Public Law 102-182/Title III

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Public Law 102-182
Title III - Control and Elimination of Chemical and Biological Weapons

==TITLE III — CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS==

Sec. 301. Short Title.[edit]

This title may be cited as the ``Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991´´.

Sec. 302. Purposes.[edit]

The purposes of this title are—
(1) to mandate United States sanctions, and to encourage international sanctions, against countries that use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or use lethal chemical or biological weapons against their own nationals, and to impose sanctions against companies that aid in the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons;
(2) to support multilaterally coordinated efforts to control the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons;
(3) to urge continued close cooperation with the Australia Group and cooperation with other supplier nations to devise ever more effective controls on the transfer of materials, equipment, and technology applicable to chemical or biological weapons production; and
(4) to require Presidential reports on efforts that threaten United States interests or regional stability by Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, and others to acquire the materials and technology to develop, produce, stockpile, deliver, transfer, or use chemical or biological weapons.

Sec. 303. Multilateral Efforts.[edit]

(a) MULTILATERAL CONTROLS ON PROLIFERATION.—
It is the policy of the United States to seek multilaterally coordinated efforts with other countries to control the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. In furtherance of this policy, the United States shall—
(1) promote agreements banning the transfer of missiles suitable for armament with chemical or biological warheads;
(2) set as a top priority the early conclusion of a comprehensive global agreement banning the use, development, production, and stockpiling of chemical weapons;
(3) seek and support effective international means of monitoring and reporting regularly on commerce in equipment, materials, and technology applicable to the attainment of a chemical or biological weapons capability; and
(4) pursue and give full support to multilateral sanctions pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 620, which declared the intention of the Security Council to give immediate consideration to imposing ``appropriate and effective´´ sanctions against any country which uses chemical weapons in violation of international law.
(b) MULTILATERAL CONTROLS ON CHEMICAL AGENTS, PRECURSORS, AND EQUIPMENT.—
It is also the policy of the United States to strengthen efforts to control chemical agents, precursors, and equipment by taking all appropriate multilateral diplomatic measures—
(1) to continue to seek a verifiable global ban on chemical weapons at the 40 nation Conference on Disarmament in Geneva;
(2) to support the Australia Group's objective to support the norms and restraints against the spread and the use of chemical warfare, to advance the negotiation of a comprehensive ban on chemical warfare by taking appropriate measures, and to protect the Australia Group's domestic industries against inadvertent association with supply of feedstock chemical equipment that could be misused to produce chemical weapons;
(3) to implement paragraph (2) by proposing steps complementary to, and not mutually exclusive of, existing multilateral efforts seeking a verifiable ban on chemical weapons, such as the establishment of—
(A) a harmonized list of export control rules and regulations to prevent relative commercial advantage and disadvantages accruing to Australia Group members,
(B) liaison officers to the Australia Group's coordinating entity from within the diplomatic missions,
(C) a close working relationship between the Australia Group and industry,
(D) a public unclassified warning list of controlled chemical agents, precursors, and equipment,
(E) information-exchange channels of suspected proliferants,
(F) a ``denial´´ list of firms and individuals who violate the Australia Group's export control provisions, and
(G) broader cooperation between the Australia Group and other countries whose political commitment to stem the proliferation of chemical weapons is similar to that of the Australia Group; and
(4) to adopt the imposition of stricter controls on the export of chemical agents, precursors, and equipment and to adopt tougher multilateral sanctions against firms and individuals who violate these controls or against countries that use chemical weapons.

