Portland, Oregon: Its History and Builders/Volume 1/Chapter 28

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The First Portland Exposition—The Old Mechanics' Fair—The Merchants and Manufacturers Exposition—The Lewis & Clark Exposition—Styles of Architecture—The Great Flood.

Exhibitions of mechanic arts and manufactured goods were started in Portland by Mr. H. D. Sanborn away back in the "seventies." Mr. Sanborn had been a successful merchant, and taking a lively interest in the city, induced Wm. Bunnell to lend the use of his building on Madison street for the first Mechanics' Fair. The building was 200 feet in length on Madison, from First to Front streets, and 50 feet wide, and had been erected for the purpose of a general market. It was afterward turned into a wholesale agricultural implement store, in which the former mayor of the city. Dr. J. A. Chapman, and the then acting mayor, W. S. Newbury, were the owners. Here was held the first Mechanics' Fair in Portland.

This first fair was a success, although the city was in its infancy; and as the idea was new, it attracted wide attendance from outside of the city. It was so much of a success that its promoters resolved to get more room, the very first opening day showing that the Bunnell building was too small. A number of the progressive citizens then decided to put the enterprise in a permanent shape, and on firm ground, by incorporating an association for that express purpose, of which Mr. Frank Dekum was president. The association leased the block which General Coffin and Colonel Chapman had given to the city for a market place, at an annual rent of one dollar; and then raised the money on a stock subscription, and erected the Mechanics' Pavilion, covering the whole block bounded by Second, Third, Gay and Market streets, at a cost of $16,500. Here the association held its annual fairs for ten years, renting the building between fairs for great political and other meetings. The enterprise was a success, and the stock in the association paid handsome annual dividends.

But as the city grew, the "old pavilion" was found to be too small to keep house for the annual fair, and it was decided to get still larger grounds and erect a grand exposition.

Accordingly the capital stock of the association was increased; two city blocks were purchased of Amos N. King at the corner of Washington, 19th and 20th streets, and the Exposition building recently destroyed by fire was erected, at a total cost for land and building of $150,000. Here very grand and successful fairs were held annually, from 1888 down to the organization of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition Association. But the larger exposition never paid dividends on stock like the old market block fairs.

It would be reasonably concluded that with this experience in expositions, the Portland people would have been ready to enthusiastically take hold of a great national event that would give the city a centennial exposition, based upon historical facts, second only to those of Philadelphia and Chicago. But Portland was not ready—the people did not yet comprehend the great position, and great future of the city. Some man must lead—lead possibly the forlorn hope. As in all great exigencies—and this was the great one for Portland—the right man comes to the front. He came to the Lewis and Clark proposition. He rose to the occasion; he would not surrender—and his name is Daniel McAllen.

Oregon boasts of various "fathers"; John McLoughlin, "father of Oregon"; Matthew P. Deady, "father of the judiciary"; W. S. U'Ren, "father of direct legislation," and shall we add Daniel McAllen, "father of the Lewis and Clark Exposition." As far back as April 22, 1899, the first interview was published. Mr. McAllen saw and felt a growing apathy toward the proposed exposition; and to revive the subject and keep it before the people, he inspired the Evening Telegram to interview Col. Henry E. Dosch for his opinions on the proposition.

Col. Dosch had been Oregon's commissioner at the national expositions held at Omaha, Buffalo, Charleston and New Orleans; and it was believed his opinion would be valuable. We quote from that interview as follows:

"In the first place," said Col. Dosch, "it means money—lots of money. It must be on a grand scale. In fact, the success of the whole thing will depend upon its broadness, and unless the people of Portland are prepared to go into it in a whole-hearted manner and pull together as they have never pulled before, further discussion is useless,

I know that such expositions pay—pay immensely. I base my opinion upon my experience and observation at Chicago and Omaha, particularly the latter place. A real estate man from Silverton the other day said to me, 'Colonel, they're coming.' 'Who are coming?' I said. 'Why, settlers, to be sure,' he answered. 'A number of families have lately settled in our section, and every one of them had your cards.

There is the whole thing in a nutshell. Those people were among the thousands who visited the Omaha Exposition in 1898, and viewed Oregon's exhibits—and got the cards.

