The Art of Modeling Flowers in Wax
Modeling Flowers in Wax.
PRICE, ONE DOLLAR.
FOR SALE BY
H. H. DICKINSON,
CORNER OF MONTAGUE PLACE AND HICKS ST., BROOKLYN, N. Y.
WHIPPLE & CO., CORNHILL, BOSTON.
SCHOLZ & JANENTZKY
112 SOUTH EIGHTH STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Entered according to Act of Congress in the year , by
HENRY H. DICKINSON,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Eastern District of New York.
The author has great pleasure in informing his pupils that he has appointed Mr. Dickinson sole Agent for the sale of his book and materials for wax flowers for Brooklyn, feeling confident that his reputation for taste and care in supplying every thing requisite for the study of the art, so essential for the pupil, will be a guarantee that he could not have placed the agency in better hands.
Wax in sheets, of the best manufacture, as used by Mr. Worgan, author of "The Art of Modeling Flowers in Wax," the various colors and blooms manufactured by him, and every material for this elegant art, can be obtained only in Brooklyn, of his sole Agent,
H. H. DICKINSON,
BROOKLYN HEIGHTS PHARMACY,
Cor. Montague Place and Hicks St., Brooklyn.
Opposite the Pierrepont House.
WHIPPLE & CO., CORNHILL, BOSTON;
SCHOLZ & JANENTZKY,
112 SOUTH EIGHTH STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
In submitting the Art of Modeling Flowers in Wax to public favor, I am induced to believe it will be found acceptable; while, to the inexperienced, it will afford much valuable information, removing real and apparent difficulties. It will also present a stimulus to many to exercise their imitative powers in copying nature's most beautiful works, thereby cultivating a taste for the Fine Arts, which, in these days of advancement, is absolutely essential in the varied pursuits of life.
The Author trusts that he has conveyed the information to the reader in the most simple manner, his object being to make it a book of instruction rather than a mere work of words, whose tendency is rather to perplex than aid.
The information contained in this little treatise is derived from long experience in the Art. Every rule laid down is absolutely needful to follow as a guarantee of success to the pupil.
With these few introductory remarks, the Author submits "The Art of Modeling Flowers in Wax" for the approval of his readers.
New-York, February, 1867.
IMITATIVE AND DECORATIVE ART.
The art of imitating flowers in wax is, perhaps, the most beautiful method known of preserving a life-like representation of garden-gems, as the form, color, and texture can be imitated to perfection; while artistic feeling on the part of the student is required to complete the idea that flowers can be made to resemble nature in every respect, as regards form, color, the texture, stamens, and other parts of the natural flower.
Most of the flowers I have seen made in wax I will not call imitations of nature, but stiff, awkward, badly tinted things, devoid of beauty, verisimilitude, or taste. Nothing looks so unlike a natural flower; and these faults can be easily avoided by a little observation of nature.
The first rule I would lay down is to examine the natural flower. Take the pattern of the petals, count the number in the flower, and mark it on the pattern; observe the same rule as regards the calyx and stamens; mark the color carefully, as this is the most difficult part of the study, though perhaps the most pleasant and useful, as the tints in flowers are of endless variety. Attention to the rules laid down for coloring; will insure success.
Form is a difficult thing to describe, but Nature will be the truest guide; for the student can see, at a glance, if the petals be placed on regularly, as is the case in a Dahlia, or according to taste, as in the Rose.
The texture is imitated by modeling with the pin; making the edges soft and fine with the pressure of the head or point. The rules for making the stems are simple. For a small flower, take the finest wire; for medium-sized flowers, the larger size; and for large ones, the largest-sized wire.
Be very careful in making the flower of the proper thickness. This is an easy matter, as the wax is made of various thicknesses. Should you wish to imitate a thin petal, take the thin wax; for a thick one, take the thick wax; and, should you require a still thicker petal, double the wax together.
After imitating the flowers, take care, in grouping them with taste, also not to fall into the vulgar practice of arranging them in the formal manner that some florists adopt, namely, placing one large flower in the centre of the group, and a row of flowers round in red, white, or blue. To all artists this is repulsive, and whence could have originated such a barbarous custom (I will not call it taste) is a matter of wonder. Certainly not from Paris, where flowers are one of the necessaries of life; nor London, where they are used more in garden or hothouse decorations than agrémens for the drawing-room. The true artist will not degrade art by following "the fashion." This may suit the modes of millinery, but Art should not wear the paint or mince the gait of Fashion.
