The Book of Kervynge

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The Book of Kervynge  (1508) 

Printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1508, 1513. It is addressed to the highest-level servants in grand households. The section titles are given in modern English.

Here begynneth the boke of kervynge.

Here begynneth the boke of keruynge and servynge and all the feestes in the yere for the servyce of a prince of only other estate as ye shall finde eche offyce the servyce accordiynge in this boke folowynge.

Terms of carving[edit]

Termes of kerver

Baeke the dere
lesche y brawne
rere that goose
lyste that swanne
sauce that capon
spoyle that henne
fruche that chekyn
babrace that malarde
bnlace that conye
dysmembre that heron
displaye that crane
disfygure that pecocke
baioynt that bytture
batache that cuclewe
alaye that felande
wynge that partryche
wynge that quayle
niynce that plouer
thye that pygyon
border that pauy
thye that woodcocke
thye all maner small byrdes
tymbre that fyre
tyere that egge
chynne that samon
strynge that lampraye
spatre that pyke
sauce that place
sauce that tenche
splaye that breme
side that haddocke
tuske that berbell
culpon that troute
syne that cheuen
trallene that ele
traunche that sturgyon
baderttraunche that purpos
tayme that crabbe
barbe that lobster

Here endeth the goodly termes.

Bottler and Bread-officer[edit]

Here begynneth Butteler and Panter

Thou shalt be butteler and panter all the first yere, and ye must have the pantry knyves, one knyfe to square trencherous loves, an other to be a chyppere, the thyrde to shapre to make smothe trenchours, than chyppe your soveranynes brede hote and all other brede let it be a day olde, housholde brede thre days olde. Trenchout brede foure dayes old, than loke your salte be whyte and drye. the planer made of Juory two inches brode and thre inches longe, & loke that your salte seller lydde touche not the salte. Than loke your table clothes to welles and napkyns be fayre folden in a cheste or hanged upon a perche, than loke your table knyves be bayre pullysshed & your spones clene. than loke ye have two tarryours a more and a lesse and wyne canelles of boxe made accordynge a sharpe gymlot & faucettes. And when y sette a pype on broche do thus. set it soure finger brede aboue the nether chyme upwardes aslaunte. and than shall the lyes never aryse. Also toke ye have in all seasons butter chese apples peres nottes plommes grapes dates fygges and raysyns compost grene gynger and charde quynce. Serve fastynge butter plommes damesons cheryes and grapes. After mete peres nottes strawberyes hurtelberyes & hard chese. also brandrels or pepyns with caraway in comfetes. after souper roste apples & peres with blaunche poudre & hard chese, beware of cowe creme and of goot strawberyes hurtelberyes Jouncat for these wyll make your soverayne seke but he ete harde chese, harde chese hath these operacyons, it wyll kepe the stomake open, butter is holsome fyrst & last for it wyll close the mawe and so dooth a pollet, therefore ete harde chese and drynke comney modon, beware of grene sallettes & raw fruytes for they wyll make your soverayne seke, therefore not moche suche metes as wyll set your tethe on edge therefore ete an almonde & harde chese, but ete not moche chese without romney modon. Also yf dyvers drynkes let hym ete a rawe apple and the fumosytees wil cease mesure is a mery mene & it well bled, abstynence is to be prayed whan God therewith is pleased. Also take good hede of your wynes every nyght with a candell bothe reed wyne & swete wyne & loke they reboyle not nor leke not. & wasshe the pype hedes every nyght with colde water, & loke ye have a chynchynge yron addes and lynen clothes if nede be & if drawe the reboyled myne to the lyes of coloured rose & drawe the reboyled wyne to the lyes & it shal helpe it. Also yf your swete wyne pale or awe it in to a romney bessell for lesynge.

