Army Institute of Heraldry: This agency is responsible for the design of heraldic items for the armed services and the U.S. government as a whole.
- U.S Total Army Personnel Command (Military Awards Branch): This site offers guidance on awards policy, including wear on the uniform, and a list of units that have received awards since 1987.
Section III: Military Uniform Prints
- The American Soldier, a series of colored uniform prints by H. Charles McBarron. These prints, issued by the Center of Military History, depict the American fighting man from the Revolutionary War to the present day. Set Number 1 covers the period from the Revolutionary War to the Civil War; Set Number 2 covers the period from the Civil War to 1963; Set Number 3 spans the period 1775-1965 as a complete set in itself or to be used to fill gaps in coverage of the first two sets; Set Number 4, portrays a number of Army activities in support of the nation’s peacetime progress; and Set Number 5 depicts allies of the United States in various wars. Sold by the Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15250-7954.
- Soldiers of the American Revolution, a series of ten prints by H. Charles McBarron. Issued by the Center of Military History, these prints depict the American soldier in important episodes in the nation’s fight for independence. Also available from the Superintendent of Documents.
- DA Poster Series (U.S. Army in Action Prints). This series of sixteen posters depicts units in action during such operations as the Remagen Bridgehead, the Battle of Chippewa, and the Breakthrough at Chipyong-Ni. Also available from the Superintendent of Documents.
Section IV: Museums and Museum Operations
- Alexander, Edward P. Museums in Motion. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- American Association of Museums. The Official Museum Directory. Wilmette, Illinois: National Register Publishing Co.
- Burcaw, G. Ellis. Introduction to Museum Work. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Dudley, Wilkinson, et al. Museum Registration Methods. Washington: American Association of Museums.
- Guldbeck, Pere E. The Care of Historical Collections, A Conservation Handbook for the Non- Specialist. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Guthe, Carl E. The Management of Small History Museums. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Harris, Karyn J. Costume Display Techniques. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Kane, Lucille M. A Guide to the Care and Administration of Manuscripts. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Keck, Caroline K. Safeguarding Your Collection in Travel. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Kenney, Alice P. Access to the Past Museum Programs and Handicapped Visitors. A Guide to Section 504. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Lewis, Ralph H. Manual for Museums. Washington: Government Printing Office.
- Neal, Arminta. Exhibits for the Small Museum. A Handbook. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- _____. Help! For the Small Museum. A Handbook of Exhibit Ideas and Methods. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Office of Museum Programs. Museum Studies, Programs in the United States and Abroad. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
- Rath, Frederick L. Jr. and O’Connell, Merrilyn Rogers, eds. Administration, A Bibliography on Historical Organization Practices. vol. 5. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- ____. Documentation of Collections, A Bibliography on Historical Organization. vol. 4. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- ____. Historic Preservation, A Bibliography on Historical Organization Practices. vol 1. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- ____. Interpretation, A Bibliography on Historical Organization Practices. vol. 3. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Reibel, Daniel B. Registration Methods for the Small Museum. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn. Archives and Manuscripts: Conservation, A Manual on Physical Care and Management. Chicago: Society of American Archivists.
- Tilden, Freeman. Interpreting Our Heritage. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- Weinstein, Robert A. and Booth, Larry. Collection, Use, and Care of Historical Photographs. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History.
- 1-100 Gifts and Donations.
- 25-400-2 The Modern Army Recordkeeping System (MARKS).
- 40-226 Annual Historical Report-AMEDD Activities (RCS MED-41 [R4]).
- 215-1 Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Activities and Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities.
- 215-2 The Management and Operation of Army Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Activities and Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities.
- 220-5 Field Organizations: Designation, Classification, and Change in Status of Units.
- 600-8-22 Military Awards.
- 600-82 The U.S. Army Regimental System.
- 670-1 Wear and Appearance of Army Uniforms and Insignia.
- 735-5 Policies and Procedures for Property Accountability.
- 735-11 Accounting for Lost, Damaged, and Destroyed Property.
- 740-13 Storage of Organizational Trophies and Related Objects.
- 840-10 Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, and Automobile and Aircraft Plates.
- 870-2 The Military Historian in the Field.
- 870-5 Military History: Responsibilities, Policies, and Procedures.
- 870-20 Museums, Historical Artifacts, and Art.