MATERIALS ESSENTIAL FOR IMITATING FLOWERS IN WAX.
A pair of scissors, light and thin, such as used by surgeons, are the best adapted for the purpose; they should be thin in the blades and rather loose in the rivets, so as to cut easily round the paper pattern; a cup to hold water; a pallet; three or four steel pins, with bead heads of different sizes; six or eight bristle brushes; two or three small sable pencils; three rings of green wire of different thicknesses; two wooden molds for forming bell-shaped flowers, such as the Lily of the Valley or Stephanotas; a small quantity of gum arabic dissolved in pure water; some white wax in sheets of a thin texture, also some of the extra thick or double wax; a few tints of green wax, and a shade of light yellow wax; some bloom for white flowers and tea roses, also some tints for making Violets, dark Roses, Geraniums, and very brilliant colored flowers, prepared expressly by myself.
The following colors in powder: White; chrome yellow, No. 1; chrome yellow, No. 2; chrome yellow, No. 3; carmine; ultramarine blue; prussian blue; vermilion; magenta or solferino.
These can be obtained at Mr. H. H. Dickinson's, corner of Montague and Hicks streets, Brooklyn, and most of the artists' paint-stores in the United States.
The tints before mentioned made by myself are: Sofrano Rose bloom, two or three shades; white bloom; prepared violet carmine; prepared mauve; French violet; rose pinks, three shades. By using these colors you can get the very delicate tints seen in Roses, Geraniums, Violets, and Heartsease without the trouble of mixing them. There is a preparation in these that makes the color very easy to lay on, and produces the soft and velvet-like look of nature. They should never be used except as dry color to be rubbed on with the fingers.Be sure that you see the signature G. Worgan, on the boxes of bloom, as none other are genuine unless signed by me.
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR TAKING THE PATTERNS OF FLOWERS FROM NATURE, MODELING, ETC.
Having selected the necessary materials, procure a natural flower of simple formation; take the pattern on paper. This is done by separating the petals and taking one of each size, placing them upon paper, and passing a brush with any dark color over the natural petals lying on the white paper. It will, by this means, trace the exact size of the petal white, then cut the colored part off, which will leave the pattern. Count the number of the different sizes, and write it on the pattern; then observe if the texture of the natural flower be thick or thin; it the former use thick wax, if the latter the thin wax. Place the pattern on the wax and cut round the edge of the pattern, turning the wax toward the scissors, by this means smoothing the edge. To prevent the wax sticking to the scissors, press them on a wet sponge, or damp them with a little water. The sponge is the better, as the water has a tendency to run from the scissors to the wax, unless great care be taken.
After you have cut the requisite number of petals, observe if the stem of the flower is thick or thin, stiff, or supple; use the thick wire for the former, and if thin take the fine wire.
There is a medium sized wire used for such flowers as Rose-buds, Carnations, etc. Should the stem be very thick, two or three sizes can be doubled together to give it strength. This will be requisite in such flowers as the Magnolia or Water Lily.
One of the most important rules to be observed is to double the wire over at the top twice or thrice to make a kind of knot to secure the foundation to the stem, which should be molded in the shape of the heart of the flower. In modeling rose-buds, the foundation must be made very large, and in the shape of the flower, so that the petals may fit closely round.
Where stamens form the centre of the flower, they must be placed on the wire, and a very small portion of wax put at the base to secure them to it.
Stamens are made of white waxed thread. If they are thick as in the Fuchsia, spool thread No. 20, waxed with white wax; for the Azalia, and flowers of a similar character, No. 40; for the finest flowers, such as Mignonnette and Laurestinas, No. 100. Having waxed the thread, place a small portion of the wax on the top the exact size of nature, and conform its color with that of the natural flower. Should the stamens be red or any color but white, take the bristle brush and paint them with wet color, being careful not to rub the tops off. Count the number of stamens. If only a few are observable, as in the Azalias, Fuchsias, Laurestinas, and Geranium, when in large clusters, as seen in the Wild Rose, Orange Flower, and Myrtle, put as many as you think looks natural. It was once the custom to form stamens by taking the sheet wax, turning down the edge, and cutting them in fine strips; this is done now in some cases when the stamens are of uniform height. I prefer in all cases to make the stamens of thread, though it requires much longer time; but in art time is but a secondary consideration, truthfulness being the only aim of the student.