Sec. 304. United States Export Controls.[edit]

(a) IN GENERAL.—
The President shall—
(1) use the authorities of the Arms Export Control Act to control the export of those defense articles and defense services, and
(2) use the authorities of the Export Administration Act of 1979 to control the export of those goods and technology,
that the President determines would assist the government of any foreign country in acquiring the capability to develop, produce, stockpile, deliver, or use chemical or biological weapons.
(b) EXPORT ADMINISTRATION ACT.—
Section 6 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405) is amended—
(1) by redesignating subsections (m) through (r) as subsections (n) through (s), respectively; and
(2) by inserting after subsection (l) the following:


``(m) CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS.—
``(1) ESTABLISHMENT OF LIST.— The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other appropriate departments and agencies, shall establish and maintain, as part of the list maintained under this section, a list of goods and technology that would directly and substantially assist a foreign government or group in acquiring the capability to develop, produce, stockpile, or deliver chemical or biological weapons, the licensing of which would be effective in barring acquisition or enhancement of such capability.
``(2) REQUIREMENT FOR VALIDATED LICENSES.— The Secretary shall require a validated license for any export of goods or technology on the list established under paragraph (1) to any country of concern.
``(3) COUNTRIES OF CONCERN.— For purposes of paragraph (2), the term ``country of concern´´ means any country other than—
``(A) a country with whose government the United States has entered into a bilateral or multilateral arrangement for the control of goods or technology on the list established under paragraph (1); and
``(B) such other countries as the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense, shall designate consistent with the purposes of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991.´´.


Sec. 305. Sanctions Against Certain Foreign Persons.[edit]

(a) AMENDMENT TO EXPORT ADMINISTRATION ACT.—
The Export Administration Act of 1979 is amended by inserting after section 11B the following:


``Sec. 11C. Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation Sanctions.[edit]
``(a) IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS.—
``(1) DETERMINATION BY THE PRESIDENT.— Except as provided in subsection (b)(2), the President shall impose both of the sanctions described in subsection (c) if the President determines that a foreign person, on or after the date of the enactment of this section, has knowingly and materially contributed—
``(A) through the export from the United States of any goods or technology that are subject to the jurisdiction of the United States under this Act, or
``(B) through the export from any other country of any goods or technology that would be, if they were United States goods or technology, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States under this Act,
``to the efforts by any foreign country, project, or entity described in paragraph (2) to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire chemical or biological weapons.
``(2) COUNTRIES, PROJECTS, OR ENTITIES RECEIVING ASSISTANCE.— Paragraph (1) applies in the case of—
``(A) any foreign country that the President determines has, at any time after January 1, 1980—
``(i) used chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law;
``(ii) used lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals; or
``(iii) made substantial preparations to engage in the activities described in clause (i) or (ii);
``(B) any foreign country whose government is determined for purposes of section 6(j) of this Act to be a government that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism; or
``(C) any other foreign country, project, or entity designated by the President for purposes of this section.
``(3) PERSONS AGAINST WHICH SANCTIONS ARE TO BE IMPOSED.— Sanctions shall be imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) on—
``(A) the foreign person with respect to which the President makes the determination described in that paragraph;
``(B) any successor entity to that foreign person;
``(C) any foreign person that is a parent or subsidiary of that foreign person if that parent or subsidiary knowingly assisted in the activities which were the basis of that determination; and
``(D) any foreign person that is an affiliate of that foreign person if that affiliate knowingly assisted in the activities which were the basis of that determination and if that affiliate is controlled in fact by that foreign person.
``(b) CONSULTATIONS WITH AND ACTIONS BY FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OF JURISDICTION.—
``(1) CONSULTATIONS.— If the President makes the determinations described in subsection (a)(1) with respect to a foreign person, the Congress urges the President to initiate consultations immediately with the government with primary jurisdiction over that foreign person with respect to the imposition of sanctions pursuant to this section.
``(2) ACTIONS BY GOVERNMENT OF JURISDICTION.— In order to pursue such consultations with that government, the President may delay imposition of sanctions pursuant to this section for a period of up to 90 days. Following these consultations, the President shall impose sanctions unless the President determines and certifies to the Congress that that government has taken specific and effective actions, including appropriate penalties, to terminate the involvement of the foreign person in the activities described in subsection (a)(1). The President may delay imposition of sanctions for an additional period of up to 90 days if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that that government is in the process of taking the actions described in the preceding sentence.
``(3) REPORT TO CONGRESS.— The President shall report to the Congress, not later than 90 days after making a determination under subsection (a)(1), on the status of consultations with the appropriate government under this subsection, and the basis for any determination under paragraph (2) of this subsection that such government has taken specific corrective actions.
``(c) SANCTIONS.—
``(1) DESCRIPTION OF SANCTIONS.— The sanctions to be imposed pursuant to subsection (a)(1) are, except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the following:
``(A) PROCUREMENT SANCTION.— The United States Government shall not procure, or enter into any contract for the procurement of, any goods or services from any person described in subsection (a)(3).
``(B) IMPORT SANCTIONS.— The importation into the United States of products produced by any person described in subsection (a)(3) shall be prohibited.
``(2) EXCEPTIONS.— The President shall not be required to apply or maintain sanctions under this section—
``(A) in the case of procurement of defense articles or defense services—
``(i) under existing contracts or subcontracts, including the exercise of options for production quantities to satisfy United States operational military requirements;
``(ii) if the President determines that the person or other entity to which the sanctions would otherwise be applied is a sole source supplier of the defense articles or services, that the defense articles or services are essential, and that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available; or
``(iii) if the President determines that such articles or services are essential to the national security under defense coproduction agreements;
``(B) to products or services provided under contracts entered into before the date on which the President publishes his intention to impose sanctions;
``(C) to—
``(i) spare parts,
``(ii) component parts, but not finished products, essential to United States products or production, or
``(iii) routine servicing and maintenance of products, to the extent that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available;
``(D) to information and technology essential to United States products or production; or
``(E) to medical or other humanitarian items.
``(d) TERMINATION OF SANCTIONS.— The sanctions imposed pursuant to this section shall apply for a period of at least 12 months following the imposition of sanctions and shall cease to apply thereafter only if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that reliable information indicates that the foreign person with respect to which the determination was made under subsection (a)(1) has ceased to aid or abet any foreign government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability as described in that subsection.
``(e) WAIVER.—
``(1) CRITERION FOR WAIVER.— The President may waive the application of any sanction imposed on any person pursuant to this section, after the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date on which that sanction was imposed on that person, if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that such waiver is important to the national security interests of the United States.
``(2) NOTIFICATION OF AND REPORT TO CONGRESS.— If the President decides to exercise the waiver authority provided in paragraph (1), the President shall so notify the Congress not less than 20 days before the waiver takes effect. Such notification shall include a report fully articulating the rationale and circumstances which led the President to exercise the waiver authority.
``(f) DEFINITION OF FOREIGN PERSON.— For the purposes of this section, the term ``foreign person´´ means—
``(1) an individual who is not a citizen of the United States or an alien admitted for permanent residence to the United States; or
``(2) a corporation, partnership, or other entity which is created or organized under the laws of a foreign country or which has its principal place of business outside the United States.´´.


