The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Mineral Springs

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MINERAL SPRINGS, those which are impregnated with minerals to such a degree as to possess medicinal properties. They differ from ordinary springs by the larger volume of gases, especially carbonic acid gas, the mineral ingredients held in solution in their waters, and the peculiar smell, taste, and sometimes color imparted by the solution; many of them also by a higher temperature, called thermal springs (75° to 212° F.). Some issue from the earth like fountains, foaming and steaming; others with a continuous or intermitting noise, gurgling and hissing. Like ordinary springs, they are found at every altitude and in all climates. Some break at boiling heat through a crust of ice and snow, and some issue with almost icy coldness from among luxuriant vegetation. Many sulphur springs destroy all vegetation around them; others (calcareous) cover organic structures with incrustations. The waters of mineral springs are used both for drinking and bathing; their vapors for baths; and their spray, with the evolved gases, for inhaling. The ancients ascribed supernatural properties to mineral springs, and their priests, especially those of Æsculapius, placed their sanctuaries near them, as at the alkaline springs of Nauplia and the gas springs of Dodona. Such places were provided not only with baths, hospitals, and medical schools, but also with theatres and other resorts for amusement, and were designed both for worship and for the cure of the sick. According to Strabo, the springs of Hierapolis imparted a red color to the roots of trees and shrubs, and the juices of the latter mixed with the water produced a purple dye. Philostratus says that the Greek soldiers wounded in the battle on the Caicus were healed by the waters of Agamemnon's spring near Smyrna. The pythoness was thought to be inspired by bathing in the Castalian spring and inhaling the vapors of the steaming cave at Delphi. Josephus relates that Herod sought relief from his terrible disease in the thermal springs of Callirrhoë. The springs of Tiberias, which have a temperature of from 86° to 130° F., were used by the Romans, and are still frequented by patients from all parts of Asia Minor. The most celebrated bathing place of the Roman empire was the hot sulphur springs (190° F.) of Baiæ on the gulf of Naples. Ischia, once covered with the villas and palaces of the Romans, still maintains the reputation of its thermal waters and vapor baths. The Romans discovered many of the most important thermal springs of Europe, and used them as army stations; among them are Baden-Baden, Wiesbaden, Bath, Aix-la-Chapelle, and Spa. Carlsbad was named after Charles IV., who is said to have discovered the Sprudel in 1347 or 1358, while hunting.—Many theories, both natural and supernatural, have been propounded by philosophers in all ages to account for the origin and properties of mineral springs; but modern analytical chemistry has dissolved the demons of the ancients and the wild spirits of Paracelsus (De Aquis Mineralibus, 1562) into our familiar carbonic acid gas. Van Helmont's discovery of the alkalies and fixed air in the early part of the 17th century was the first step in this direction. Arago proved that the temperature of the springs corresponds with the depth from which they rise. Bergman, Berzelius, Bischof, and Struve showed that their composition depends on the amount of carbonic acid and other gases which are dissolved in them, consequent on their volcanic origin and on the nature of the rocks which they permeate; and Faraday, Liebig, and other chemists established the principles of a thorough analysis. During the past 50 years many mineral springs have been discovered, and all of note have repeatedly been analyzed. These analyses vary in their results with the changes to which the various springs are from time to time subject. The waters of the Kissingen Rakoczy spring lost 22½ per cent. of mineral ingredients from 1830 to 1855, and underwent a change also in their relative proportions. At the time of the great earthquake of Lisbon (1755) the Carlsbad springs ceased flowing for three days.—Of the mineral springs of Europe, France contains about 900; Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, about 2,500; England, over 100; Spain, 1,200; Portugal, 200; and Italy, 300, two thirds of which are in Tuscany. The most important constituent of the waters of all spas, as mineral springs are frequently called, is carbonic acid gas, with which the muriated and muriated-alkaline springs are impregnated most, the saline, alkaline, and bitter waters least. According to Liebig, Kissingen Rakoczy contains in 16 oz. 41.77 cubic inches of carbonic acid, Carlsbad 14, and Kissingen bitter water only 5.9. Nitrogen gas occurs especially in hot sulphur springs, with carburetted hydrogen, oxygen, and sulphuretted hydrogen as lesser gaseous ingredients. Mineral springs are classified as follows, according to the salts from which they derive their specific importance. 