Names of wines[edit]

Here foloweth the names of wynes

Reed wyne
whyte wyne
claret wyne
renysshe wyne maluesy
tyerre romney
bernage wyne cut
pymente and


For to make Hypocras

Take gynger, peper, graynes, canell, synamon, suger and tornsole, than loke ye have fyve or syxe bagges for Hypocras to renne in & perche that your renners may hange on, than must ye have by peautre basyns to stande under your bagges than loke youre spyce be redy & your gynger well pared or it be beten to poudre, than loke your stalkes of synamon be well coloured & swete canell is not too gentyll in operacyon synamon is hote and drye, graynes of paradico ben hote and moste, gynger, graynes, longe peper and suger ben hote and drye, tornsole is holsome, for reed wyne colourynge. Now knowe ye the proporcyons of your hypocras. than bete your pouders eche by them selfe & put theym in bladders & hange your bagges sure that no bagge touche other, but let eche basyn touch other let the first basyn be of a galon and eche of the other of a potell, then put in your basyn a galon of reed wyne put them into the firste bagge and let it renne, then put them in to the second bagge, then take a pece in your honde and assaye if it be stronge of gynger, and alaye it with synamon, and it be stronge of synamom, alaye it with sugar, and loke ye lette it renne thrughe five renners & your hypocras shall be the gynger, than put your hypocras in to a close vessell and kepe the receyte, for it wyll server for fewes, than serve your soverayne with wafers and hypocras. Also loke your composte be fayre and clene, and your ale five days olde or men drynke it, than kepe your house of offyce clene & be curtoys of answere to eche persone, and loke ye gyve no person noo powsed drynke, for it wyll breke the scabbe. And when ye laye the clothe wyne the borde clene with a cloute, than laye a cloth a couche it is called, take your felowe that one ende & holde you that other ende, than drawe the cloth strayght the bought on the btter edge, take the btter parte & hange it even, than take the thyrde cloth and laye the bought on the inner edge, and lay estat with the upper parte halfe a foot brode, than cover thy cupbourde and thyne ewery with the towell of dyaper, than take they towell aboute they necke and laye that one syde of the towell upon thy left arme, and there on laye your soveraynes napkyn, and laye them thyne arme seven loveds of brede with thre or foure trenchour loves with the ende of the towell in the lefte honde as the maner is, than take thy salte seller in they lefte honde and take the ende of the towell in your ryght honde to bere in spones and knyves, than let your salte on the ryght syde where your soverayne shall sytte and on the lefte syde the salte set your trenchours, than laye your knyves and let your brede on lofe by an other, your spones and your napkyns fayre folden before your brede, than cover your brede and trenchourse spones and knyves and at every ende of the table let a salte seller with two trenchour loves. & yf ye will wrappe youre soveraynes brede stately ye juste square and proporcyon youre brede and se that no lofe be more than an other, and than shall ye make your wrappet manly, than take a towell of reynes of two perdes and a halfe and take the towell by the endes double and laye it on theh table, than take the ende of the bought a handfull in your honde and wrappe it harde and laye the ende soo wrapped bytwene two towelles upon that ende so wrapped laye your brede botom to botom syxy or seven loves, than set your brede manerly in fourme, and whan your soveraynes sable is thus arayed cover all other bordes wyth salte trencheoures & cuppes. Also se thyne ewery be arayed with basyns & ewers & water hote and colde and se ye have napkyns cuppes & spones & se your pottes for wyne and ale bemade clene and to the surnape make ye curtely with a clothe under a fayre double ary, than take the towelles ende next you & btter ende of the cloth on the btter syde of the table and holde these thre endes atones and folde them atones that a plyte passe not a foote brode, than laye it even there it sholde lye. And after mete wasshe with that that is at the ryghte ende of the table, ye muste guyde it out & the marshall muste convey it, and loke on eche clothe the ryght, than must ye reyle the upper pare of the towell and laye it without on gronynge, and at every ende of the towell ye must convey halfe a halfe a yerde that the fewer may make estate revecently and lette it be. And whan you soverayne hath wasshen drawe the surnape even, than here the surnape to the myddes of the borde & take it up before youre soverayne & here let it by the salte & laye your napkyn knyfe & spone afore hym, than knele on your knee tyll the purpayne passe eyght loves & loke ye set at the endes of the table foure loves at a melle, and se that every persone have napkyn and spone and wayte well to the fewer how many dysshes be covered and soo many cuppes cover ye, than serveye forth the table manerly that every man may speke you curtely.

