The Cutters' Practical Guide (1898)/Part 1/Juvenile Clothing

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JUVENILE CLOTHING.




We now come to deal with those garments which apply more particularly to those younger portions of the race which may strictly called juveniles as compared with those a few years older, and whom we have designated youths, and to whom our former pages have boon particularly devoted. Almost as much scope is allowed for the designer's skill in juveniles as in ladies' clothing, inasmuch as neither colour nor material is restricted, so that with such scope the tailor must be vary much to blame if he lacks the skill to produce a garment at once becoming, stylish, and attractive. Historical, national, and artistic styles are all considerably patronised, and it occurs to us that this is one reason this branch of our trades has drifted into the hands of a few specialists, who make it their busi- uess to design or reproduce according to the style desired. It may be as well if we describe what we mean by historical, &c. Historical costumes refer to those worn in olden times, and which have become popular from an historical point of view. By national, we refer to the special costumes as worn by certain nations, such as the Scotch Highland Costume. By sectional, we refer to those garments worn by a certain part of the community by virtue of their trade or calling, and amongst which may be quoted the Sailor and Military styles. By artistic we refer to such garments as are trimmed either by pleats (as in the Norfolk) or in braided designs, as illustrated on Plate 18. It will be noticed that in the following diagrams the back length has been reduced 14 inch, and the front shoulder increased a like amount, thus altering the balance to the extent of 14 an inch, that being in accordance with the dictates of our experience; most juveniles resembling to a very large extent the corpulent figure, and being of the gar-ment. It is hardly necessary for us to repeat the arguments we previously used in favour of cultivat- ing a juvenile trade, as they were dealt with in the early part of the present work, so that we will at. once proceed to deal with the various costumes individually, and begin by one of the moat popular, National Costumes.


The Scotch Highland Costume.
Diagrams 80 to 93.'
Figare 41. Plates 16 and 17.

A good deal of variation is permissible in some of the details as well as the material from which this is made, and as military garments form a kind of standard pattern which are worked out in these various points by authorised military regulations, we feel we could not do better than quote the Army Regulations for the Doublet of Highland Regiments.

"Doublet.—Scarlet cloth, with collar and cuffs of the regimental facings. The collar laced and braided according to rank, gauntlet cuffs, 4 inches deep in front and 6 inches at the back, edged with 12 inch laces round the top and down the back seam: 3 loops of gold braid with buttons on each cuff; 8 buttons in front and 2 at the waist behind. Inverness Skirts. 6+12 inches deep, with skirt flaps 6 inches deep; 3 loops of gold braid with buttons on each skirt flap. The front, collar, skirts and flaps, edged with white cloth, 14 inch wide, and the skirts and flap; lined with white, Shoulder straps of twisted round gold cord, universal pattern, lined with scarlet; in small button of regimental pattern at the top. Badges of rank in silver."

The style in which the Highland Dress; is made for little boys is as follows: it consists of the Doublet with tashes (i.e., small skirts), vest with flaps, kilt of Tartan of clan pattern, the Sporran or Pouch, the Plaid, the Claymore or Sword, the Dirk, the Skean Dhu, Brooches for cap and shoulder belt, the hose which should be of the same pattern as the plaid or Kilt, but with the cheek running on the bias. The cap with one, two, or three feathers, according to the social position of the wearer, and fancy brogues with buckles, completes the costume. Illustrations of all these details will be found on Plate 17, and should our readers have any difficulty in procuring them, we shall be pleased to do so for them. The Claymore is worn on the left side, the dirk on the right, and the Skean Dhu in the stocking, whilst the position of the Cap and shoulder Brooches, as well as the Sporran will be thoroughly understood without any explanation of ours. Turning our attention to the diagrams for reproducing same, we find they are produced by the same system as previously explained, the various quantities marked on them being the usual Shape to the seams of this garment. The bank is cut on the crease, and a button stand is left all down the front. This, however, is not always done, many being made to just fasten at the neck, and have two rows of buttons, i.e, one down each forepart. It is made to come just below the natural waist, and is continued below that with the lashes or skirts, which really form one of its principal features.