1. Chalybeate or Ferruginous Springs. The distinguishing characteristic of these is the presence of iron dissolved as a bicarbonate, or in the inferior ones as a sulphate. Their other ingredients are bicarbonates of manganese, soda, lime, and magnesia, chloride of sodium, sulphate of soda and of potash, &c. Their water, which has an inky taste, is most effective as a remedy for anaemia and chlorosis, by augmenting the number of blood globules and their hæmatine, and by diminishing the phosphoric acid in the urine. The strongest chalybeate spring, Schwalbach in Germany, contains much carbonic acid gas, and, with the exception of iron, only a small amount of saline ingredients. Other chalybeates of note are Pyrmont, Altwasser, Reinerz, Brückenau, Steben, Driburg, Wildungen, Cudowa, and Franzensbad, in Germany and Cisleithan Austria; Buziás, in Hungary; St. Maurice, in the Engadine, Switzerland; Spa, in Belgium; Passy, Forges, Bussang, Plombières, Bagnères-d'Adour, and Dinant, in France; Cheltenham, Tunbridge, Scarborough, and Wells, in England; Bibiana, Catarina, Staro, and La Croix, in Italy; and Loka, in Sweden. In the United States the most noted chalybeate springs are: Schooley's Mountain springs, Morris co., N. J.; Fry's soda spring, near Mt. Shasta, Cal.; Stafford springs, Tolland co., Conn.; Greencastle springs, Putnam co., Ind.; Catoosa springs, Catoosa co., Ga.; Schuyler county springs, Ill.; Owasso springs, Shiawassee co., Mich.; Cooper's well, Hinds co., Miss.; Beersheba springs, Grundy co., Tenn.; Rawley springs, Rockingham co., Va. ; and Bayley springs (alkaline-chalybeate), Lauderdale co., Ala. Dr. Walton includes also in this class the so-called alum waters of Virginia, viz.: the Rockbridge, Pulaski, and Bath alum springs; Stribling springs in Augusta co.; Church Hill alum springs, near Richmond; Bedford alum springs, near New London; and Variety springs in Augusta co.; also the Oak Orchard acid springs, Genesee co., N. Y., and the Tuscarora sour springs, Wentworth, co., Canada. He also names, as calcic-chalybeate waters, the sweet chalybeate springs, Alleghany co., Va.; Montvale spring, Blount co., Tenn.; and Hot Red springs (103° F.), Utah. Many iron waters are strongly impregnated with saline or alkaline chalybeates, and will be mentioned in speaking of saline and alkaline springs. 2. Muriated Springs. In these there is an excess of chloride of sodium and of carbonic acid gas, and they are mainly diuretic, or, according to Hanbury Smith, tonic and aperient, and effective in scrofulous and abdominal diseases, chronic rheumatism, and cutaneous complaints. According to Liebig, 16 oz. of Kissingen Rakoczy, the representative water of this class, contains chloride of sodium 44.7 grains, chloride of potassium 2.2, chloride of lithium 0.15, magnesium 2.33, bromide of sodium 0.064, nitrate of soda 0.07, sulphate of magnesia 4.5, sulphate of lime 2.99, carbonate of magnesia 0.13, carbonate of lime 8.1, protoxide of iron 0.24, phosphate of lime 0.043, silica 0.99, ammonia 0.007, and traces of iodide of sodium, borate of soda, &c. Springs allied to it are Rodna in Transylvania, Homburg (muriated-chalybeate), the tepid waters of Soden, and the thermals of Baden-Baden and Wiesbaden, in Germany. Diseases of the skin and scrofula are cured by the muriated saline or brine springs, of which the principal are: Rehme, Nauheim, Salzungen, and Creuznach, in Prussia; Ischl and Hall, in Austria; Reichenhall, in Bavaria; and Bourbonne-les-Bains, Bourbon-Lancy, Bagnolles, St. Honoré, Clermont-Ferrand, St. Laurent-les-Bains, and others, in France. The most celebrated muriated saline springs in the United States are those of Saratoga (49° to 51° F.), Congress water having about the strength of Kissingen Rakoczy, but a milder taste, while the Hathorn spring contains more chloride of sodium. Some of the springs are chalybeate, others sulphurous or iodinous, and all are highly charged with carbonic acid gas. The Saratoga Seltzer resembles the celebrated Seltzer (properly Selters) in Germany; and the Geyser, bored in 1870, is so highly charged with carbonic acid gas that it foams like soda water when drawn from a faucet. The following analysis of one pint each of the water of four of the principal springs at Saratoga is from Dr. Walton:


CONSTITUENTS. High
Rock.