Here endeth of the buttler and panter yeman of the seller and every. And here foloweth servynge of flesshe.

Serving of Flesh[edit]

Here foloweth servynge of flesshe.

The server must serve & from the borde convey all maner of potages metes and sauces & every daye comon with the coke and understonde & wyte how many dysshes shall be and speke with the panter and offycers of the spycery for fruytes that shall be eten fastynge. Than goo to the borde of servynge and se ye have offycers redy to convey and servauntes for to bere your dysshes. Also yf marshall savyers and servantes of armes be there than serve forth your sovrayne withouten blame.


Fyrste sette ye forth mustarde and brawne potage bege motton stewed. Fesande, swanne, capon, pygge, venyson bake, custarde, leche and lombarde.Fruyter baunte with a subtylte two potages blaunche manger and gelly. For Standarde venyson roste kydde fawne and cony, bustarde storke crane pecocke with his tayle heronserve bytture woodcocke partryche plouer rabet tes grete byrdes larkes, doucettes paynpuffe whyte leche ambre, gelly creme of almondes, curle we brewe snytes quayle sparowe martynet perche in gelly, pety perups quynces bake, leche dewgarde fruyter fayge blandrelles or pepyns with carawaye in cometes wafers and hypocras they be agreeable, Now this feest is done voyde ye the table.

Here endeth the servynge of flesshe. And begynneth the kervynge of flessshe

The kerver must knowe the dervynge and the fayre handlynge of a knyfe and how ye shall feche all maner of fowle, your knyfe must be sayre and your hands must be clene & sasse not two fingers & a thombe upon your knyfe. In the myddes of your honde set the hafte sure vnlassynge & mynsynge with two fyngers & a thombe kervynge of brede layenge & boydying of crommes with two fyngers and a thombe, loke ye have the cure, set never on fysshe, flesshe, beest ne fowle more than twoe fyngers and thombe, than take your lofe in your left honde & holde your knyge surely inbrawe not the table clothe, but wype upon youre napkyn, than take the trenchoure lofe in youre lefte honde and with the edge of your table knyfe take by tyour trenchours as nye the poynt as ye may, than lay foure trenchoures to your soverayne one by as other and laye theron other soure trenchoures or elles twayne than take a lofe in your left hone & pare the lofe roude about than cut the over cruste to your soverayne and cut the nether druste & voyde the parenge & touche the lofe no more after it is so served than clense the table that the server may serve your soverayne. Also ye muste knowe the fumosytees of fysshe flesshe and floules & all maner of sauces accordynge to theyr appetytes, these ben the fumosytees salte soure resty fatte fryed senerves skynnes hony croupes yonge feders heedes pynyons bones all maner of legges of beestes & fowels the better syde for these ben fumosytees laye them never to your soverayne.