The Front Skirt,
Dia. 84,

Is not brought to the end of forepart being left open to show the vest between; its shape is faithfully portrayed in the diagram, and if the quantities there marked are used as units of the graduated tape, they will be reproduced of a suitable size. The underskirt is cut round, and has the edge finished in the same way as the edge of the Doublet, which our diagram illustrates as being round. The top tash, as will be seen, is pointed, and has three buttons and cords. These buttons are generally plate, diamond shape, and not unusually of silk or mohair, according to the material used. The diamond shaped button, however, gives it a more decided Scotch bone, they having a thistle on them. The side tash is somewhat different in shape, the details of which may be readily gathered from the diagram. The back tash is decidedly different, and as shown on our diagram, shows the skirts for the whole back, that in, right and left; they are cut separately, and allowed to slightly overlap and left plain, no buttons or cords being put on them. 13 or 14 buttons are put up the front, and a shoulder strap either of cord or braid, or from the same material as the Doublet, is placed on the shoulder, as in diagram 80. The sleeve ls produced on precisely the same linen as previously described, the special feature of this being the gauntlet cuff, the size of which is clearly marked on diagram 81; it is left loose on the top edge, and lined with silk or the same as used for the body. The edges are finished the same as the edges of Doublet, and three buttons and cords complete it as shown.

The Vest.
Dia. 75.

The special points about this are fastening to neck and cut long in front, with the corners cut sharply away, as illustrated. Flaps to the pockets of the shape shown, which are finished all round the same as the edges, the pockets being more usually put in above than under them. 3 buttons and cords are put on the some way as on the tashes. The back is cut much shorter than forepart, and a slit left at the side as shown, the reason for this is to prevent the possibility of the back showing if the book or side tashes were accidently lifted. We now come to the most distinctive feature of this dress, viz.,

The Kilt,
Diagrams 86 and 87,

Which, an will be seen, consists of three parts viz., the left, or top apron, which is usually finished with rosettes, &c., as illustrated, and is made at top rather more than 12 waist, and 12 inches wider at bottom. The centre or kilted part, when finished, is equal to remaining two-thirds of the Waist; the right, or under apron, is the same size as the left, and is of course left plain. The great thing to be avoided in these in their opening in front from want of size for the movements of the body. The measures usually taken for a kilt are 1+12 or 2 inches above the natural waist to the knee bone for length, and the size round the waist and seat, the latter measure being more important with men than boys, there being comparatively little difference between the seat and waist of a boy.

These Kilts are frequently worn by adults. and as instructions for making will not in all probability be found in any work, we give the following, the principal points of which appeared in No. 348 of the Tailor and Cutter

Making a Kilt.
Diagram 88. Plato 17.

For a full-grown person a Kilt requires about six times the waist measure, or from 7+12 to 9 yards; the quantity, however, further varies according to the thickness of material, the degree of fulness desired, and the pattern, and the distance the stripes composing it are apart. Still, speaking of an adult, the depth of a Kilt is the width of the material, and is worn higher or lower on the body, according to the height of the wearer, and the distance he wishes it to cover the lower limbs. Properly, when standing, it should be level with the lower part of the knee, so that in the act of walking it does not touch the hinder part of the leg. For boys and youths the depth must be varied according to height

Although to the uninitiated the making of a Kilt appears complicated, it is in reality very simple. Supposing it to be made of Tartan, the clan stripe must appear in the centre of each plait, which is easily distinguished by its prominence; this necessity is the reason of the peculiarity in plaiting ups Kilt. Diagram 88 shows the section of the plaits -that is, that the lines represent the edge of the material.

The *'s show the front of the plaits, the O's the back of them. In ordinary plaiting both back and front would appear the same, each plain running to a sharp point, as those represented by the O's, but then as a particular stripe, within given and limited intervals, must be shown on the front, that portion of the plait containing it is turned back upon itself; at least that is the result arrived at, although not exactly the method followed, which we will describe.