The trend of immigration is westward. We are taking a new start. In conversation with people who make it their business to study the immigration of people. I learn that the eyes of the eastern states are turned toward the Pacific northwest. Prof. Wilson of Boston, who devotes his life to studying the causes for the shifting about of people and is a noted authority on the subject, predicts that in fifteen years the population of the Pacific coast states will be doubled. He says, further, that in a hundred years there will be more people living west of the Rocky mountains than on the Atlantic seaboard.

Now is the time for us to strike. The iron is hot. The organization of our new possessions in the Orient will mark an era in the commercial advancement of the Pacific coast. We have the natural resources, climate and everything else needed but people."

This sort of talk stimulated the project a little; but Portland soon fell back into the old rut. About a year after this interview with Dosch, the promoters of the fair decided to let the matter drop, and give it up. Right here and then Dan McAllen renewed the battle with redoubled energy. He drafted a statement of his own, briefly setting forth all the reasons in favor of the fair. He knew that Mr. L. B. Cox was a strong friend of the proposition, and took his statement to him for approval. Mr. Cox was then confined to his bed with mortal sickness from which he never recovered; but he gave prompt and interested attention, and signed the appeal to the public to go on with the exposition. His great influence as a man, and his pathetic position attracted wide attention and made many friends for the fair.

From Mr. Cox' bedside McAllen went direct to the Oregonian ofiice and made his appeal to Henry L. Pittock, declaring the enterprise must not be abandoned—the ship must not be given up. Mr. Pittock heartily endorsed McAllen's efforts, and promised to attend the next meeting and did attend, and by his personal influence and unanswerable arguments, turned the tide positively and


Father of Lewis aud Clark Expedition
Founders of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, from Gaston history.png
1— Henry W. Corbett. 2— Lewis B. Cox. 3— Henry E. Dosch. 4— Henry L. Pittock
unequivocally in favor of holding the exposition; and all present renewed their confidence, pledged active support, and voted to go ahead—and that was the turning point in the evolution of the exposition which proved the awakening of Portland and the introduction of its present prosperity. And but for Daniel McAllen's vigilance, and Henry L. Pittock's energetic support at the psychological moment, the great exposition would never have been held. It took years of education on the part of the few "live wires" of that time; but the splendid results, the great growth of Portland, and the prosperity of the Pacific northwest, in which all shared—pessimists as well as optimists—amply vindicated their efforts.

There were many ups and downs, and many obstacles to overcome before the opening day, too numerous to mention, except one, as it was the most important—the selection of the exposition site. When this point was reached, many sites were offered, mostly by persons who had real estate speculations in view rather than the best interests of the exposition. And here the directors again called in the aid of Col. Dosch; and requested him to examine all the sites offered and make a report on them in view of his experience and observations at other expositions. This duty was carefully and conscientiously discharged by personal examination and study, not only of the sites offered, but of all other possible locations; and Dosch's report was unfavorable to all offered locations, and in favor of one not offered or considered—known then and yet as Guild's lake at the north end of the city. Col. Dosch took the directors upon the ground and explained to them what an exposition required, and how that location would meet the requirements; and his recommendation was adopted. The selection was not satisfactory to many people, and was bitterly assailed in the press, and many ugly but untruthful charges made in connection with it.

The next trouble was to secure the location. The proposed site—all the land that was necessary—was held by 46 different owners and it required six months' persistent effort to secure the use of this land for three years from owners vitally interested in the growth of the city, all of whom would be more benefited by the exposition than any one else; yet many of them determined to extort every possible advantage and benefit which obstinacy and self-interest could suggest or secure. Finally the contract of the entire list of owners was secured on the basis that the Exposition Association would pay all taxes on the properties, grade the ground, lay out the streets, put in the sewers, gas and water mains and electric lights and wires and turn all over to the owners at the close of the exposition, as their property. Then the management took possession and went to work; and as the grading and development of the tract proceeded, it was seen that the directors had made the very best possible selection of a site; and the great success of the exposition itself and the beauty and convenience of all the surroundings, and the grand views of the snow-capped mountains, to be seen from every part of the grounds, amply vindicated the advice of Col. Dosch and the wisdom of the directors.