(b) AMENDMENT TO ARMS EXPORT CONTROL ACT.—
The Arms Export Control Act is amended by inserting after chapter 7 the following:


``CHAPTER 8 — CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PROLIFERATION

``Sec. 81. Sanctions Against Certain Foreign Persons.[edit]
``(a) IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS.—
``(1) DETERMINATION BY THE PRESIDENT.— Except as provided in subsection (b)(2), the President shall impose both of the sanctions described in subsection (c) if the President determines that a foreign person, on or after the date of the enactment of this section, has knowingly and materially contributed—
``(A) through the export from the United States of any goods or technology that are subject to the jurisdiction of the United States,
``(B) through the export from any other country of any goods or technology that would be, if they were United States goods or technology, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, or
``(C) through any other transaction not subject to sanctions pursuant to the Export Administration Act of 1979,
``to the efforts by any foreign country, project, or entity described in paragraph (2) to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire chemical or biological weapons.
``(2) COUNTRIES, PROJECTS, OR ENTITIES RECEIVING ASSISTANCE.— Paragraph (1) applies in the case of—
``(A) any foreign country that the President determines has, at any time after January 1, 1980—
``(i) used chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law;
``(ii) used lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals; or
``(iii) made substantial preparations to engage in the activities described in clause (i) or (ii);
``(B) any foreign country whose government is determined for purposes of section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 2405(j)) to be a government that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism; or
``(C) any other foreign country, project, or entity designated by the President for purposes of this section.
``(3) PERSONS AGAINST WHOM SANCTIONS ARE TO BE IMPOSED.— Sanctions shall be imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) on—
``(A) the foreign person with respect to which the President makes the determination described in that paragraph;
``(B) any successor entity to that foreign person;
``(C) any foreign person that is a parent or subsidiary of that foreign person if that parent or subsidiary knowingly assisted in the activities which were the basis of that determination; and
``(D) any foreign person that is an affiliate of that foreign person if that affiliate knowingly assisted in the activities which were the basis of that determination and if that affiliate is controlled in fact by that foreign person.
``(b) CONSULTATIONS WITH AND ACTIONS BY FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OF JURISDICTION.—
``(1) CONSULTATIONS.— If the President makes the determinations described in subsection (a)(1) with respect to a foreign person, the Congress urges the President to initiate consultations immediately with the government with primary jurisdiction over that foreign person with respect to the imposition of sanctions pursuant to this section.
``(2) ACTIONS BY GOVERNMENT OF JURISDICTION.— In order to pursue such consultations with that government, the President may delay imposition of sanctions pursuant to this section for a period of up to 90 days. Following these consultations, the President shall impose sanctions unless the President determines and certifies to the Congress that that government has taken specific and effective actions, including appropriate penalties, to terminate the involvement of the foreign person in the activities described in subsection (a)(1). The President may delay imposition of sanctions for an additional period of up to 90 days if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that that government is in the process of taking the actions described in the preceding sentence.
``(3) REPORT TO CONGRESS.— The President shall report to the Congress, not later than 90 days after making a determination under subsection (a)(1), on the status of consultations with the appropriate government under this subsection, and the basis for any determination under paragraph (2) of this subsection that such government has taken specific corrective actions.
``(c) SANCTIONS.—
``(1) DESCRIPTION OF SANCTIONS.— The sanctions to be imposed pursuant to subsection (a)(1) are, except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the following:
``(A) PROCUREMENT SANCTION.— The United States Government shall not procure, or enter into any contract for the procurement of, any goods or services from any person described in subsection (a)(3).
``(B) IMPORT SANCTIONS.— The importation into the United States of products produced by any person described in subsection (a)(3) shall be prohibited.
``(2) EXCEPTIONS.— The President shall not be required to apply or maintain sanctions under this section—
``(A) in the case of procurement of defense articles or defense services—
``(i) under existing contracts or subcontracts, including the exercise of options for production quantities to satisfy United States operational military requirements;
``(ii) if the President determines that the person or other entity to which the sanctions would otherwise be applied is a sole source supplier of the defense articles or services, that the defense articles or services are essential, and that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available; or
``(iii) if the President determines that such articles or services are essential to the national security under defense coproduction agreements;
``(B) to products or services provided under contracts entered into before the date on which the President publishes his intention to impose sanctions;
``(C) to—
``(i) spare parts,
``(ii) component parts, but not finished products, essential to United States products or production, or
``(iii) routine servicing and maintenance of products, to the extent that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available;
``(D) to information and technology essential to United States products or production; or
``(E) to medical or other humanitarian items.
``(d) TERMINATION OF SANCTIONS.— The sanctions imposed pursuant to this section shall apply for a period of at least 12 months following the imposition of sanctions and shall cease to apply thereafter only if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that reliable information indicates that the foreign person with respect to which the determination was made under subsection (a)(1) has ceased to aid or abet any foreign government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability as described in that subsection.
``(e) WAIVER.—
``(1) CRITERION FOR WAIVER.— The President may waive the application of any sanction imposed on any person pursuant to this section, after the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date on which that sanction was imposed on that person, if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that such waiver is important to the national security interests of the United States.
``(2) NOTIFICATION OF AND REPORT TO CONGRESS.— If the President decides to exercise the waiver authority provided in paragraph (1), the President shall so notify the Congress not less than 20 days before the waiver takes effect. Such notification shall include a report fully articulating the rationale and circumstances which led the President to exercise the waiver authority.
``(f) DEFINITION OF FOREIGN PERSON.— For the purposes of this section, the term ``foreign person´´ means—
``(1) an individual who is not a citizen of the United States or an alien admitted for permanent residence to the United States; or
``(2) a corporation, partnership, or other entity which is created or organized under the laws of a foreign country or which has its principal place of business outside the United States.´´.