Take your knyfe in your honde and cut brawne in the dysshe as it lyeth & laye it on your soveraynes trenchour & se there be mustarde. Venyson with fourmenty is good for your soverayne touche not the venyson with your honde but with your knyfe cut it. [??????] with the edge of your knyfe and cut it out in to the fourmenty, doo in the same wyse with person & bacon, befe chyne and motton, pare the befe cut the motton & laye it to your soverayne, beware of fomylytees, salte senewe fatte resty & rawe. In syrupe fesande partryche stokdove & chekyns, in the left honde take them by the pynyon & with the foreparte of your knyfe syfte up your wynges, than mynce it in to the syrupe, beware of skynne rawe & senewe. Goos tele malarde & swanne reyse the legges than the wynges, laye the body in the myddes or in an other plater, thewynges in the myddes & the legges after, lay the brawne bytwene the legges & the wynges in the plater. Capon or henne of grece syfte the legges than the wynges & caste on wyne or ale than mynce the wynge & gyve your soverayne. Fesande partryche plover & lap winge reyse the wynges & after the legges. Woodcocke bytture egryt snyte curlewe & heronserve unlace theym breke of the pynyons necke & becke, than reyse the legges & let the fetebe on styll than the wynges. A crane syse the wynges fyrst & beware of the trumpe of his brest. Pecocke storke bustarde & shouyllarde nlace them as a crane & lette the fete be on styl. Quayle sparow larke mertynet pygyon swalowe & thrusshe the legges fyrste than the wynges Fawne kydde and lambe laye the kydney to your soverayne than lyfte up the sholder & gyve your soverayne a rybbe. Venyson roste cut it in the dysshe & laye it to your soverayne. & cony lay him on the backe cut away the ventes bytwene the hynder legges breke the canell bone than reyse the sydes than laye & cony in the wombe on eche syde the chyne the two sydes departed from the chyne tha laye the bulke chyne & sydes in the dysshe So ye must mynce foure lesses to one morcets of mete that your soverayne may take it in the sauce. All bake metes that ben hote open them above the coffyn & all that ben colde open them in they mydwaye. Custarde cheke them inche square that yoru soverayne ma ete thereof. Doucettes pare away the sydes & bottome beware of fumosytees. Fruyter vaunte fruyters ben good hote: and all colde fruyters touche not. Tansey is good hote wortes or gruell of befe or of motton is good. Gelly mortrus creme of almondes blauche manget Jussel and charlet cabage and nombles of dere ben good & all other potage and serves beware of.

Here endeth the cervynge of flesshe. And beginneth sauces for all maner of fowles.

Mustarde is good wyth brawne befe chyne bacon & motton. Vergyus is good to boyled chekyns and capon. Swanne with chawdrongs, rybbes of befe with garlyke mustarde peper vergyus gynger, sauce to lambe pygge of fawne mustard & suger to fesande partryche and conye, sauce gamelyne to heron sewe egryt plouer & crane, to brese curlewe salte suger & water of tame, to bustarde shovyllarde a bytturre sauce gamelyne, woodcocke lapwynge larke quayle mertynet venyson and snyte with whyte salte, sparowes & throstelles with salte & synamon, thus with all metes sauces shall have the operacyons.

Here endeth the sauces of all maner of foules and metes

Easter to Pentecost[edit]

Here begynneth the feestes and servyce from Easter unto Whytsondaye

On Eester day & so forth to Pentecost after the Servynge of the table there shall be set brede trenchours and spones after the estymacyon of them that shall syt there and thus ye shall serve your soverayne laye trencours before hym, if he be a grete estate lay fyve trenchours & he be of lower degre foure trenchours & of an other degre thre trenchours, than cut brede for your soverayne after he know his condecyons where it be cutte in the myddes or pared or elles for to be cut in small peces. Also ye must understonde how the merte shall be served before your soverayne & namely on Eester Daye after the governaunce & servyce of the countre where ye were borne. Fyrste on that daye ye shall serve a calfe loden and blessyd, and tthan soden egges with grene sauce and set them before the moost pryncypall estate, and that lorde because of his hyghe estate shall departe them all aboute hym, than serve potage as wortes Jowetes or browes with befe motton or vele, & capons that ben coloured with saffron and bake metes. And in the seconde course Jussell with mamony and rosted edovred, & pegyons with bake metes as tartes chewettes & fawnes & other after the dysposycyon of hte kokes. And at soupertyme dyvers sauces of motton or vele in broche after the ordynaunce of the stewarde and than chekyns with bacon vele rost pegyons or lambe and pygges fete with vynegre & precely theron & a tansey fryed & other bake metes, ye shall understande this maner of servyce dureth to Pentecost save fysshe dayes. Also take hede how ye shall araye these thynges before your soverayne, fyrst ye shall se there be grene sauces of sorellor of vynes that is holde of sauce for the fyrst course, and ye shall begyn to reyse the capon.