The real work now began, it was necessary to advertise and exploit the exposition, which work was under the direction of Mr. Henry E. Reed, director of exploitation and publicity. Government recognition and participation had to be secured; foreign nations had to be invited through the department of state at Washington, D. C.; representatives had to be sent to meet the legislature of our own and other states to urge appropriations and participation. Preparing the grounds for the various exposition palaces, "pay streak" hotels and restaurants, which was under the direction of Mr. Oscar Huber, director of works, had to be done. The construction of most of the exposition palaces were in charge of a commission created by the legislature, which had appropriated a half million dollars for that purpose, and for making an elaborate and extensive display of all Oregon's resources; and the procuring of all the amusement features for the "pay streak," which was intrusted to Mr. John A. Wakefield, director of commissions. The United States government had recognized the exposition officially and appropriated $485,000 for its participation, and built its beautiful palace on the peninsula in Guild's lake, facing the constellation of all the exposition palaces, connecting by a grand bridge, all of which formed a beautiful and unique setting. We quote from the report of the president and board of directors by Col. Henry E. Dosch, director of exhibits:

"Your intimate relationship to all vital questions renders it unnecessary for me to advise you of the difficulties that had to be overcome to bring the main feature, viz: the exhibits to such a successful termination. I desire, however, to emphasize the fact that my division performed in four months the same work that was done at other expositions in six months' time; also the gratifying fact, that this is the first time that an exposition has closed without a single lawsuit pending in connection with the division of exhibits. I managed this division with the closest economy, the same as I had my own large business, which is evidenced by the fact that the whole division staff consisted of less persons than were employed at other expositions in single departments. The heaviest expenditures were incurred by the fine arts and the live stock department, which, however, produced gratifying results."

The most difficult and tedious task occurred when, three weeks before opening day, twenty-three Oregon firms who were promised, and had large spaces allotted to them, withdrew after two hundred and fourteen eastern exhibitors had been refused space. As difficult and vexatious as the refilling of these spaces with desirable and live exhibits was, it was nevertheless so carried out that all the domestic exhibit palaces looked to every visitor complete, and no one went away with the off told tale of previous expositions, that the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition was not ready on opening day.

The 7,036 diplomas granted by the juries were all signed, sealed and delivered within sixty days after the exposition closed; thus establishing a new record, one not attained by any previous exposition. Judging from the many letters received, breathing the kindest expressions, congratulations and good wishes, proves conclusively that all these exhibitors were happy and satisfied.

"The first active step taken to make this an international exposition," says Mr. Dosch, "was when, on January 24, 1902, I presented to the directors the fact that Japan was about to hold an exposition, and that if we hoped to have this rising and progressive nation to take part with us we must show our good will toward them. After due consideration I was empowered to visit Japan for the purpose of consulting with the officials, which I did, sailing early in September, 1902. Baron Yasukiro, minister of commerce and agriculture, under whose auspices the Osaka Exposition was held, was highly gratified, and every courtesy was shown me in accomplishing my purpose, and I was offered my choice of space in the foreign building. Upon my return to Portland in December, 1902, and report, I was further empowered to secure a representative exhibit from our merchants and manufacturers, which I shipped and installed in the foreign building, Oregon being the only American state represented. After the close of the Osaka Exposition, I organized a mercantile company to whom I sold the entire Oregon exhibit, and returned the cash proceeds to the fifty-one concerns that had furnished exhibits; a large and lucrative business being kept up ever since."

Mr. Dosch's commission to the Japanese Exposition was most fortunate for Portland and its exposition. For while in Japan he was brought in contact with the representatives of all the foreign nations making exhibits at Osaka; and by his presentment of the claims of Portland the representative of Pacific coast interests, he was successful in securing exhibits from fourteen foreign nations for the Lewis and Clark Exposition, all of which were placed under his sole charge. And in addition to this Mr. Dosch so conducted the business of Oregon at the Osaka Exposition, and so assisted to make it successful, as to win the friendship of the Japanese government and the favor of the Emperor to the extent that he was by the Emperor, decorated with the insignia and order of the sacred treasure; and finally to secure for the Portland Exposition the splendid
General view of Lewis and Clark Exposition grounds, from Gaston history.png
Totem poles and forestry building from Lewis and Clark Exposition.png
*Alaska Totem Poles
  • Forestry Building
exhibit from Japan, surpassing anything ever made by any oriental nation at any other American exposition.