 Congress.   Hathorn.  Geyser.





grains. grains. grains. grains.
 Carbonate of soda 3.024 0.934 0.372 6.175
 Carbonate of magnesia  4.069 9.019 13.072  10.322 
 Carbonate of iron 0.135 0.031 0.101 0.089
 Carbonate of lime 11.443  12.449  14.815  14.793 
 Carbonate of lithia 0.154 0.374 ...... 0.549
 Carbonate of strontia trace. trace. trace. 0.041
 Carbonate of baryta 0.050 0.095 0.178 0.206
 Chloride of potassium 1.122 1.006 1.199 3.079
 Chloride of sodium 48.766  50.055  63.746  70.260 
 Sulphate of potassa 0.201 0.111 trace. trace.
 Phosphate of soda trace. 0.002 0.001 trace.
 Iodide of sodium 0.011 0.017 0.025 0.031
 Bromide of sodium 0.091 1.069 01.192  0.276
 Alumina 0.153 trace. 0.016 trace.
 Silica 0.283 0.105 0.157 0.013




 Total  69.502   75.267  93.874   105.804   








 Carbonic acid gas, cu. in.     51    49    47    57

There were also traces of fluoride of calcium, biborate of soda, and organic matter. Saratoga waters possess tonic and cathartic properties, and are therefore especially adapted to cases of dyspepsia, jaundice, calculus, and engorgement of the liver. (See Saratoga Springs.) Allied springs are: Congress spring, Santa Clara co., Cal.; Rockbridge baths, Rockbridge co., Va. (74° F.); Capon springs and bath, Hampshire co., W. Va.; Artesian well, St. Louis, Mo. (2,199 ft. deep); Spring Lake well and Fruit Port well, Ottawa co., Mich., which much resemble the celebrated waters of Creuznach, Prussia; and St. Catharine's wells, Ontario, Canada, also similar to Creuznach, but stronger. Plantagenet or Caratraca and Caledonia springs, in the same province of Canada, are fine types of iodo-bromated saline waters. 3. Sulphur Springs. These are impregnated with nitrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen gas. Cold sulphur springs are indicated as effective in catarrhal affections of the lungs and throat, and in hæmorrhoids. Such are Weilbach, Nenndorf , Eilsen, Langenbrücken, in Germany; Stachelberg in Glarus, Switzerland; Montmorency, La Roche, and St. Amand, in France; Harrowgate, Tynemouth, and Butterby, in England; and many in Italy. Thermal sulphur springs are recommended in rheumatism and gout. Among these are Aix-la-Chapelle and Burtscheid (Kochbrunnen, 156° F.), in Prussia; Baden, near Vienna; Baréges, Bagnères-de-Luchon, Eaux-Chaudes, Arles, St. Sauveur, Ax, Digne, and Aix-les-Bains, in France; Abano, Ponti, Sessame, Volterra, Viterbo, Pozzuoli, Castellamare, &c., in Italy; Baden and Schinznach, in Switzerland; Mehádia and Trencsény-Teplitz, in Hungary; the Caldas of Rainha and Gerez in Portugal, and of Orense and Lugo, in Spain; and Ramlösa, in Sweden. The principal cold sulphur springs in the United States are: Alpena well, Mich.; Cold White Sulphur springs, Rockbridge co., Montgomery White Sulphur springs and the Seven Fountains or Burner's springs, Shenandoah co., Red Sulphur springs, Monroe co., and Greenbrier White Sulphur springs and Greenbrier Blue Sulphur springs, Greenbrier co., W. Va.; Sharon springs, Schoharie co., Richfield and Cherry Valley springs, Otsego co., Avon springs, Livingston co., and Columbia springs, Columbia co., N. Y.; Bedford springs, Trimble co., Esculapia springs, Lewis co., Fox springs, Fleming co., and White Sulphur and Tar springs, Breckenridge co., Ky.; De Soto springs, La.; Green Cove springs, Clay co., Fla.; Red Sulphur springs, Walker co., Ga.; and French Lick springs, Orange co., Ind. The Sandwich springs, Ontario, Canada, are also of this class. Of saline sulphur waters, applicable especially to the treatment of dartrous or herpetic diseases of the skin, the most noted are: West Baden springs, Orange co., Indian springs, Martin co., Lodi Artesian well, Wabash co., and Lafayette well (55° F.), Tippecanoe co., Ind.; the upper and lower Blue Lick springs, Nicholas co., Big Bone springs, Boone co., Paroquet springs, Bullitt co., and Olympian springs, Bath co., Ky.; Blount springs, Ala.; Massena springs, St. Lawrence co., N. Y., which resemble those of Eilsen, Germany; and Salt Sulphur springs, Monroe co., W. Va. Of