There are two ways of using the color, one by taking the bristle brush, dipping the end of the stick in water and dropping it on the pallet, putting a small portion of the color on the brush, then passing it gently over the surface of the wax petals; the other is by rubbing the color on the surface with the finger and thumb of the right hand, taking care that the color come not in contact with the bottom of the petal, or it will prevent the adhesion to the foundation.
All transparent looking flowers must be colored with the wet color, by passing the brush over the petals commencing at the top, letting the pressure on the brush deepen the shade toward the centre of the petal. This is a rule you must attend to in making the Pink Cabbage Rose, as the petals are much lighter at the top. Should you require a deeper shade at the top of the petal, as in the Pink Geranium, you must color the petal upward, letting the pressure and depth of color fall on its edge. In all cases where the petal is painted with the sable brush, as in the Carnation Arbutalan and Geranium, wet color must be used, as the delicate lines can not be put on smoothly, should the under tint be made of dry color.
Avoid taking too much water, as the color should be only damp, not wet enough to run. Be careful not to dip the bristle part of the brush into water, as it will make the color too thin; but put the water on the color with the end of the brush-stick, adding water when needful, as the color soon dries.
For very velvet-like colors and texture, (as in the Heartsease and the back petals of the Geranium,) curl the petal with the pin into shape first, then color; this is to prevent the pin rubbing the color.
You can color all transparent colors before the petal is curled. Hold the brush upright and pass smoothly over the surface. When one side of the petal is colored, let it dry, and then color the other side. See if the color be the same on each side. If the back petal is brighter in nature, be sure to imitate the color; this rule omitted destroys the natural appearance of your copy.
For Tea Roses and Violets, dark damask Roses and Azalias, the color is rubbed on. For this purpose use the blooms prepared by me, and spoken of in the list of materials. They are to be rubbed on with the finger and thumb of the right hand, holding the petal at the base with the finger and thumb of the left hand.
Should any fine lines or marks be seen on the petals, take the sable brush and paint over the petal. For the Geranium or Arbutalan you may add a little of the very thinnest gum-water. This will give a sharpness or distinctness to the penciling; but do not use too much, or it will produce a glazed appearance that looks very unnatural.
In all cases where the bloom, is used, the petals are curled after they are tinted. Be sure to observe if the petals are darker or lighter in the centre of the flower, and tint accordingly.
The tints of color are made by combining the colors mentioned in the list of materials. Take a small portion of the following colors and proceed to practice the mixing of colors.
The tint required is put on the left side of the page, and the colors used for producing it on the right.
|Crimson||is produced by||Carmine.|
|Pink||„||Carmine and white.|
|Rose pink||„||Carmine, white and light blue. (A very small portion of the latter.)|
|Purple||„||Carmine and blue. |
|Dark purple||„||Carmine and Prussian blue|
|Green||„||Prussian blue and yellow.|
|Olive green||„||Prussian blue and chrome yellow, No. 2.|
|Dark black green||„||Prussian blue, orange, and a little carmine.|
|Brown||„||Carmine and green.|
|Pale blue||„||Ultramarine and white.|
|Lemon color||„||Pale yellow and white.|
|Buff||„||Orange and white.|
|Salmon color||„||Orange, white, and a little carmine.|
|Pale violet||„||Mauve and white.|
|Scarlet||„||Vermilion and carmine.|
|Very beautiful purple||„||Violet carmine.|
|Bright lake red||„||Solferino or magenta.|
|Bluish green||„||Yellow, white, and prussian blue.|
|Transparent white||„||Arrow root finely ground with white color. This must be used dry.|
|Yellowish white||„||White color and a small portion of the palest yellow.|
FORMING PETALS AND ADJUSTING THEM ACCORDING TO NATURE.