When on, a Kilt appears to consist of two portions, the plaited, which is behind and over the hips, and the plain, which is in front. This plain part is called the apron, and is really double, each end of the Kilt having a quantity left plain, from ten to twelve inches, and in wear they are doubled over and under-the right under the left over. The number of plaits in a Kilt will vary with the size, but may be usually taken at about thirty, and in width must be regulated by size of waist; having fixed upon the width and number of plaits, keeping in view the quantity of material and the distance the stripes to be thrown up are apart, proceed to baste down each edge of the plains from top to bottom, about five inches from the top, making them a little narrower, to hollow of waist. Having done this, carefully bring all the edges so busted together, one at a time, and baste firmly down from top to bottom, keeping the under material in the form of box plaits, that is, let it lie both ways, except the two front ones, which must all lie one way, back- wards: having proceeded thus fur, draw the edges together for about ten inches down, after which, firmly prick across the bottom of the sewed part of the plaits, through all. Turning now to the inside, the edges of the plaits may be felled or stitched down as for as the pricking across; or, what is far better (although not strictly regular), as it makes the Kilt thinner and set better over the hips, is to cutout all the material to the outside plaits, fill in the space with a piece of firm tweed, and line over it. In doing this shaped to hollow of waist, for which purpose we have directed above that each sewed part of the plaits should be narrowed in the centre. By Saxons, Kilts are sometimes worn with braces, but the Celt draws his philabeg firmly round his waist with pins five or six inches long, with silver or gold heads.

Bind the top; prose the Kilt before removing the busting. This is not a very particular operation, but must be thoroughly and firmly done, so that every plait keeps its place, this and the forming of the waist being the two parts upon which its bounty depends. The next operation is to put on the straps and buckles, if worn, the straps of leather being put on the ends of the apron, opposite the hollow of waist, and the buckles in a corresponding line on the third plait; the under strap must of course pass through a hole to the top side. The last operation is to put on the rosettes, three on the edge of upper apron, and three down the edge of the corresponding plait, with strings of the some ribbon as the rosettes, passing from under them, so as to tie together.

To make a rosette, take a stiff piece of card cut round, and cover the same as a button with black cotton, than take a ribbon to match either the ground colour or that of the superior strip of the Tartan, about half an inch wide, draw in one edge and carry round and round from outside to centre, finishing with a small button covered with the same, or cut into about three inch lengths and sew them on the double in rows, beginning with the outside and finishing as before, with a button in the centre.

Description of all the Clan Tartans.
Dias. 91, 92 and 93.

With the view of making our description of the Highland Costume as complete as possible, we give these diagrams with descriptions of all the other which appear in the Tailor and Cutter for 1876. Note—The figures to the left of the diagrams of the clan tartans represent the number of eighths of an inch consequently them are 113 eighths in diagram 91, 69+12 in diagram 92. 60+12 in diagram 93. The clans chosen are solely for illustration. At the top is the extent in eighth; of an inch. Three threads are usually the quarter of an eighth, and at the bottom is the color. A work illustrating the various tartans in the proper colours and proportions is published by Messrs. W. & A. K. Johnston, price 2s. 6d.


All members of clans are naturally desirous of knowing their own tartan; and so frequent have been the intermarriages between the two countries, that numerous Englishmen feel interested in the same subject. A Highlander's clothing in his tribal insignia., and he literally displays on his shoulders his clan coat-armour. It may be useful to know one's clan and name by this means; and the following diagram and list will enlighten the enquirer into the science. It will also, it hoped, serve to check a system of corruption to which of late years it has been so much exposed.

We shall now endeavour to make this matter clear, without having recourse to colours; and this, simple as it may appear, has never, we believe, been attempted. In tartans, the warp (or long thread) and the Woof (or cross thread) are each of the same breadth. consequently the pattern is a square or chequer. It will, therefore, be necessity to give the length of the pattern only; that is to say a series of colours complete; and those are repeated as often as required.

Buchanan. -½ azure, 8 green, ½ black, 1 azure, ½ black,2 yellow,½ black, 1 azure, ½ black, 8 red, 1 white.

Cameron. -½ yellow, 4 blue, 1½ red , 8 blue, ½ red, 8 black , 8 green, 1½ red, ½ green,½ red, 4 green,½ red,½ green, 1½ red, 8 green, 8 black, ½ red, 8 blue, 1½ red, 4 blue, 1 yellow.

Campbell of Argyl, 4 blue,1 black, 1 blue,1 black, 1 blue, 8 black,8 green , 1 black,2 white, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 8 blue, 8 black, 8 green, 8 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 4 blue.