calcic sulphur waters, prescribed in cases which otherwise would require sulphur waters, but which are complicated by disease of the bladder, the principal springs are: Chittenango springs, Madison co., and Clifton springs, Ontario co., N. Y.; and Yellow Sulphur springs, Montgomery co., Va. The principal thermal sulphur springs in the United States are: Calistoga hot springs, Napa co. (about 60 springs, varying from lukewarm to boiling hot), the Geysers, Sonoma co. (about 100 springs, varying from 97° to 195° F.), Paso Robles hot springs, San Luis Obispo co. (112° to 122°, and allied to the waters of Aix-la-Chapelle), Santa Barbara hot sulphur springs (60° to 130°), and Agua Caliente or Dr. Warner's ranch spring (136° to 142°), San Diego co., Cal.; Louisville artesian well (76½°), Ky.; Middle Park hot sulphur springs (111° to 116°), Summit co., Col. ; Salt Lake hot springs (110° to 128°), Salt Lake City, Utah ; Warm springs (90°), Merriwether co., Ga.; Warm springs (96° to 98°), Bath co., Va.; and the Geysers or Warm Sulphur springs (96° to 104°), about 20 m. from Sitka, Alaska. 4. Alkaline Springs. The waters of alkaline springs increase, by their excess of carbonate of soda, the alkalinity and fluidity of the blood. Their action is diuretic, and they are efficacious in all affections of the kidneys, in catarrhs, in affections of the stomach, bladder, and abdomen, and in indigestion, jaundice, gout, and diabetes. According to Bauer, 16 oz. of the water of the Grande Grille (107°) of Vichy contains carbonate of soda 29.19 grains, carbonate of lime 1.92, ammonia 0.036, strontia 0.0178, magnesia 0.27, sulphate of potash 1.567, soda 0.9, phosphate of soda 0.032, and chloride of sodium 4.445. The Josephsquelle of Bilin, Bohemia, contains about 23 grains of carbonate of soda in the same quantity of water. Other noted alkaline springs are Buda, in Hungary; Vals, Aix, Chaudes-Aigues, Néris-les-Bains, and Luxeuil, in France; Gieshübel near Carlsbad, Fachingen, Geilnau, and the muriated alkaline or acidulous springs of Selters, Ems, and Salzbrunn, in Germany; Bristol, Buxton, and Dunblane, in Great Britain; Camarés, in France; Ischia, Asciano, and Nocera, in Italy. The principal constituents of the famous Selters and allied waters, used in acute catarrh and pulmonary affections, are chloride of sodium, carbonate of soda, and carbonic acid gas. The principal alkaline springs of the United States are: Bladon springs, Choctaw co., Ala.; California Seltzer springs, Mendocino co.; Perry springs, Pike co., and Versailles springs, Brown co., Ill.; St. Louis springs, Gratiot co., Mich.; Sheldon springs (including the Missisquoi spring), Franklin co., and Weidon springs, St. Albans, Vt.; and the newly discovered Des Chutes hot springs (143° to 145°), Wasco co., Oregon. 5. Alkaline Saline Springs. The waters of these springs are most efficient in diseases of the liver and abdominal plethora, obesity, gout, and calculus. Their representatives are the thermal springs (117½° to 165°) of Carlsbad in Bohemia, nine of which are in use. The famous Sprudel, which used to spout 18 to 20 times a minute, rising from 4 to 8 ft., contains, according to Berzelius and Bauer, in 16 oz., sulphate of soda 19.28 grains, chloride of sodium 7.97, carbonate of soda 10.13, carbonate of lime 2.37, carbonate of magnesia 1.369, carbonate of lithia 0.02, and fluoride of calcium 0.024. To this class belong the curative cold waters of Marienbad in Bohemia, Rohitsch in Styria, and the thermal Bertrich in Rhineland; Dax, Bagnères-d'Adour, and Ussat, in France; and Bath and Matlock, in England. In the United States the chief springs of this class are: Lansing well, Ingham co., Mich.; Ballston Spa, Saratoga co., and the Albany artesian well (500 ft. deep), N. Y.; Milhoit's soda springs, Clackamas co., Oregon; and the thermals, Idaho hot springs (85° to 115°), Clear Creek co., Col., and Charleston artesian well (87°, 1,250 ft. deep), Charleston, S. C. 6. Purgative or Bitter Waters. These waters derive their latter name from the taste of