The art of curling or forming the petals into a concave shape requires strict attention to the following rules:
Take the pin in the right hand holding it with the thumb and forefinger, place the petal in the palm of the left hand, then roll the pin with the right hand, letting the bead part press the petal, and pass sharply round its extreme edge, taking care not to rub the petal with the head of the pin, but let it revolve easily; the pressure ought to be moderate, so as to avoid tearing the wax.
Should the wax stick to the pin, press it on the damp sponge.
For making the ragged edge, so often seen in nature, take the point of the pin and press the edge of the petal, rubbing it till it becomes very thin. The best practice for attaining proficiency in curling the petals properly is, to take small pieces of wax, and round them with the bead or head of the pin, afterward thinning the edge with the point. When lines are required, the pin should be pressed on the petal; these are very distinct in the White Lily and Orange blossom.
The petal of the Rose is very round or bowl-shaped. After curling it with the head of the pin, take the right thumb and forefinger, and mold it into a round or concave shape; this forms the cup or chalice of the Rose.
In the outside petals you must make a small tuck at the base of each, so as to contract them; this is done by turning the wax over at the bottom.
For ease in the construction of the flower, hold the stem with the foundation in the left hand, placing them on with the right thumb and forefinger, care being taken that you observe whether the petals are put on in regular or irregular numbers. In flowers that have five or ten petals in a row, you will find it easier in construction, as space is left for the succeeding row of petals by the preceding one.
Roses are very irregular in formation, the petals are generally bunched in tiers of two or three.
In the Rose-bud they seem to follow each other round the foundation and the petals inclining to one side.
No positive rule can be given in forming the Rose; much is left to the taste of the pupil. Copy the character of the flower. Should you find that it looks stiff or awkward, take the petals off and put them on in a different manner.
Be sure you adopt not the vulgar error of making the Roses too full-blown, as they lose their beauty after the cup-like appearance is gone.
The buds are exceedingly beautiful of the Tea Rose. This is perhaps the most difficult of all flowers to imitate, as great taste is required in the arrangement of the petals. French people excel all the world in making artificial Roses, because this element of taste is national. I never knew a person destitute of it make a good imitation of a Rose. They generally succeed better in such flowers as the Dahlia, Camellias, Stephanotas, and other regularly formed flowers.
In coloring, do not make too frequent use of the petroleum colors, such as solferino and magenta, they are so vivid that they are apt to destroy the delicate tint of the other colors. Occasionally they look well for small flowers, such as Rose-buds, Fuchsias, etc.
In modeling fine flowers like the Mignonnette, Heliotrope, and Laurestinas, great care should be taken to cut the petals and stamens very finely; neatness is one of the most requisite qualifications to insure a correct representation of the smaller flowers.
Having given, as clearly as I can, general rules for coloring, curling, and arrangement of all flowers I will now proceed to give directions for twenty of the most admired flowers, as well as those containing the best rules for perfecting the pupil in any flower they may desire to copy. Of course a good drawing, natural flower, or wax one will be required as a model.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEA ROSE-BUD.
Cut the larger-sized petals out of thick white wax or thin wax doubled—the two smaller sizes from thin wax; rub them with the sofrano rose bloom, tint some of the petals with light pink powder, also rubbed on, taking care to leave a portion of the petal uncolored at the base, as this is the part you require to join to the foundation.
Take the medium-sized wire, cut a piece of the length of six or eight inches, and be sure that you turn down the wire at the top about the eighth of an inch, to secure the foundation from slipping off; put a sheet of wax on this part and make the foundation in the shape of the heart of the flower. This should be round at the base, about five eighths of an inch in width, gradually tapering till it comes to a point at the top, in shape resembling the hard-closed bud of the rose. Curl the edges of the small petals with the head of the pin, and fix them round the foundation, extending them at the edge to give an open appearance at the top. Add the second-sized petals and place on in the same way, rather on one side. The large petals must be curled very much, and the bowl shape made by pressing the edges of the bottom part together and curling it round with the head of the curling-pin; these petals are placed on, some much on one side and one or two of them falling backward.
Take dark green wax and very pale green wax for the calyx; join together, press the point of the pin at the sides, and curl the base of them with the head of the pin. Place these round the outside of the bud, add the seed cup, which is made by rolling dark green round the wire in the shape of a cup; place the strip of green wax on the wire to make the stem, tint the calyx and stem with a little reddish brown, which will impart a natural effect, as the Tea Rose calyx is seldom green.