Returning to Oregon, in March, 1904, Colonel Dosch was appointed director of exhibits of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, accepted the trust, and at once entered upon the discharge of its duties by formulating the rules and regulations for the government of that division of the great work. That accomplished, he went to the St. Louis Exposition held in 1904, for the double purpose of exploiting the claim of the Portland Exposition, and of securing the transfer from St. Louis to Oregon of all of the best exhibits of the St. Louis Fair; in which mission he was eminently successful.

On May 7, 1904, Colonel Dosch met with the members of the United States commission, appointed by the president to manage the United States exhibit at the Lewis and Clark Exposition, and there on behalf of the Lewis and Clark Association, tendered them a building site for the United States building; the site being afterwards selected on the peninsula in Guild's lake; and on which the government built one of the largest and most beautiful palaces of the fair, which was accidentally destroyed by fire a few months ago.

From this conference. Colonel Dosch proceeded to the Good Roads convention, and there succeeded in having the next annual session of the Good Roads, meet on the Lewis and Clark Exposition grounds at the fair in 1905. From this convention he proceeded to Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and appeared before the state legislature and finally secured an exhibit from the state of Louisiana — reversing the decision of the governor and first action of the legislature not to spend any money on Portland, Oregon.

From Baton Rouge, Colonel Dosch went to Ottawa, Canada, and interviewed our Canadian cousins; and received a vast amount of encouragement in good wishes, great friendship for Oregon and the fair—but not a red cent of cash. John Bull has a good memory, and he had not forgot that it was Lewis and Clark that blazed the trail over the Rocky mountains, sailed down the Columbia, hoisted the American flag, and claimed the whole of old Oregon for Uncle Sam long before any Englishman got into this country by the land route.

From Canada Dosch went back to St. Louis and there got up the Lewis and Clark day demonstration at the St. Louis Exposition; assisted in the ceremony of dedicating the St. Louis monument to Lewis and Clark. The principal oration at those Louisiana Purchase Day ceremonies was made by Hon. W. D. Fenton of this city, one of the advisory board of this history. His eloquent address was responded to by the Hon. David R. Francis, the president of the St. Louis Exposition.

From St. Louis, Colonel Dosch returned to Oregon, and devoted his time to the work of getting the great exposition exhibits ready to open the fair on the day announced two years prior thereto. With Dosch labored Oscar Huber, the director of works, Henry E. Reed, manager of publicity and correspondence. President Goode and the Oregon and other state commissioners. It was a great work. It was farther removed from the centers of population and with fewer facilities of transportation than any other of the national expositions held; and yet it was the first exposition in the United States to open its gates on the advertised date and show to visitors the completed and perfect exposition—June 1, 1905.


December 4, 1783; Thomas Jefferson proposes to George Rogers Clark an expedition to the Pacific coast.

June, 1786; Jefferson proposed to John Ledyard in Paris to proceed through the Russian Empire to Siberia, and from there cross over in a Russian vessel to Alaska, and thence down the coast to Oregon, and across Oregon to the United States. 1792; Jefferson proposed to the American Philosophical Society to organize a party of scientists to explore Northwest America to the head of the Missouri river, there cross the Rocky mountains and then follow down some river to the Pacific ocean.

April 30, 1803; Jefferson purchases the Louisiana province of France—territory to make thirteen states.

May 14, 1804; Lewis and Clark expedition starts from St. Louis for Oregon.

August 12, 1805; L. & C. crosses Louisiana territory into Oregon territory.

November 7, 1805; reaches mouth of Columbia river.

March 23, 1806; expedition leaves Fort Clatsop on return trip.

April 3, 1806; reaches Linnton, camps on Portland townsite.

April 7, 1806; camps at White Salmon, river—seen by Indian boy, Tomitsk, yet alive, picture on another page.

September 23, 1806; expedition returns to St. Louis.

September, 1824; Dr. John McLoughlin reaches Oregon, and takes control of Hudson Bay company.