Sec. 306. Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical or Biological Weapons.[edit]

(a) DETERMINATION BY THE PRESIDENT.—
(1) WHEN DETERMINATION REQUIRED; NATURE OF DETERMINATION.—
Whenever persuasive information becomes available to the executive branch indicating the substantial possibility that, on or after the date of the enactment of this title, the government of a foreign country has made substantial preparation to use or has used chemical or biological weapons, the President shall, within 60 days after the receipt of such information by the executive branch, determine whether that government, on or after such date of enactment, has used chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or has used lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals. Section 307 applies if the President determines that that government has so used chemical or biological weapons.
(2) MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED.—
In making the determination under paragraph (1), the President shall consider the following:
(A) All physical and circumstantial evidence available bearing on the possible use of such weapons.
(B) All information provided by alleged victims, witnesses, and independent observers.
(C) The extent of the availability of the weapons in question to the purported user.
(D) All official and unofficial statements bearing on the possible use of such weapons.
(E) Whether, and to what extent, the government in question is willing to honor a request from the Secretary General of the United Nations to grant timely access to a United Nations fact-finding team to investigate the possibility of chemical or biological weapons use or to grant such access to other legitimate outside parties.
(3) DETERMINATION TO BE REPORTED TO CONGRESS.—
Upon making a determination under paragraph (1), the President shall promptly report that determination to the Congress. If the determination is that a foreign government had used chemical or biological weapons as described in that paragraph, the report shall specify the sanctions to be imposed pursuant to section 307.
(b) CONGRESSIONAL REQUESTS; REPORT.—
(1) REQUEST.—
The Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate (upon consultation with the ranking minority member of such committee) or the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives (upon consultation with the ranking minority member of such committee) may at any time request the President to consider whether a particular foreign government, on or after the date of the enactment of this title, has used chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or has used lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals.
(2) REPORT TO CONGRESS.—
Not later than 60 days after receiving such a request, the President shall provide to the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives a written report on the information held by the executive branch which is pertinent to the issue of whether the specified government, on or after the date of the enactment of this title, has used chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or has used lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals. This report shall contain an analysis of each of the items enumerated in subsection (a)(2).

Sec. 307. Sanctions Against Use of Chemical or Biological Weapons.[edit]