Take a mold of the natural leaf with plaster of Paris, by procuring a real leaf, rubbing it with sweet oil, placing it on a piece of paper on a table, mixing the plaster of Paris in water till it acquires moderate thickness; pouring the plaster on the surface of the oiled leaf, then add some thicker plaster to give it strength. In about twenty minutes take the mold from the table and then remove the natural leaf from the plaster, this will readily fall off and leave the exact impression of the leaf.
Make a stem of the fine wire, cover with wax very neatly, take a dark shade of green wax and press on to the surface of the mold, after having damped it with a little water; press the stem on to the centre, then place another sheet of lighter green, take it off the mold and cut the fine points as you see on the impression, color with a deeper shade of green, leaving the centre rather lighter; tint it with brown or any color that resembles the natural leaf.
These rules are applied to take the molds of all leaves. Though you may alter the shades of green or the size of the wire, according to circumstances, the molds for every leaf are taken in the same way. Be sure you select a leaf with a deep impression, and get them of different sizes.
Should you wish to purchase the molds, they can be obtained at my agents.
THE PINK TEA ROSE.
This flower is made in the same way. Color the inside petals with dark rose pink made from violet carmine, white, and carmine; make the centre very close; color the outer petals with a lighter shade of pink, by adding more white powder; curl the petals very thin at the edge, as the flower is very transparent; make the calyx rather lighter in the same way that you adopted for the Tea Rose; tint them according to nature or the model you are copying from.
The leaves are made in the same way as for the Tea Rose-bud. This flower can be imitated very well, and looks most pleasing in a group.
The pink Cabbage Rose is tinted with pink in the centre, and a very pale color outside; the petals are placed on in branches of three and five, and are very numerous. Let the centre sink, place the larger petals round, in a very cup-like shape, then let the outside ones gradually fall back; let the petals be curled very thin, and turned over slightly at the edge.
The calyx and cup are made in the same way as for the other Roses. Take the mold of the leaf in the way as directed. The leaf is much lighter and not so pointed as for the Tea Rose-bud.
Form the foundation according to the size you require; cut about twenty petals of various sizes; color the inside ones deeper pink than the outside ones; curl them at the edge; place them round the foundation very tightly, making the outer petals extend a little, the general formation being like the other Rose-buds. Take very fine natural moss, place the small fibres on a calyx cut from light green wax, in the shape of the flower; add the moss to the seed-cup, tint it with a little brown color, to give it a more natural look. The moss must be dry, and it will readily adhere to the wax. Let the fine fibres extend out at the sides and top of the calyx. Should you desire to expend much time, you can imitate the moss by cutting it out of green wax. This is a very tedious process and requires much care, but it will be more satisfactory as a work of art to the pupil.
Leaves the same as for the Cabbage Rose.
THE PINK MOSS ROSE.
Cut out about one hundred and twenty petals of various sizes; make up in the same way as for the Cabbage Rose, but making the centre more full by adding some very small petals; color them the same tint as the Cabbage Rose; add the moss to the calyx, and your Rose is complete.
Moss Roses are seldom made, as the buds show the calyx; and the labor is lost to view in the full-blown Rose, as the calyx is scarcely seen.
THE WHITE ROSE
THE RED OR DAMASK ROSE-BUD.
Cut the petals out of thin white wax, curl them as you would the Tea Rose, then take a brush and color with carmine; place them on the foundation and then add the calyx.
Damask, purple, and bright lake-colored Roses are all made in the same way. A very beautiful color for a rich purple Rose is made by the violet carmine bloom prepared by me. This can be used dry and the petals curled after they are colored. Never rub pure carmine with the dry color, as it becomes dingy by friction. Carmine must be always used as a wet color.
This concludes the chapter on Roses. I would advise the student to pay particular attention to imitating these, the most beautiful of all flowers. Taste, fancy, and color can never be exhausted in their manipulation. A group of flowers without Rose-buds is as destitute of beauty as a landscape without water. Like the stars, they diversify and illuminate what else were monotonous and dark.
FORMATION OF THE HELIOTROPE.