September 15, 1834; Jason Lee reaches Oregon, and preaches first sermon.

September 2, 1836; Marcus Whitman reaches Oregon and founds Wailatpu.

May 2, 1843; pioneers organize provisional government at Champoeg.

June 15, 1846; title to Oregon settled by treaty with Great Britain.

October 10, 1846; Lieut. Howison presents U. S. flag to provisional government.

August 14, 1848; congress passes act to organize Oregon territory.

August, 1851; Portland incorporated.

February 14, 1859; president signed act of congress admitting Oregon to the Union.

April 15, 1868; ground broke in south Portland for general railroad system.

September 8, 1883; Northern Pacific railroad across continent connected with Portland.

May 5, 1884; railroad completed from Portland to Ashland.

November 1, 1895; Daniel McAUen proposes Lewis and Clark Exposition to Henry L. Pittock.

May 1, 1900; provisional committee of arrangements for Lewis and Clark fair, organized—J. M. Long—chairman.

December 15, 1900; proposition for fair endorsed by Oregon Historical Society.

February 21, 1901; endorsed by Oregon legislature.

October 15, 1901; Lewis and Clark Exposition Association incorporated. Capital $300,000.

January 21, 1901; stock all taken, H. W. Corbett elected president.

February 14, 1902; capital stock of exposition company increased to $500,000.

July 15, 1902; Guild's Lake chosen for site of exposition.

January 30, 1903; Oregon legislature appropriates $450,000 to exposition.

March 31, 1903; Henry W. Corbett dies.

May 21, 1903; corner stone, Lewis and Clark monument in city park, laid by President Theodore Roosevelt.

July 24, 1903; Harvey W. Scott elected president of exposition company, and H. W. Goode, director general.

February 8, 1904; U. S. senate passed Senator Mitchell's bill appropriating $1,775,000 to the exposition.

April 8, 1904; congress passed bill providing $1,000,000 in souvenir Lewis and Clark gold dollar coins.

May 3, 1904; ground-breaking ceremonies for construction of exposition buildings.

August 8, 1904; H. W. Scott resigns as president, and H. W. Goode elected his successor.

May 1, 1905; fair buildings completed on contract time.

United States Government Building May 31, 1905; U. S. government building completed.

June 1, 1905; exposition opened to the world—all buildings completed; eclipsing all other expositions on this point.


The Lewis and Clark Exposition was shown in 3 United States government buildings—first class size.

13 Oregon state buildings—immense size.

7 other states buildings.

16 foreign nations participated in the exposition, with large and wonderfully fine exhibits.

16 other American states participated in the exposition with large exhibits.

The total admissions to the fair were three million and forty thousand; of which 1,834,821 were paid admissions.

The total income of the Exposition Association was $1,517,222.61.

Organization and construction accounts consumed $908,319.72; and operating expenses were $497,447.89; leaving a cash balance of $111,455; Paying back to the stockholders 21½ per cent on their stock; a financial result never attained by any other national exposition.

Intense enthusiasm marked the departure of the expedition from San Francisco. A fleet of tugs swarmed in the bay the morning of the 25th, as the transports got under way, and accompanied the troopships out through the Golden Gate, where the course was shaped for Hawaii.

At the Hawaiian capital the most complete and cordial reception ever accorded troops of a foreign land, was extended to the first expedition. For two days the citizens of Honolulu vied with each other in courtesies and hospitality. Every comfort and enjoyment that could be extended awaited the soldiers.

Tropical fruits, so much desired by the men, abounding everywhere, could not be paid for. Culminating this national courtesy, the entire expedition was banqueted the second day in Honolulu by the whole people, covers being spread in the executive grounds for 3,600 men, this number embracing the marines and jackies on the cruiser Charleston, and the gunboats Bennington and Yorktown, then in harbor. President Sanford Dole and all of his cabinet, and all other officials of the Hawaiian government, with their wives and daughters, waited upon the soldier feasters and made the day one of singular delight, which will ever be remembered.