Here endeth the feest of Eester tyll Pentecost. And here begynneth kervynge of all maner of fowles.


Sauce that capon

Take up a capon & lyfte up the ryght legge and the ryght wynge & so araye hy forth & laye hy in the plater as he sholde flee & serve your soverayne & know well that capons or chekyns ben arayed after one save the chekyns shall be sauced with grene sauce or bergyus.

Lyfte that Swanne.

Take and dyghte hym as a goose but let hym have a largyour brawne & loke ye have chawdron.

Alaye that fesande.

Take a fesande and seyse his legges & his wynges as it were an henne & no sauce but onely salte.

Wynge that partryche.

Take a partryche and reyse his legges and his wynges as a henne & mynce hym sauce hym with wyne poudre of gynger & salte than set it upon a chaufyng dysshe of coles to warme and serve it.

Wynge that quayle.

Take a quale and reyse his legges and his winges as an henne and no sauce but salte.

Dysplaye that crane.

Take a crane and unfolde his legges and cut of his wynges by the Joyntes, than take up his wynges and his legges & sauce him with powders of gynger mustard vynegre and salte.

Dysmembre that heron

Take an heron and reyse his legges and his wynges as a crane and sauce hym with vynegre mustarde poudre of gynger and salte.

Unjoynte that bytture

Take a bytture & seyse his legges & his wynges as an heron and no sauce but salte only.

Breke that egryt.

Take an egryt and reyse his legges and his wynges as an heron and no sauce but salte

Untache that curlewe.

Take a curlewe and reyse his legges and his wynges as an henne and no sauce but salte.

Untache that brewe.

Take a brewe and reyse his legges and his wynges in the same maner and no sauce but onely salte & serve your soverayne.

Unlace that cony.

Take a cony and laye hym on the backe & cut awaye the ventes, than reyse the wynges and the sydes and laye bulke chyne and the sydes together sauce vynegre and poudre of gynger.

Breke that Sarsell.

Take a sarsell or a teele and reyse his wynges and his legges and no sauce but sale onely.

Mynce that plover.

Take a plover and reyse his legges and his wynges as an henne and no sauce but onely salte

A snyte.

Take a snyte and reyse his wynges his legges and his sholders as a plover and no sauce but salte.

Thye that woodcocke

Take a woodecocke & reyse his legges and his wynges as an henne this done thyght the drayne. And here begynneth the feest from Pentecost unto mydsomer.

Pentecost to midsummer[edit]

In the seconde course for the metes before layd ye shall take for your sauces wyne ale vynegre and pouders after the mete be & gynger & canell from Pentecost to the feest of saynt Johan babtyst. **The fyrst course shall be befe motton soden with capons or rosted & yf the capons be soden araye hym in the maner aforesayd. And whan he is rosted though must caste on salte with wyne or with ale, than take the capon by the legges & caste on the sauce a breke hym out & laye hym in a dysshe as he sholde flee. Fyrst ye shall cut the ryght legge & the ryghte sholder & bytwenethe foure membres laye the brawne of the capon with the croupe in the ende bytwene the legges as it were possyble for to be Joyned agayne together & other bake metes after. And in the seconde sourse potage shall be Jussell charlet or mortrus with yonge geese vele porke pegyons or chekyns rosted with payne puffe, fruyters and other bake metes after the ordynance of the boke. Also the goose ought to be cut membre to membre begynnynge at the ryght legge & soo forth under the ryghte wynge & not upon the Joynte above & it ought for to be eten with greme garlyke or with soreil or tender wynes or veryus in somer season after the pleasure of your soverayne. Also ye shall understande that all maner of fowle that hathe hole fete sholde be reysed gather the wynge and not above.

Here endeth the feest from Pentecost to mydsomer.

Feast of St. John the Baptist to Feast of Michael and All Angels[edit]

And here begynneth from the feest of saynt John the baptyst unto Myghelmasse.