This is a difficult flower to imitate, and requires some patience, but will amply repay it, as it can be copied very perfectly, and is a most pleasing addition to a group of flowers.
Get very thin white wax, double it, cut the five petals in one, making a sort of star; curl these with a small pin; make a hole in the centre; take the finest wire, make a small green head, about the size of the head of a pin. After the wire is doubled over once at the top, for the purpose of securing the foundation to it, pass the wire part through the hole in the centre of the star-shaped petals till they touch the surface. Get a small band of light green wax; roll it round the back of the petals to form a cup; press the centre of each petal into this with a small curling-pin; then gradually draw the stem through into it, so as to give the hollow appearance seen in nature.
This requires great care, lest you draw the wire out of the foundation. The least motion must be used.
After the flower is formed, take the small bristle brush; use the mauve color and white, (which will make the most delicate lilac;) color the edge of the petals, leaving the centre white; take the smallest sable brush, and tip the centre with light green.
The back of the flower will be rather larger than in the natural flower; but, as the flowers are placed close together, it will not be observed. The reason of its being made larger is, that the petals could not be pressed on to a smaller foundation, so as to fix them securely.
About fifteen or twenty blossoms, with buds made of small pieces of solid white wax, colored purple, will make a very effective and pleasing group. The leaves are made of a dull shade of green wax pressed on the plaster mold.
This flower is made of white wax doubled, (for the larger blossoms trebled,) as the flower, though small, has a very thick appearance; it is cut altogether, and looks like the heliotrope, only larger. After cutting out, rub the petals with white powder and arrow-root, with the slightest shade of the palish yellow, barely enough to turn the color into a yellowish white; curl the petals with the head of the small-sized curling-pin, and make the centre of very fine white thread No. 100, waxed with white wax; add the little tops about the size of half a pin's head—these are made of yellow wax; join them to a piece of the finest wire with a small green thread for the centre. The stamens should be about the sixth of an inch in height; a hole is made in the middle of the star-shaped petals, and the wire passed through, leaving the stamens out and the petals round. A small cup for the back or calyx is then to be made, the petals to be pressed on to it. The stem is to be made a reddish brown, and the blossoms joined together to form a group. The buds are made of solid white, tinted with pink; the leaves are formed of dark green wax, tinted pink at the back, and veined with a darker tint of red.
This flower is made in the same way as the foregoing; the only difference being, that the centre is composed of minute pieces of yellow wax, and the petals tinted with light blue, made from cobalt, and a small portion of white.
The leaves are of a bright green color; five or six blossoms and two or three buds will make a pretty group.
As the formation of this flower is, perhaps, the most difficult to describe, I will endeavor to do so with accuracy. Take a piece of fine wire, about five inches in length; make a little top, with the palest yellow green, in the shape of a caraway seed; cut a small piece of wax about an inch in length and one fourth in depth; cut this so as to make a fringe; roll it round the top of the wire, lowering it as you roll it, so as to make the top in a pyramid shape. Then take another strip of wax of the same color, double it, and turn over at the top; cut so as to separate it; roll round in the same way as before, so as to form the head or spike of flowers.
The next things to be made are the buds, which should be cut from pale green and white wax into six small points. These are rolled round, taking care that the ends are not pressed together; they are to be placed round rather lower, five in number. The next, half-blown blossoms, are made from light green, cut in the same way as the buds. Take a small piece of white wax, cut into a fringe of about the eighth of an inch in width and a quarter of an inch in height; roll these inside the green wax, taking care that the fine points expand at the top; these are placed on in the space left by the buds; add two or three rows under, made in the same way, with the addition of a few fine threads in the centre, made of No. 100 spool thread, waxed with pale yellow; this will give strength to the flower and delicacy to the stem. After they are made up, take a sable brush and paint the bottom of the blossoms with a little orange color; afterward add a little brown or red, to make it darker at the ends.
The principal difficulty in making this flower is the patience required in cutting and fixing the blossoms. Practice and attention to these rules will enable the student to attain to perfection. There are few flowers more highly prized than the mignonnette; the delicacy and beauty of its form is expressed in France under the affectionate diminutive, "The Frenchman's Darling."
THE WHITE CAMELLIA.