An uneventful cruise followed the departure from Hawaii June 4, until Guam was reached. Outside of Honolulu, Captain Glass commanding the Charleston, which had been assigned as escort for the troopships, opened sealed orders directing him to proceed to the Ladrone Islands and capture the Island of Guam. June 20 the fleet steamed around the headland of Guam, and the Charleston moved directly to the harbor of San Louis d'apra, near the town of Aguana, where Spanish gunboats were expected. Upon entering the harbor, after testing out a dismantled fort with small shells, the Charleston found the place defenseless. The Spanish governor of the islands, commanding 50 armed Spanish soldiers and 50 armed natives, with perhaps 50 more natives not so equipped, was ordered to surrender, which he did; and an American governor was placed in charge.

While at this port, covering a period of two days, the first death in the regiment occurred, Elias Hutchins being the victim. June 22d the fleet sailed away from Guam, and June 28th, northern Luzon was rounded, where the cruiser Baltimore from Dewey's fleet was in waiting as a pilot for the run down the coast. At this time the fleet got the news of the military and naval operations in Cuba, which had not begun at the time of sailing from San Francisco.

On the morning of June 29th, the transport fleet sighted Corregidor Island in the entrance to Manila bay. An act of impudence on the part of the German naval commander in the bay was committed while the fleet passed in, the full significance of which was not realized then, but which later weighed in arraignment of German intrusiveness. The German cruiser Kaiserin Augusta was standing just inside the passage with steam up, apparently waiting for something. She steamed out alongside the transports as they entered, passed clear along the line, while her officers with their glasses scanned the troopships apparently to make estimates of the military forces being brought. That evening the German launches which had been permitted to maintain close connection with the Spanish commander in the besieged city, conveyed the information to the captain-general of the Spanish forces, or at least this procedure was believed to have been pursued.

Disembarkation of the troops began the day after dropping anchor just off Cavite, amid the wrecked gunboats and cruisers which remained mute testimonials of Admiral Dewey's fire. Col. Summers was the first member of the regiment to go ashore, and the first of the expedition.

The First Battalion, Major Gantenbein, had the distinction of being the first troops landed; and Private McKenna of Company L was the first enlisted man. These of the Oregon regiment had the distinction of leading the United States land forces in their advance upon Oriental territory.


Brackish water, a hot chmate, unregulated ration, severe 'longshore work which was forced upon the command at once, and other conditions, combined to make a heavy sick list for two or three weeks, which was seized upon by the eager press forces to make it appear that the volunteer soldiers did not know how to care for themselves.

At Cavite the regiment waited patiently until the morning of August 13, with no other duty than severe drilling and exhaustive instruction in field operations. While here the fearful lot of misfit clothing and footwear which had been grabbed in by the general quartermaster department at San Francisco was distributed. Some of this stuff was unique as monstrosities, most of it was fraudulent shoddy, and all emphasized the pathetic unpreparedness of the federal power for a war requiring more soldiers than the regular army.

When the first expedition reached Cavite, the Filipinos, encouraged and sup- ported by Admiral Dewey, had pressed on the Spanish lines until Spain's power in the Philippines was confined to the cities of Manila and Ilo Ilo. To these lines the Spanish withdrew, when they saw the Filipinos turning against them; erected strong entrenchments, put a small force in the ditches, and quietly awaited the finish, exchanging nightly fusilades with the noisy but impotent besieging Filipinos. An inspection of these lines of defense and plans for assault were taken up by Gen. Wesley Merritt, upon his arrival as commander-in-chief of the Eighth Army Corps. In the preliminary reconnoitering, Capt. J. F. Case, Com- pany F, Second Oregon, did valuable service as an engineering officer, and Lieuts. W. E. Moore and Bryan were also useful in sketching the enemy's posi- tions.

August 13th the assault upon Manila was planned. For this occasion, the first two battalions of the Second Oregon were put aboard the Kwonghoi, and Company F, Captain Case commanding, was put aboard the Zafiro, as the per- sonal bodyguard of General Merritt, and the command was ordered to stand out in the bay near Admiral Dewey's fleet during the forthcoming bombardment. A landing party under fire on the bay shore, or a peaceful patrol in the event of surrender, was the apparent purpose, but for the enlisted men there was no clue to the situation. Assault on the water front would be disastrous to the troops making the charge, and this misgiving was in the minds of many when they embarked that morning.