IN the fyrst course potage wortes gruell & foumentry with venyson and mortrus and pestelles of porke with greme sauce. Rosted capon swanne with chawdron. In the seconde sourse potage after the ordynaunce of the cokes with rosted motton vele porke chekyns or endoured pygyons heron serves fruyters or other bake metes, and take hede to the fesande he shall be arayed in the maner of a capon, but it shall be done drye wiythout ony moysture and he shall be eten with salte and pouder of gynger. and the heronsewe shall be arayed in the same maner without ony moysture and he sholde be eten with salte and poudre. Also ye shall understande that all maner of fowles havynge open clawes as capon shall be tyred and arayed as a capon and suche other.

Feast of Saint Michael to Christmas[edit]

From the feest of saynt Myghell unto the feest of Crystmasse.

In the first course potage befe motton bacon or pestelles of porke or with gose capon mallarde swanne or fesande as it is before sayd with tartes or bake metes or chynes of porke. In the seconde course potage ortrus or conyes or fewe, than roost flesshe motton porke vele pullettes chekyns pygyons teeles wegyons mallardes partyche woodcocke plover bytture curlewe heronsewe venyson roost grete byrdes lnytes feldefayres thrusshes fruyters chewettes befe with sauce gelopere roost with sauce pegyll & other bake metes as it is aforesayed. And yf ye kerve afore your lorde or your lady ony soden flesshe kerve awaye the skynne above, than kerve resonably of the fleshe to your lorde or lady & specyally for ladyes for they wyll soone be angry for theyr thoughtes ben soone chaunged, and some lordes wyll soone be pleased & some wyll not, as they be of complesion. The goose & swanne may be cut as ye do other fowles & have hole fete or elles as your lorde or your lady wylle aske it. Also a swanne ????? capon or fesande ought for to be arayed as it is afore sayd, but the skynne must be had awaye, & whan they ben kerved before your lorde or your lady, fo generally the skynne of all maner hole foted foweles ben holsome for to be eate. Also wyte ye well that al maner holed foted foweles that have theyr lyvyng upon the water theyr skynnes ben holsome & clene for by the clenes of the water & fysshe is theyr lyvynge. And yf that they ete ony stynkynge thynge it is made so clene with the water that all the corrupcyon is clene gone away from it. And the skynne of capon henne or chekyn ben not so clene for they ete foule thynges in the strete, & therefore theyr skynnes ben not holsome, for it is not theyr kynde to entre in to the ryver to make theyr mete voyde of the fylth. Mallarde goose or swanne they ete upon the londe foule mete, but anone after theyr kyde they go in to the ryver & there they clense them of theyr foule stynke. & Fesande as it is afore sayd, but the skynne is not holsome, than take the heedes of all felde byrdes and wood byrdes and fesande pecocke partryche woodcocke and curlewe for they ete in theyr degrees foule thynges as wormes todes and other suche.

Here endeth the feestes and the kervynge of flesshe.


And here begynneth the servynge of fisshe

The fyrst course.

To goo to servynge of the fysshe musculade menewes in serve of porpas or of samon bacon hetynge with suger grene fysshe pyke lampraye falens porpas rosted bake guranarde and lampraye bake

The seconde course.

Gelly whyte and reed dates in comfetes congre lamon dorrey brytte torbot hhalybut, for standarde base troute molette chevene sole eles and lamprayes roost tenche in gelly.

The thyrde course.

Fresshe sturgyon breme perche in gelly a Joll of samon sturgyon and welkes apples & rasyns dates capte with mynced gynger, wafers and Hypocras they ben agreable, this feest is done voyde ye the table.

Here endeth servynge of fysshe. And here foloweth kervynge of fysshe.