(a) INITIAL SANCTIONS.—
If, at any time, the President makes a determination pursuant to section 306(a)(1) with respect to the government of a foreign country, the President shall forthwith impose the following sanctions:
(1) FOREIGN ASSISTANCE.—
The United States Government shall terminate assistance to that country under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, except for urgent humanitarian assistance and food or other agricultural commodities or products.
(2) ARMS SALES.—
The United States Government shall terminate—
(A) sales to that country under the Arms Export Control Act of any defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services, and
(B) licenses for the export to that country of any item on the United States Munitions List.
(3) ARMS SALES FINANCING.—
The United States Government shall terminate all foreign military financing for that country under the Arms Export Control Act.
(4) DENIAL OF UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT CREDIT OR OTHER FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE.—
The United States Government shall deny to that country any credit, credit guarantees, or other financial assistance by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, including the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
(5) EXPORTS OF NATIONAL SECURITY-SENSITIVE GOODS AND TECHNOLOGY.—
The authorities of section 6 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 2405) shall be used to prohibit the export to that country of any goods or technology on that part of the control list established under section 5(c)(1) of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2404(c)(1)).
(b) ADDITIONAL SANCTIONS IF CERTAIN CONDITIONS NOT MET.—
(1) PRESIDENTIAL DETERMINATION.—
Unless, within 3 months after making a determination pursuant to section 306(a)(1) with respect to a foreign government, the President determines and certifies in writing to the Congress that—
(A) that government is no longer using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals,
(B) that government has provided reliable assurances that it will not in the future engage in any such activities, and
(C) that government is willing to allow on-site inspections by United Nations observers or other internationally recognized, impartial observers, or other reliable means exist, to ensure that that government is not using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law and is not using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals,
then the President, after consultation with the Congress, shall impose on that country the sanctions set forth in at least 3 of subparagraphs (A) through (F) of paragraph (2).
(2) SANCTIONS.—
The sanctions referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:
(A) MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANK ASSISTANCE.—
The United States Government shall oppose, in accordance with section 701 of the International Financial Institutions Act (22 U.S.C. 262d), the extension of any loan or financial or technical assistance to that country by international financial institutions.
(B) BANK LOANS.—
The United States Government shall prohibit any United States bank from making any loan or providing any credit to the government of that country, except for loans or credits for the purpose of purchasing food or other agricultural commodities or products.
(C) FURTHER EXPORT RESTRICTIONS.—
The authorities of section 6 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 shall be used to prohibit exports to that country of all other goods and technology (excluding food and other agricultural commodities and products).
(D) IMPORT RESTRICTIONS.—
Restrictions shall be imposed on the importation into the United States of articles (which may include petroleum or any petroleum product) that are the growth, product, or manufacture of that country.
(E) DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS.—
The President shall use his constitutional authorities to downgrade or suspend diplomatic relations between the United States and the government of that country.
(F) PRESIDENTIAL ACTION REGARDING AVIATION.—
(i)
(I) The President is authorized to notify the government of a country with respect to which the President has made a determination pursuant to section 306(a)(1) of his intention to suspend the authority of foreign air carriers owned or controlled by the government of that country to engage in foreign air transportation to or from the United States.
(II) Within 10 days after the date of notification of a government under subclause (I), the Secretary of Transportation shall take all steps necessary to suspend at the earliest possible date the authority of any foreign air carrier owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by that government to engage in foreign air transportation to or from the United States, notwithstanding any agreement relating to air services.
(ii)
(I) The President may direct the Secretary of State to terminate any air service agreement between the United States and a country with respect to which the President has made a determination pursuant to section 306(a)(1), in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.
(II) Upon termination of an agreement under this clause, the Secretary of Transportation shall take such steps as may be necessary to revoke at the earliest possible date the right of any foreign air carrier owned, or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the government of that country to engage in foreign air transportation to or from the United States.
(iii) The Secretary of Transportation may provide for such exceptions from clauses (i) and (ii) as the Secretary considers necessary to provide for emergencies in which the safety of an aircraft or its crew or passengers is threatened.