However, the surrender of Manila proved a pre-concerted affair, in which the Spanish asked but an opportunity to shoot a few times before running up the flag of truce. That it should have been entirely bloodless on the part of the American soldiery was afterward apparent, and it would perhaps have been but for the impetuosity of some of the forces which were placed before the Spanish works on the south line. From the decks of their vessels in the bay, the Second Oregon saw the fleet bombardment of Ft. Malate, which was begun by the Olympia, Admiral Dewey's flagship, about 9 o'clock. Shells poured upon the little fort until it was deserted in a dismantled condition by the Spanish infantry, which had no gun to reply to heavy artillery. The monitor Monterey stood out in the bay opposite Manila, facing the only efficient battery possessed by the Spanish on that line of defense, consisting of four modern Krupp guns. These defensive weapons remained silent in the presence of the Monterey, and when the cruisers finished Malate and steamed alongside the city, a white flag was hoisted from the main parapet of the wall in front of the captain-general's offices.

Terms of surrender were quickly negotiated, the nine Oregon companies on ship in the bay being hastened in to take charge of the walled city. General Merritt and his staff preceded the Oregon regiment into the famous old walled city, where Spain's power had been supreme for centuries. All of the Oregon troops in the landing party were immediately assigned to patrol the walled city, and to the duty of disarming the Spanish troops. Disarming parties were forced at the Auyentamiento, Cuartel de Espana and in the arsenal, and worked all night receiving the weapons of the splendidly equipped Spanish army. As

these military-appearing soldiers with their modern rifles and accoutrements lined up before the ragged looking Oregon companies who were clothed in the worst apologies any civilized nation ever offered for uniforms, the contrast was striking in the extreme.

Col. Owen Summers was chosen provost marshal general for the walled city by General Merritt. A squad from Company A, commanded by Lieutenant Young, escorted Lieutenant Povey of Company L, and Admiral Dewey's flag lieutenant to the main wall, where the great Spanish ensign floated. This em- blem of a decadent nation was hauled down and the stars and stripes run up, -viile a number of Spanish officers and their ladies stood near, bowed in deepest grief over their nation's decline upon territory that had been claimed by Spain by virtue of Magellan's discoveries.

From August 13 until February 4 of the following year, the Oregon regiment, qt.artered in the walled city as a portion of the provost guard, suffered a greater strain upon patience than field service ever imposed. With the exceptions of Company F, assigned for special duty at the commanding general's headquar- ters, and Company H, taking charge of the customs house, the weary months were a routine of guard and drill. It was clear to all that the Spanish war was o>/er with the surrender of the troops, and when the official signature of the treaty of peace was announced some months later, it was known to all volunteers tba^ their term of enlistment had expired. During this long period, when busi- ne. men and students were kept on the commonplace duties of policing a city, th ^ was much discontent, which developed to some of the volunteer organiza- ti( insisting that their commanding officers arrange for return home. In this cr^^.o, which was one of the most vital tests given the volunteer soldiers in the Eig th Army Corps, the Oregon troops were the most disciplined, and the least insistent upon strict observance of legal rights when their services were needed.

C >nspicuous services by Oregon officers and men where professional talent and knowledge of business were necessary, was frequently credited during the six-month wait. Major Gantenbein was made a member of the military com- mission, which was the supreme court of the islands during the military regime, and as later tendered a position on the supreme court of the Philippines. He also served as member of the board of claims against the Spanish government, and also on a similar board against the American government. Capt. Sanford Whiting, assistant surgeon of the regiment, was given complete control of the smallpox hospital for the entire corps, in which capacity he did highly meritorious work. Lieut. George Povey was depot quartermaster at Cavite for a period, and later was made assistant depot quartermaster in Manila. Captain Cardwell was promoted to the rank of major, and placed on Brig.-Gen. Alderson's staff, as ch" f surgeon of volunteers. Many other officers and numerous men did splendid work in the various places assigned in reestablishing order in the de- pleted town and province of Manila.

Outbreak of hostilities with the Filipinos occurred the night of February 4th, after weeks of most severe patience test for the troops, who were practically be- leagured by the nominally friendly Filipinos and yet looked daily into the muzzles of gtmb pointing from frowning trenches thrown up around Manila. The out- break found the Second Oregon doing provost guard duty, and in splendid con- dition for any emergency. Prompt action by this command and others on simi- lar duty held the uprising of the Filipinos outside the city, the 220,000 inside being kept in fear of the few regiments dominating them.