their chief ingredients, sulphate of soda (Glauber's salts) and sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salts). When taken in moderate doses they act as gentle purgatives and strong diuretics, and are useful therefore in all cases requiring active saline purgation. They are especially applicable to persons of robust constitution, with a tendency to abdominal plethora. The Kissingen bitter water contains, in 16 oz., sulphate of soda 46.51 grains, sulphate of magnesia 39.55, chloride of sodium 61.10, chloride of magnesium 30.25, chloride of ammonium 0.02, and chloride of lithium 0.09. Friederichshall in Saxe-Meiningen, Pullna, Seidschütz, and Seidlitz in Bohemia, Epsom in England, Campagne-sur-Aude in France, and Ivánda in Hungary, are famous bitter waters. Of springs of this class in the United States, Crab Orchard springs, Lincoln co., Ky., produce the Crab Orchard salts, which are made by boiling down the water. Estill or Irvine springs, Estill co., Ky., are strongly impregnated with sulphate of magnesia. Harrodsburg springs, Mercer co., Ky., are modified in their laxative effect by equal amounts of sulphate of lime and of carbonate of iron. Bedford springs, Bedford co., Pa., are purgative-chalybeate. Allied waters are: Beer springs, Oregon; Midland well, Midland co., Mich.; and Elgin spring, Addison co., Vt. 7. Calcic Springs. These are rich in carbonate of lime (limestone), or sulphate of lime (gypsum), mixed with iron, and with saline, alkaline, and other ingredients. Bathing in these waters cures exanthema, indigestion, and rheumatic and gouty affections. Drinking them, especially those rich in carbonate of lime and carbonic acid, such as the Wildungen water, proves beneficial in catarrh of the bladder, gravel and calculus, and in gastralgic dyspepsia. The following calcic thermal waters are regarded as of great therapeutical value: Leuk (123°), canton of Valais, and Weissenburg (tepid), in Bern, Switzerland; Lucca and Montione, in Italy; and in the United States, San Bernardino hot springs (100° to 172°), Cal.; Agua Caliente (130°), Mesilla co., N. M.; Sweet springs (74°), Monroe co., W. Va.; Berkeley springs (74°), in Bath, Morgan co., W. Va.; Warm springs (97° to 102°), Madison co., N. C.; and Bethesda springs (60°), Waukesha, Wis. (calcic-alkaline, efficient in urinary diseases). The principal cold calcic springs are: Wildungen, Waldeck, Germany; Contrexéville, Vosges, France; in the United States, Butterworth springs, Kent co., Leslie well, Ingham co., Eaton Rapids wells, Eaton co., and Hubbardston well, Ionia co., Mich.; Yellow springs, Greene co., Ohio; and Gettysburg springs, Adams co., Pa. 8. Indifferent Thermal Springs. This class contains but small amounts of salts and alkalines, the beneficial effect of bathing in their waters resulting mainly from their increased temperature (75° to 160°). These baths are efficacious especially in paralysis, articular and muscular rheumatism, old wounds, enervation, and decrepitude. The most noted are: Gastein, in Salzburg, Austria (eight springs, from 87° to 160°); Wildbad, in Würtemberg; Pfäfers and Ragatz, in Switzerland; Teplitz and Johannesbad, in Bohemia; Warmbrunn and Landeck, in Prussian Silesia; Schlangenbad, in Hesse-Nassau, applicable especially to hysteria and skin diseases; Plombières, Vosges, France, efficacious in gastralgia, rheumatism, and dartrous diseases of the skin; Bains, in Alsace; Alhama de Granada, in Spain; and San Martino, in Lombardy. In the United States the most noted of this class are: Hot springs (57 springs, from 93° to 150°), Hot Springs co., Ark., which resemble those of Gastein and Pfäfers; Healing springs, Bath co., Va., applicable to all ulcerated conditions; Hot springs (102° to 108°), Bath co., Va.; Tuscan springs (76°), Shasta co., Cal.; Holston springs (66½°), Scott co., Va.; and Lebanon springs, Columbia co., N. Y.