The petals of this chaste and beautiful flower are cut from thick white wax and rubbed with arrowroot; the stem should be made of the larger-sized wire, bent over several times at the top. Form the foundation of white wax, making it in the shape and size of a small almond. Place the three small petals in the palm of the hand and curl them so that the concave part of the petal should fit over the foundation. Place a larger size, three in number, in the spaces left by the small petals; the other petals are placed rather above. After you have put on five or six rows of the smaller petals, turn the larger sizes back; these should be placed round the centre and curled very much at the edge to give that beautiful thinness so observable in the natural flower.
The calyx is made of green wax, colored with a slight tint of brown.
The leaves are formed on the plaster mold with dark green wax, two thicknesses and a light shade at the back. After you have cut the fine edge, or points on the leaf, color with dark green, afterward polish with a dry brush, as the leaves have a very bright surface.
This flower is much used for decorations and head-dresses. It is easily constructed.
This flower is cut from white wax, the petals very much curled with the stem of the pin, so as to form a ridge in the centre of each. Color the petals with white, or the color of the flower you are copying, and then pencil them with the sable brush, making the stripes of various sizes. Care must be taken to curl the petals before coloring, as the marks would rub off and look indistinct.
The stamens are made of waxed thread, No. 30, turned over at the top and placed on a thin foundation of pale green wax, added to medium-sized wire. Place the petals on in rows of five, letting each row fall a little, the preceding spaces to be filled by the succeeding petals.
The calyx is made of pale green tinted with a darker bluish green made from orange, prussian blue, and white.
The leaves are cut from green wax and tinted with the same color.
The dark Clove Pink is made exactly in the same way as the Carnation, except as regards the color. This is obtained by carmine for the centre petals, and a little violet carmine added to carmine for the outer petals. A beautiful sort of Clove Pink can be made by rubbing the petals with my violet bloom; the calyx and leaves are made like the Carnation.
THE ENGLISH PINK.
In construction this flower is similar to the preceding; the petals are cut at the edges into small points, and the centre of each is colored with a spot of dark purple, made from violet, carmine, and Prussian blue. The leaves are similar to the Carnation in form and color.
WHITE WATER LILY.
There are few flowers more popular than the Water Lily, or that present a prettier appearance when imitated in wax. It is easily made. Take the extra thick wax, or doubled thin wax, and cut out about thirty petals; rub them with arrow-root, and curl them well at the edge; take yellow wax for the stamens, and cut out about five rows, according to pattern; tint the insides with orange, and the outer stamens with bright yellow. Make the centre of solid wax, on wire of the largest size; press or indent the marks with the point of the curling-pin; place the stamens round, then curl the petals; make them very round and thin at the edge; place the smallest size round, and the remainder in rows, of five each row, fitting into the space left by the preceding petals. Let them form a cup; turn the last row down. Should you require a full-blown flower, make the four calyx of doubled green wax, and white for the inside; curl them in the same way as the petals, and place them round the flower at equal distances. Sometimes the calyx is tinted with brown; if so, shade it with carmine; this over the green will make a brown tint. Should it be darker than the green wax, color with the prussian blue and orange. To make the shining surface, rub them with the dry brush; make the stem very thick, and color brown. The bud is made in the same way, only with a few petals closed over a foundation of white wax. No centre is required, as it is not seen; calyx the same as the flower. The leaves are made of dark green, sometimes tinted brown and penciled with red veins at the back. This flower looks well in a group by itself, or placed on a mirror of plate glass.
The beautiful red sepals which form the calyx are cut from doubled wax, the four inside petals from single wax. Color the former with carmine after they are curled at the edge, leaving the neck of the petal uncolored. Color the centre with purple made of mauve, then make the stamens of thick thread, No. 20, waxed with white wax; make a small top to each; color them with carmine, place them on a foundation made of the fine wire; fix the four purple petals round; roll a small portion of white wax to form the neck of the flower, and place the four crimson sepals round; make a small ball of green wax at the end of the neck to form the seed cup; cover the stem with a thin strip of wax, and then make the buds of solid wax, in the shape of the natural ones. Color them with carmine; press the leaves on the proper mold of plaster, and make the lines in the centre red with the sable brush. A few buds and blossoms arranged to droop down a vase or basket of flowers look very charming.