(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, the terms ``air transportation´´, ``air carrier´´, ``foreign air carrier´´, and ``foreign air transportation´´ have the meanings such terms have under section 101 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. App. 1301).
(c) REMOVAL OF SANCTIONS.—
The President shall remove the sanctions imposed with respect to a country pursuant to this section if the President determines and so certifies to the Congress, after the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date on which sanctions were initially imposed on that country pursuant to subsection (a), that—
(1) the government of that country has provided reliable assurances that it will not use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law and will not use lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals;
(2) that government is not making preparations to use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or to use lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals;
(3) that government is willing to allow on-site inspections by United Nations observers or other internationally recognized, impartial observers to verify that it is not making preparations to use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or to use lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals, or other reliable means exist to verify that it is not making such preparations; and
(4) that government is making restitution to those affected by any use of chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or by any use of lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals.
(d) WAIVER.—
(1) CRITERIA FOR WAIVER.—
The President may waive the application of any sanction imposed with respect to a country pursuant to this section—
(A) if—
(i) in the case of any sanction other than a sanction specified in subsection (b)(2)(D) (relating to import restrictions) or (b)(2)(E) (relating to the downgrading or suspension of diplomatic relations), the President determines and certifies to the Congress that such waiver is essential to the national security interests of the United States, and if the President notifies the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives of his determination and certification at least 15 days before the waiver takes effect, in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, or
(ii) in the case of any sanction specified in subsection (b)(2)(D) (relating to import restrictions), the President determines and certifies to the Congress that such waiver is essential to the national security interest of the United States, and if the President notifies the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives of his determination and certification at least 15 days before the waiver takes effect; or
(B) if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that there has been a fundamental change in the leadership and policies of the government of that country, and if the President notifies the Congress at least 20 days before the waiver takes effect.
(2) REPORT.—
In the event that the President decides to exercise the waiver authority provided in paragraph (1) with respect to a country, the President's notification to the Congress under such paragraph shall include a report fully articulating the rationale and circumstances which led the President to exercise that waiver authority, including a description of the steps which the government of that country has taken to satisfy the conditions set forth in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (c).
(e) CONTRACT SANCTITY.—
(1) SANCTIONS NOT APPLIED TO EXISTING CONTRACTS.—
(A) A sanction described in paragraph (4) or (5) of subsection (a) or in any of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (b)(2) shall not apply to any activity pursuant to any contract or international agreement entered into before the date of the presidential determination under section 306(a)(1) unless the President determines, on a case-by-case basis, that to apply such sanction to that activity would prevent the performance of a contract or agreement that would have the effect of assisting a country in using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or in using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals.
(B) The same restrictions of subsection (p) of section 6 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405), as that subsection is so redesignated by section 304(b) of this title, which are applicable to exports prohibited under section 6 of that Act shall apply to exports prohibited under subsection (a)(5) or (b)(2)(C) of this section. For purposes of this subparagraph, any contract or agreement the performance of which (as determined by the President) would have the effect of assisting a foreign government in using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or in using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals shall be treated as constituting a breach of the peace that poses a serious and direct threat to the strategic interest of the United States, within the meaning of subparagraph (A) of section 6(p) of that Act.
(2) SANCTIONS APPLIED TO EXISTING CONTRACTS.—
The sanctions described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) shall apply to contracts, agreements, and licenses without regard to the date the contract or agreement was entered into or the license was issued (as the case may be), except that such sanctions shall not apply to any contract or agreement entered into or license issued before the date of the presidential determination under section 306(a)(1) if the President determines that the application of such sanction would be detrimental to the national security interests of the United States.