The kerver of fysshe must se to pessene and foutmentye the tayle and the lyver ye must loke yf there be a salte purpos or sele turrentyne & do after the fourme of venyson, baken herynge laye it hole upon your soveraynes trenchour, whyte herynge in a dysshe open it by the backe pyke out the bones & the rowe & se there be mustarde. If salte fysshe greme fysshe salte samon & congre pare awaye the skyn, salte fysshe stocke fysshe marlynge makrell and bake with butter take awaye the bones & skynnes. & Pyke laye the wombe upon his trenchour with pyke sauce ynoughe. & salte lampraye gobone it flatte in. vii or viiii peces & laye it to your soverayne. & playce put out the water, than crosse hym with your knyfe cast on salte & wyne or al.e. Gornarde rochet breme chevene base molet roche perche sole makrell & whytynge haddocke and codlynge reyse theym by the backe & pyke out the bones & clense the refet in the belly. Carpe breme sole & troute backe & belly together. Samon congre sturgyon turbot thorpole torbake hounde fysshe & halybut cut them in the dysshe as the porpas abouthe, tenche in his sayce cut it eles & lamprayes roost pull of the synne pyke out the bones thereto vynegre and soudre. & crabbe breke hym in sonder in to the dysshe make the shelle clene & put in the stuffe agayne tempre it with vynegre & pouder than cover it with brede and sende it to the kytcheyn to hete, than set it to your soverayne and breke the grete clawes and laye them in a dysshe. & creves drght hym thys departe hym a sonder & slytte the belly and take out the fysshe pare away the reed skynne and mynce it thynne put vynegre in the dysshe and set it on the table without hete. & Jol of of sturgyon cut it in the thynne morselles & laye it roude aboute the dysshe. Fresshe lamprayne bake open the sasty, than take whyte brede and cut it thynne & laye it in a dysshe & with a spone take out galentyne & laye it upon the brede with reed wyne & pouder of synamon, than cut a gobone fo the lamraye & mynce the gobone thynne and laye it in the galentyne than set it upon the fyre to hete. Fresshe herynge with salte & wyne, shrympes well pyked flouders gogyons menewes & muscles eles and lamprayes sprottes is good in sewe, musculade in wortes, oysters in ceuy oysters in gravy menewes & porpas samon & seele gelly whyte and reed cremem and almondes dates in comfetes peres in quinces in syrupe with percely rotes mortrus of houndes fysshe ryse standynge.

Here endeth the kervynge of fysshe. And here begynneth sauces for all maner of fysshe.

Mustarde is good for salte herynge salte fysshe salte congre samon sparlynge salte ele & lynge vynegre is good wyth salte porpas turrentyne salte, sturgyon salte therepole & salte wale, lampray with galentyne, vergyus to roche dace breme molet base flouders sole crabbe & chevene with pouder of synamon, to thormebacke herynge hounderfysshe haddocke whytynge & codde vyndegre pouder and synamon & gynger greme sauce is good with grene fysshe and halybut cottell and fresshe turbot, put not your grene sauce away for it is good with mustarde.

The Chamberlain[edit]

The chaumberlayne muste be dylygent & clenely in his offyce with his heed kembed & soo to his soverayne that he be not rechles and se that he have a clene sherte breche petycote and doublet, than brusshe his holen within & without and se his shone & slyppers be made clene, & at morne when your soverayne wyll arle warme his sherte by the gyre & se he have a foot shete made in this maner. First set a shayre by the fyre with a quysshen an other under his fete, than sprede a shete over the dhayre & se there be redy a kerchefe and a combe, than warme his peticote his doublet and his stomchere & put on his hosen & his shone or slyppers than stryke up his hosen manerly & tye them up than lase his doublet hole by hole & laye the clothe a bouthe his necke & kembe his heed, than loke ye have a basyn & an ewere with warme water and a towell and wasshe his hondes, than knele upon you knee & aske you soverayne what robe he wyll were & brynge hym such as your soverayne comandeth & put it upon him tha doo his gyrdell about hym & take your leve manerly & go to the chyrche or chapell to your soveraynes closet & laye carpettes & quysshens & lay downe his boke of prayers, than drawe the curtynes and take your leve goodly & go to your soveraynes chambre & cast all the clothes of his bedde & bete the federbedde & the bolster, but loke ye waast no feders than shake the blankettes & fetche shetes be fayre & swete or elles loke ye have clene shetes, than make up his bedde manerly than l ay the heed shete & the pyllowes, than take up the towel & the basyn & laye carpettes about the bedde or wyndowes & cupbordes layde with carpettes and quysshens. Also loke there be a good fyre brennynge bryght, & se the hous of element be swete & clene & the prevy borde covered with a grene cloth & a quysshen, than se there be blanket donne or cotton for your soverayne, a loke ye have basyn & evere with water or a towel for you soverayne, than take of his gowne, a brynge hym a mantell to kepe hym fro colde, than brynge hym to the gyre & take of his shone & his hosen than take a fyne kerchet of reynes & kembe his heed & put on his kerchet & his bonet, than sprede downe his bedde laye the heed shete and the pyllowes, & whan you soverayne is to bedde drawe the curtynes, than se there be morter of ware or perchoures be redy, than dryve out dogge or catte & loke there be basyn and brynall set nere your soverayne, than take your leve manerly that your soverayne may take his rest meryly.