Campbell of Braidallan - 2 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 7 black, ½ yellow, 11 green, ½ yellow, 7 black, 6 blue, 1 black , 1 blue.

Chisholm—2½ red, 8 green, 2½ red, 2 blue, 1 white, 2 blue , 11 red, 2 blue, 1 white, 2 blue , 2½ red, 8 green, 2½ red, 1 blue

Colquhoun - ½ blue, 1 black, 6 blue, 9 black, 1½ white, 7 green, 1 red, 7 green, 1½ white, 9 black, 6 blue, 1 black, 1 blue.

Cumin - 1 azure, 1 black, 2 azure, 3 black, ½ orange, 5 green, 2 red, ½ white, 2 red,3 green, ½ orange, 3 black, 2 azure,1 black, 2 azure.

Drummond - ½ white, 1 azure, 1½ blue, 4 red, 8 green, ½ yellow, 1½ blue, ½ white, 17 red, ½ white, 1½ blue, ½ blue, 4 black, 4 green, 1 yellow, 4 green, 4 black , 4 blue, ½ black, 1 red.

Ferguson- ½ green, 6 blue, ½ red, 6 black, 6 green, 1 black, 6 green, 6 black,½ red, 6 blue, 1 green

Forbes - 1 blue, 1 black, 6 blue, 6 black, 6 green, 1 black, 1 white, 1 black, 6 green, 6 black, 6 blue, 1 black, 1 blue.

Fraser—2½ blue, ½ red. ½ blue, ½ red, 5 green, 6½ red, 1 green, 6½ red, 1 green, 6½ red, 5 green, 5 blue, ½ red, ½ blue, ½ red, 5 blue, 5 green, 6½ red, 1 green, 6½ red, 5 green, ½ red, ½ blue, ½ red, 5 blue.

Gordon - ½ blue, 1 black, 5½ blue, 6 black, 6 green, 1 yellow, 6 green, 6 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 6 blue,1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 6 black, 6 green, 1 yellow, 6 green, 6 black, 5½ blue, 1 black, 1 blue.

Graeme - ½ black, 6 smalt, 6 black, ½ green,1 azure, 8 green,1 azure, ½ green, 1 azure, ½ green, 6 black, 6 smalt, 1 black.

Grant - [See diagram 91.]

Gunn - ½ green, 7 blue, ½ green, 7 black, 7 green, 1 red, 7 green, 7 black, ½ green, 7 blue, 1 green.

Lamont - 2½ blue, 1½ black, 1½ blue, 1½ black, 1½ blue, 6 black, 6 green, 1½ white, 6 green, 6 black, 6 blue, 1½ black, 1½ blue, 1½ black, 6 blue, 6 black, 6 green, 1½ white, 6 green, 6 black, 1½ blue, 1½ black, !½ black, 4½ blue.

Logan and MacLeman (a).—1¼ red, 1¼ blue, ¾ red, ¾ blue, ¾ red, 7 blue, 5¼ black, 7 green, ½ red, ½ black, 1 yellow, ½ black, ½ red, 7 green, 5¼ black, 7 blue, ¾ red, ¾ blue, ¾ red, 1¼ blue, 2¼ red.

MacAlistar - 4 red, ½ light green, 3 dark green, ½ red, ½ white, 6 red, ½ azure,½ red, 11 dark green, ½ red, ½ azure, 5+12 red, ½ white, ½ red, 4 blue, ½ red, ½ white, 2½ red, 3 dark green, ½ light green, 2 red, ½ light green, 3 dark green, ¾ red, ½ white, ¼ red, 2½ blue.

Mac Auley - ½ black, 9 red, 3½ green, 1½ red, 5 green, ½ white,5 green, 1½ red, 3½ green, 9 red, 1 black.

Mac Donald(b) - 2½ green, ½ red, 1 green, 1½ red, 8 green, 8 black, ½ red, 8 blue, 1½ red, ¾ blue, ½ red, 5 blue, ½ red, ¾ blue, 1½ red, 8 blue, ½ red, 8 black, 8 green, ½ red, 5 green.