The night of the 4th, when bullets rattled over the city, there were no casual- ties among the Oregon men. Next morning the main command continued guards within the city. Major Eastwick took his battalion to Paco for a clearing move- ment, and was later replaced in the work by Major Gantenbein. Many shots were fired, but none of the Oregon men were wounded. The next day Com- panies C, K and G under Major Eastwick, joined in the assault upon the water- works fortifications of the Filipinos, and captured the water system which supplied Manila. Those three companies were put on patrol duty along the pipe line for more than a month, engaging in frequent skirmishes with the enemy. March 4th all three companies had a sharp conflict, sweeping everything before them. March 5th, Company C encountered a strong force, which was held at bay until reinforcements came up, after a furious exchange of volleys. March 6 there was a movement through the Maraquina valley by Company G, which called for courage and endurance, as the enemy beset on every side. Lieut. C. A. Murphy, commanding a Hotchkiss and Catling battery, got into close quarters during this tour, but escaped with only two men wounded.

On the night of February 22, one of the most perplexing problems ever faced by any troops was thrown upon the provost guard, including the Second Oregon. Friends of the leader, Aguinaldo, in the effort to get the city of Manila to rise against the Americans, and to destroy the place over the heads of the American forces, had secretly inducted two full regiments with their arms into the city through the American lines. On the evening of .Washington's birthday, when the Americans were supposed to be celebrating, fires broke out in three quarters of Manila. It soon developed that the Filipino firemen were in league, as noth- ing was being done to stop the flames. American soldiers had to combat the flames, shoot at the lurking enemy on housetops and through windows, protect tens of thousands of women and children from fire and bullets, and do all this in a darkness illumined only by the burning buildings. For the work done that night, the Second Oregon received especial commendation from Provost Marshal General Hughes, and other high officers.

Next morning after the Manila fire, the Filipinos which had been fighting all over the city during the night, assembled in the Tondo district for a final stand. Companies E and M, under Major Willis, were sent as the Oregon contingent to attack this force. A hot engagement resulted, in which some 60 of the Fili- pinos were killed, and 50 taken prisoners, without casualty among the Oregon men.

Provost guard duty for the regiment ended March 12, when Col. Summers was ordered to take the field with Companies B, D, E, I, L and M, leaving A on city guard duty, F at the palace, and H in the customs house. Col. Summers was assigned for one unit in General Wheaton's flying command to drive up the Pasig to Laguna de Bay. Fighting began at San Pedro Macati the morning of March 13. Flanked and shelled by river gunboats, the Filipinos fled, so that the Oregon men were under fire but a brief time and lost no one. Next morning at Pasig Col. Summers took Companies E and I across the main river to flank entrenchments on Pasig Island. A swift detour brought the command upon the enemy, but after a few fusilades, the Filipinos fled, having wounded two Oregon men. Next day fighting on the same line was resumed, and Pasig was taken^ one man being killed and two wounded in the Oregon regiment, although there were many fatalities among the Filipinos and the firing was heavy for a period. March i8th, Companies B, D, E, I and L made a brilliant march to sweep the upper Pasig delta, having to fight in skirmish order for much of the outward movement, and were credited with 25 miles' marching at the close of day.

After clearing out the river districts, plans were laid for the northern march from Manila, on Aguinaldo's capital — Malolos. The Second Oregon returned to Manila March 20th for this campaign, and was joined by Major Eastwick's battalion, and Companies F and A. March 24th the regiment was put in the trenches at Caloocan, facing the strongest imaginable earthworks occupied by the Filipinos, and next morning the command, constituting the left wing of the army, dashed at the Filipino forces. This charge and the day's fighting by the regiment were one of the most brilliant, witnessed during the Filipino insurrec- tion. The formidable trenches captured could have been held against any infantry- force, if they had been properly manned. As it was, the regiment lost five killed outright, four mortally wounded, and 42 others were severely wounded, consti- tuting the heaviest single day's loss sustained by any of the volunteer or regular