—No complete analysis has yet been made of some valuable cold springs, such as the 16 Birchdale springs, near Concord, N. H., the waters of which are alterative, diuretic, and aperient; Parkersburg mineral wells, Wood co., W. Va., the principal constituents of which are sulphate of magnesia and sulphate of soda; Clarendon springs, Rutland co., Vt., used as a remedy in gravel, dyspepsia, and engorgement of the liver; Alleghany springs, Montgomery co., Va., and Shannondale springs, Jefferson co., W. Va., calcic waters. In F. V. Hayden's “Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Montana,” &c. (Washington, 1872), Dr. A. C. Peale, the mineralogist of the expedition, gives a catalogue of the thermal springs met with, among which he enumerates 10 chalybeates, averaging 129, near Ogden and the Great Salt lake, Utah; of calcareous springs, 5 in Lincoln valley, near Fort Hall, Idaho (75°), 6 in Madison co., Montana, 16 on Gardiner's river, Wyoming, and 1 on the east fork of the Yellowstone (111° to 142°); 15 sulphurous and acidulous springs (151° to 171°) in the same tract; 6 sulphur and chalybeate springs (181°) on Yellowstone lake; 60 salses or mud volcanoes and sulphurous springs (173° to 184°) near Mt. Washburn and Turbid lake, Yellowstone valley; 17 salses (175° to 178°) on Crater hills and Steamy point, Yellowstone valley; 49 silicious (155° to 166°) on Yellowstone lake and Madison river; a great number of carbonated or soda springs (50°) on Bear river, Utah; and 400 geysers and silicious springs (157° to 184°) in the geyser basin of the National park. Uses. Mineral waters are considered applicable to the treatment of chronic diseases only, as a rule, and are to be used during the inactivity of the disease. Medical advice is indispensable in their selection and use, as change of air, diet, &c., are important coagents. Excesses of the table should be rigidly avoided during the treatment. The waters are usually taken before breakfast, the dose being gradually increased from one to four tumblers; but iron and alkaline waters may be taken several times a day, the latter with great advantage at bedtime. In some parts of France and Switzerland it is customary to drink while sitting in the bath, the usual time being two hours after breakfast. The stomach should be empty when the bath is taken. The regular temperature of the cold bath is 70° F. and below; of the warm bath, 92° to 98°; and of the hot bath, 102° to 110°. In the vapor and Russian bath the temperature is raised to 160°, and in the hot-air and the Turkish bath to 176°. The temperature of the body is so increased in these baths that the sudden transition to the cool shower bath and douche is soothing, and is followed under favorable conditions by copious perspiration. The mineral mud bath (85° to 100°) consists of mud taken from the marshy ground about the source of mineral springs. It is used chiefly in diseases of the skin, chronic rheumatism, and affections of the joints. When the symptoms of the “bathing crisis” appear, the use of mineral waters should be discontinued for a few days. A “small” or short cure requires three or four weeks, a “great” one five or six weeks. Mineral waters can be taken with benefit at any time of the year, but the season generally begins in May or June, and ends, according to the local climate, in September or October. After a season at the springs, the vineyards of Bingen, Dürkheim, Vevay, Montreux, and Meran are resorted to by many patients for an additional grape cure, the effect of which is generally cathartic.—For accounts of the mineral springs of Europe, see Durand-Fardel and E. Le Bost, Dictionnaire des eaux minérales (Paris, 1860); Althaus, “The Spas of Europe” (London, 1862); and in German, the works of Garless (1848), Posner (1853), Lersch (1855-'60), Weller (1860, who also publishes a yearly guide, Wegweiser), H. Helft (1862), Braun (1869), T. Hirsfeld (Der Cur-Salon, 1866-'72), and R. Rentwig (Badezeitung, 1869-'72). For the springs of the United States, see Bell, “Mineral and Thermal Springs of the United States and Canada” (1855), and Walton, “The Mineral Springs of the United States and Canada, with Analyses and Notes of the prominent Spas of Europe” (1873).