Mac Duff - 4 red, 3 azure, 4 black, 6½ green, 3½ red, 1 black, 3½ red, 1 black, 3½ red, 6½ green, 4 black, 3 azure, 8 red.

Mac Dougal - 3 red, 6 green, 1 red, ½ blue, 18 red, 2 crimson, 18 red, ½ blue, 1 red, 6 green, 6 red, 6 green, 13 crimson, 1 red, 3 crimson,6 blue, 2 red, 1 green, 2 red, 18 green, 1 red, 1 crimson.

Mac Gilleray' - ½ blue, 2 red, (illegible text) azure, 2 red, 9 green, 1 red, 7 blue, ½ red, ½ azure, 18 red, ¼ azure, 2 red, ¼ azure, ¼ blue, 18 red, ½ azure, ½ red,7 blue, 1 red, 9 green, 2 red, ½ azure, 2 red, 1 blue.

Mac Gregor' - [See Diagram 92.]

Mac Inacs - ½ black, 6 green, 1 red, ¼ black, 1½ red, ¼ black, 8 red, 1 yellow, 1½ red, 3 azure, 1½ red, ¼ black, 4 green, ¼ black, 1 red, 1 white, 1 red, ¼ black, 4 green, ¼ black, 1 red, 3 azure.

Mac Intosh - 12 red, 6 blue, 2½ red, 10½ green, 4 red, ½ blue, 4 red, 10½ green, 2½ red, 6 blue,24 red.

Mackay - ¼ green, 7 corbeau (c), 1 green, 7 black, 7 green, half black, 7 green, 7 black, 1 green, 7 corbeau, 1½ green.

Mac Kensie - 3½ blue, 1½ black, 1½ blue, 1½ black, 1½ blue, 7 black, 7 green, 1½ black, 1½ white, 1½ black, 7 green, 7 black, 7 blue, 1½ black, 1½ red, 1½ black, 7 blue, 7 black, 7 green, 1½ black, 1½ white, 1½ black, 7 green, 7 black, 1½ blue, 1½ black, 1½ blue, 1½ black, 7 blue.

Mac Kinnnon - [See Diagram 93.]

Mac Lachlan - 4 red,1 black, 1 red, 1 black, 1 red, 8 black, 8 blue, 1½ green, 8 blue, 8 black, 8 red, 1 black, 1 red.

Mac Leurin - 9¼ blue, 4 black, 1½ green, 1½ red, 3 green, ½ black, 1 yellow, ½ black, 1 yellow, ½ black, 3 green, 1½ red, 1½ green, 5 black, 18 blue, 5 black.

Mac Lean - ½ black, 1½ red, 1 azure, 11 red, 5 green, 1 black, 1½ white, 1 black, ½ yellow, 2 black, 3½ azure, 2 black, ½ yellow, 1 black, 1½ white, 1 black, 5 green, 11 red,1 azure, 1½ red, 1 black.

Mac Leod - 1 yellow, ½ black, 6 blue, 6 black, 6 green, ½ black, 2 red, ½ black, 6 green, 6 black, 6 blue, ½ black, 2 yellow.

Mac Nab - 1 green, 1 crimson, 6 green, 6 Crimson, 6 red, 1 crimson, 6 red, 6 crimson, 1 green, 1 crimson, 1 green,1 crimson, 6 green, 1 crimson, 1 green, 1 crimson, 1 green, 6 crimson, 6 red, 1 crimson, 6 red, 6 crimson, 6 green, 1 crimson.

Mac Nochton - ¼ black, ½ azure, 8 red, 8 green, 6 black, 4½ azure, 8 red, ½ azure, ½ black, ½ azure, 8 red, 4½ azure, 6 black, 8 green, 8 red, ½ azure, ½ black.

Mac Neal - 1 white, 6 smalt, 6 black, 6 green, 2½ black, ½ yellow, 2½ black, 6 green, 6 black, 6 smalt, ½ white.

Mac Pharlan - 10 red, ½ black, 5 green, 1 white, 1 red, ½ black, 1 red, 1 white, ½ green, 5 dark blue, 1 black, 1 red, 1½ white, ¾ green, 1½ white, 1 red, 1 black, 5 dark blue, ½ green, 1 white, 1 red, ½ black, 1 red, ½ black, 1 red, 1 white, 5 green, ½ black, 20 red.