Sec. 308. Presidential Reportng Requirements.[edit]

(a) REPORTS TO CONGRESS.—
Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this title, and every 12 months thereafter, the President shall transmit to the Congress a report which shall include—
(1) a description of the actions taken to carry out this title, including the amendments made by this title;
(2) a description of the current efforts of foreign countries and subnational groups to acquire equipment, materials, or technology to develop, produce, or use chemical or biological weapons, together with an assessment of the current and likely future capabilities of such countries and groups to develop, produce, stockpile, deliver, transfer, or use such weapons;
(3) a description of—
(A) the use of chemical weapons by foreign countries in violation of international law,
(B) the use of chemical weapons by subnational groups,
(C) substantial preparations by foreign countries and subnational groups to do so, and
(D) the development, production, stockpiling, or use of biological weapons by foreign countries and subnational groups; and
(4) a description of the extent to which foreign persons or governments have knowingly and materially assisted third countries or subnational groups to acquire equipment, material, or technology intended to develop, produce, or use chemical or biological weapons.
(b) PROTECTION OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION.—
To the extent practicable, reports submitted under subsection (a) or any other provision of this title should be based on unclassified information. Portions of such reports may be classified.

Sec. 309. Repeal of Duplicative Provisions.[edit]

(a) REPEAL.—
Title V of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (Public Law 102-138), and the amendments made by that title, are repealed.
(b) REFERENCES TO DATE OF ENACTMENT.—
The reference—
(1) in section 11C(a)(1) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, as added by section 305(a) of this Act, to the ``date of the enactment of this section´´,
(2) in section 81(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as added by section 305(b) of this Act, to the ``date of the enactment of this section´´, and
(3) in section 306(a)(1) of this Act to the ``date of the enactment of this title´´,
shall be deemed to refer to the date of the enactment of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (Public Law 102-138).