Cut out the petals, five in number, from white wax doubled; rub them over with white color and arrow-root; make a stem of fine wire with two fine points of light green wax. Curl the petals well at the edge, place them round the foundation of the flower evenly. Then add the calyx, consisting of five thin points of green wax. Cover the stem with dark green, roll the buds out of solid white wax into the proper shape, add a few leaves made of a dark shade of green, and join them together in an irregular manner.
This simple flower looks well at the top of a group or basket, and gives a lightness, adding to the general effect.
THE YELLOW JASMINE.
This flower is made in the same way as the White Jasmine, but is cut out of yellow wax, and is rather more round in the shape of the petal. The leaves are not so pointed, but are made of the same color as the White Jasmine.
DOUBLE PURPLE VIOLET.
The petals are cut from single thin wax, colored with purple made by my violet powder. They must then be curled variously, with the pin, placed round a foundation of yellow wax on fine wire; then turn over the stem, cover with pale green wax. Five points of the same color form the calyx.Take care in coloring that you leave about half of the petal white at the base, or it will not look natural. This flower is easily imitated in wax.
THE DARK GERANIUM.
Cut out the three small petals from thin white wax, the two larger size back petals from doubled wax; curl them at the edge afterward. Color the small petals with carmine and white color, (wet;) the larger petals are first colored at the edge with a deep pink made of carmine and white; then color the surface (but not quite to the edge) with pure carmine, the next tint carmine and violet, after in the extreme centre, with violet, carmine, and prussian blue mixed with a little thin gum water. The lines or marks are made with the sable pencil painted over the flat surface of color, and should be delicately touched. The centre is made of fine thread waxed, and the five points placed together, letting them expand at the top. Color them with a reddish purple, and add some fine points cut from white wax, for the stamens. Place the three bottom petals on first; then, the dark petals at the back. Cut the calyx out of green wax, and put round the flower.
The leaves should be pressed on the mold, and arrow-root and green rubbed over to give the down-like appearance. This can not be imitated perfectly, but looks well when the natural flower is not present.
There is no flower more difficult to paint than this. Those who understand coloring will find it comparatively easy; but I would not advise those totally unacquainted with color to try it.
LILY OF THE VALLEY.
This flower is made on the wooden mold for that purpose. Take white wax, press round the top of the mold, after it is wetted. This will form a bell. Slip off the mold and cut the six points; make a centre of fine points of yellow wax; roll these round fine wire, and pass this through the cup, roll light green round the wire for the stems; make the bud of solid wax, and place them on a thicker piece of wire in a drooping shape, then add the blossoms; make the leaf of darkish green on the surface, and light green at-the back. Be sure you do not polish the leaves, as this is not conformable with nature. Close the leaf round the base of the spray, and this will form a very graceful addition to a group of flowers.
Cut the petals out of trebled white wax; rub with dry color made of arrow-root, white, and the slightest tinge of yellow; curl them well at the edge, and place on the foundation made of yellow points on moderate thickness of wire; tint the outer petals with pink at the back, and sometimes with a dull yellow green color; make the stem of very yellow pale green and of a moderate thickness. This flower is very easily imitated in wax.
I have now given, to the best of my ability, the directions for the most popular flowers. Should the pupil find any difficulty, I shall be happy to give her any instruction, should she desire it. I would recommend those who wish to learn the art to apply to some respectable teacher, of name and standing in her profession, and to avoid those people who are not professional—a large class, I am sorry to say, who pretend to teach when they are the parties who require instruction. Quackery is not limited to medicine only; pretension, assuming "the borrowed robes" of art and science, is rife in every department, and, when we strip quackery of its theatrical assumptions, we but find the poor learner who aspired to the rank of teacher. Look well into their productions; see if they have imitated nature; do not bind yourself to take a certain number of lessons, but see if they can teach what they profess.
In concluding this little treatise, the author can not help thanking his pupils and the public for the great kindness and patronage extended to him during his stay in the United States. He trusts that his artistic ability has merited it. He thinks that his introduction of many new methods of overcoming the difficulties in this beautiful art have at least saved them some trouble, and assisted them in attaining greater perfection in their studies.