Mac Pherson - ¼ red, ½ black, ½ white, 5½ red, 2 azure, ½ black, ½ azure, ½ black, 2 azure, 3 black, ½ yellow, 4 green, 5½ red, 1 azure, 5½ red, 1 azure, 5½ red, 4 green, ½ yellow,3 black,2 azure, ½ black, ½ azure, ½ black, 2 azure, 5½ red, ½ white, ½ black, ½ red.

Mac Querrie. - 2½ red, 12 blue, 15 red, ¼ azure, 2 red, ¼ azure, 15 red, 12 blue, 5 red, 16 green, 7 red.

Mac Rae - 5½ green, 2½ black, 11 green, 2 red, 3 green, 1 black, 3 blue, 1 white, 3 blue, 1 black, 3 green, 2 red, 11 green, 2½ black, 11 green.

Matthcaon - ½ red, 1 green, 6 red, 5 dark blue, 1½ azure, 5 green, 1 red, 1 green, 1 red,5 green,6 red, 1 green, 1 red.

Menzies - 14¼ red, 3½ white, 1½ red, 3½ white, 3 red, 1½ white, ¾ red, 7 white, ¾ red, 1½ white, 3½ red, 3½ white, 1½ red, 3½ white, 28½ red.

Munro - 6½ red, ½ yellow, ½ blue, 1½ red, 13 green, 1½ red, ½ blue, ½ yellow, 1½ red, 3 blue, 1½ red, 1½ yellow, ½ blue, 13 red, 1½ green, 1½ red, 1½ green, 1½ red, 1½ green, 13 red.

Murray - 1 blue, 1 black, 6 blue, 6 black, 6 green, 2 red, 6 green, 6 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 6 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 6 black, 6 green, 2 red, 6 green, 6 black, 6 blue, 1 black, 2 blue.

Ogileie - 1 red, ¼ white, ½ black, ½ yellow, 1 purple, ½ yellow, 1½ green, ½ yellow, ½ red, ½ black, ½ red, ½ black, ½ red, ½ black, 1 yellow, 2 green, 1 yellow, ½ black, 2 red, ½ white, 2 red, ½ black ½ yellow, 2 green, ½ white, 2 green, ½ yellow, ½ purple, 1 red, ½ black, 3½ red, ¼ white, ½ blue, ¼ white, 3½ red, ¼ white, ½ blue, 3½ red, ½ black, 1 red, green, 1 yellow, 1½ green, ½ yellow, 1½ green, 1 yellow, 3 black, ¼ white, 1 blue, ¼ white, 3 black, 2 red, ½ white, 2 red, ½ white, ½ yellow, 3½ green, 1 black, 3½ green, ½ yellow, ½ black, 2 red, ½ white, 2 red, ½ white, 2 red, ½ black, ½ yellow, 2 green, ½ white, 2 green, ½ yellow, ½ black, 2 red, ½ white, 2 red, ½ black, 1 yellow, 3½ green, 1 black, 1¾ green.

Robertson - red, 1 green, 8½ red, 1 blue, 1 red, 8½ green, 1 red, 8½ green, 1 red, 1 green 8½ red, 1 green, 1 red, 1 green, 8½ red, 1 green, 1 red, 8½ blue, 1 red, 8½ green, 1 red, 1 blue, 8½ red, 1 green, 1 red, 1 green, 8½ red, 1 blue, 1 red, 8½ green, ½ red.

Roez - ½ red, 5 blue, 5 black, 5 green, ½ white, 2 black, ½ white, 5 green, 5 black, 5 blue,1 red.

Ross - 4½ green, 1 red, 9 green, 9 red, 1 green, 2 red, 1 green, 9 red, 9 blue, 1 red, 9 blue, 9 red, ½ blue, ½ red, 1 blue, ½ red, ½ blue, 9 red.

Sinclair. - 9 red, 10 green, 2½ black, ½ white, 4 azure, 18 red.

Skene' or Clon Doucha' of Mur. - 1 black, 1½ red, 12 green, 2 black, 1½ orange, 2 black, 12 green, 2 black, 1½ red, 2 black, 12 black, 2 black.