Here endeth of the chaumberlayne.

Marshall and Usher[edit]

Here foloweth of the Marshall and the ussher.

the Marshall and the usshere muste knowe all the estates of the chyrche and the hyghe estate of the kynge with the blode royall.

The estate of a Pope hath no pere

The estate of an Emperour is nexte

The estate of kynge

The estate of a cardynall

The estate of a kynges sone a prynce

The estate of an archebysshop

The estate of a duke

The estate of a bysshop

The estate of a Marques

The estate of an erle

The estate of a vycount

The estate of a baron

The estate of an abbot with a myter

The estate of the thre chefe Juges and the mayre of London.

The estate of an abbot without a myter

The estate of a knyght bacheler

The estate of pryour dene archedeken or knyght

The estate of of the mayster of the rolles

The estate of other Justyces & barons of the cheker

The estate of the mayre of Calays

The estate of a provyncyall a doctour dyvyne

The estate of a prothonate is above the popes collectour and a doctour of both lawes

The estate of hym that hath ben mayre of London and servaunt of the lawe.

The estate of a mayster of the chauncery and other worshypfull prechours of pardon and clerkes that ben gradewabel, & all other ordres of shastyte persones and preestes worshypfull marchautes & gentylmen all these may syt at the squyers table.

In archebysshop and a duke may not kepe the hall but eche estate by them selfe in chaumbre or in bauylyon that nother se other.

Bysshoppes Marques Erles & Vycountes all these may syt two a messe.

A baron & the mayre of London & thre chefe Juges and the speker of the parlyamnet & and abbot with a myter all these may syt two or thre at a messe

And al other estates may syt thre or foure at a messe

Also the Marshall muste understonde and knowe the blode royall for some lorde is of blode royall and of small lyvelode. And a lady of lower degree shall kepe the estate of her lordes blode, and therefore the royal blode shal have the reverences as I have shewed you here before.

Also the Marshall muste take hede of the byrthe and nexte of the lyne of the blode royall.

Also he must take hede of the kynges offycers of the Chaunceler Stewarde Chamberlayne Tresourer and Controller.

Also the Marshall must take hede unto straungers & put them to worshyp & reverence for & they have good chere it is your soveraynes honour.

Also a Marshall muste take hede yf the kynge sende to your soverayne ony message and yf he sende a knyght receyve hym as a baron, and yf he sende a squyere receyve hym as a knyght, and yf he sende a yeman receyve hym as a squyer, and yf he sende a grome receyve hym as a yeman.

Aslo it is noo rebuke to a knyght to sette a grome of the kynge at his table.

Here endeth the boke of servyce and kervynge and servynge and all maner of offyce in his kynde unto a prynce or ony other estate and all the feestes in the yere. Enprynted by Wynkyn de Worde at London in the Fletestrete at the sygne of the sonne. The year of our lorde. M.CCCCC,viii.

This work was published before January 1, 1926, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.