Stewart - ¼ white, 1½ red, 1 black, 4 red, 8 green, 1 black, 1 white, 1 black, ½ yellow, 5 black, 3 azure, 16 red, 3 azure, 5 black, ½ yellow, 1 black, 1 white, 1 black, 8 green, 4 red, 1 black, 1½ red, 1 white.

Sutherland - 5½ blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 8 black, 8 green, 1 black, 8 green, 8 black, 8 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 8 blue, 8 black, 8 green, 1 black, 8 green, 8 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 blue, 1 black, 11 blue.

Urquhat - 4 green, 1 black, 1 green, 1 black, 1 green, 8 black, 8 blue, 1 red, 8 blue, 8 black, 8 green, 1 black, 1 green.

(a) These two clans are of one descent, and there is no distinction in the tartans save that the latter prefer it of a broader pattern.

(b)There are four great divisions of Clan Donald, besides the chief branch distinguished as of " The Isles" viz., Clan Ranald, Glengarry, Keppach, and Glenco. The Glengarry tartan has a white stripe in the centre of the green division and in that of Clan Ranald two have been introduced, once on each side of the same division.

(c)This is the original colour, from a native dye, but it is now usually dark blue.

The web of tartan is from 24 to 26 inches in width; and all clan tartans ought to have the colours so proportioned that they can be made up in the form of the kilt or the belted plaid; that is, the stripes should be so arranged. that in "box-plait- ing" the distinguishing bars shell appear without any overlaying, which prevents the free play of the Feilebeaag, and destroys the pleasing effect of loose drapery. The ingenious fabrications of tartan which have for some time been so fashionable, are great improvements in this manufacture; and the brilliance of colour and taste of arrangement are often extremely beautiful; but except where they are copies of clan tartans, they are arranged with- out any regard to their adaptation for the Highland dress. As they are, however, generally intended for fancy scarves and shawls, there would be less harm in this, were it not that patterns are often marked and disposed of as clan plaids to those who cannot tell whether they are so or not. Indeed the popularity of this notional manufacture has induced parties to bring forward patterns as appertaining to clans and families, which are the entire emanations of their own inventive propensi- ties; and although many are imposed upon by the plausibility with which the deception is supported, those who are at all versed in the subject can easily detect the true from the spurious.

By the plan here given, which is formed on that which appeared some 25 years ago in Mr. Logan's elaborate work on the Highlanders, any one will be enabled to provide himself with his appropriate Breacan. In many cases the scale here given will not, however, coincide with the pattern, as it muy be of is larger or smaller sett; but, if correctly designed, the colours will proportionately corres- pond. Let the scale be drawn and the colors marked as for as given, which comprehends the whole pattern, and by applying it to as piece of cloth, the commencement being from the selvedge, it will be proved correct or otherwise.

[Mr. Logan about the same time sent by letter the following information respecting Badges to The Family Herald.]

SUAICHENTAIS* OR CLAN BADGES

  • Buchanan (Dearc Fhraleh) bilberry.
  • Cameron (Dearc Fhitioh) crowberry.
  • Campbell (Gharbag an t-slei-bhe), club moss
  • Chisholm (Rainneach), fen
  • Colquhoun (Braoileag nan con), bearberry
  • Cumin (Dusmhie Chuimein), wild cumin.
  • Drummond (Lus mhic righ Bazataisa) , mother of thyme
  • Ferguson (Ros Greine), little sunflower
  • Forbes (Bonladih), broom
  • Fraser (Iughar) yew-tree
  • Gordon (Eighearn), ivy
  • Graeme (Buaidh erobh), native laurel
  • Gunn (Aiteann), juniper
  • Lamont (Luibhean(, dryas
  • Logan and Mac Lennan (Conas), fures
  • Mac Auklae (Muilcag) cranberry
  • Mac Donald and all branches, as Mac Alisdair, MacIntire &c. (Frach Gorn), common heath.
  • Mac Dugal (Frach dearg), bell heath
  • Mac Gregor and all branches of Clan Alpin. viz., Mac Kinnon, Mac Quarie, Mac Nad and Grant (Giuthas), pine-tree,
  • Mac Intosh, and all Clan Chattan - Mac Bain, Mac Gillivray, Mac Queen, Shaw, Farquharson, Davidson, MacDuff, Mac Pherson (Lus nan Braoileag) red whortle.
  • Mac Innes (Aonis), holly
  • Mac Kenvie (Cuilfhiona), holly
  • Mac Lean (Cuilfhionn), holly
  • Mac Lachlan (Faochag), little periwinkle
  • Mac Laurin (Buaich craboh).
  • Mac Leod (Aiteann), juniper.
  • Mac Nachtan (Lusan Al-banach), trailing azalia
  • McNiel (Luibhean), dryas
  • Menzies (Fraoch narn Mein-nich), Menzie's heath
  • Munro (Garbhagan Ggleann), common club moss.
  • Murray and Sutherland (Balaidh Chatti), butcher's broom
  • Ogilvio (Boglus), evergeen alkanet.
  • Robertson (Dluith Fraoch), fine-leaved heath
  • Rose (Ros mairi fiadhaich), wild rosemary
  • Ross (Aiteann), juniper
  • Urquhart (Lus loth'n t- Samhradh), native wall-flower
  • A chief carries three eagles' feathers; a duiacvasal', or gentleman, two; and a commoner, one only.

Literally, the sprig of victory; A poetical term, because the laurel circlet was placed on the brows of those who had achieved triumph. Labarail is the Gaelic nuns, whence the English laurel.

The various details illustrated in Plate 17 will be a very great help to tailors not acquainted with such. Diagrams 89 and 90 we shall refer to later on in dealing with Kilt Frocks in Sailor Dresses. etc., as they apply more particularly to them, although they are often used for a species of Scotch dress known under the name of the Highland Undress Suit, an ordinary round jacket and vest being worn with a kilt without any of the et ceteras which invariably go with the Highland suit proper, so that if our readers desire to make such they will easily be able to gain the necessary information from one part or another of this work.

This being the only style of national costume which is at all popular with juvenile wear, we will leave out others of the some class and proceed to deal with

Artistic, Sectional, and Historical Types of Juvenile Costume.

It is somewhat difficult to subdivide these, as the Artistic runs parallel to the Sectional and Historical

on many occasions, so that we have

Military and Artistic Designs for Little Boys’ Jackets.
Diagrams 94 to 106. Plate 18.
Figs. 42 to 41.

Dealing that with the cutting of these it will only be necessary to point out the special features to be observed, as it is in all other respects produced by the same system as previously described. All that we noted in the remarks on Juveniles apply to these, and as they are generally made to fasten up to the throat it will be necessary to take the size of the neck into consideration, and with that end in view and to facilitate the matter we only make the front length from 38 to 34 longer than the front shoulder, making up the size of neck at front, adding on the button-stand in the usual way, with the exception of diagrams 100, 103, and 106, which are all made to fasten with hooks and eyes, and loops of braid or cord over buttons or olivets.

It will be noticed there are two distinct styles of braiding, independent of the cuffs, viz., vertical and horizontal, the former with the design or patterns of braiding running up and down the figure, and in the letter across. The effect of those on different types of Juveniles will be very striking, and the tailor may show a knowledge of artistic effect by the selection he makes for different forms. Diagrams 94, 96, and 97 are especially suitable for the podgy, fat boy, and diagrams 100, 103, and 106 would improve the boy whose tendency is to the tall and thin type. Why this is so we will endeavour to explain. It is a well-known fact that stripes add to the size of the figure (apparently), in whatever direction they run, and as those designs of braiding have a very similar affect by producing a line in the direction the braid is put on. In Diagrams 94, 96, and 97 the most prominent line of trimming running vertically cuts the figure, as it were, into sections and so reduces the width and increases the height, whilst those shown on Diagrams 100, 103, 106, running in the reverse direction, add to the width and contract the height. Of course we are now speaking of the effect produced to eye, as we are apt to look at everything by comparison, and if this has not been demonstrated to our readers let them take 36 inches of material measuring say 40 inches (sideseam), and another 36 inches measuring only 24, and, forgetting the knowledge they both measure 36 inches long, look at them and see which appears the longer. They will soon see the client of the narrower width. In just the same way stripes make the material appear narrow and long, and for this reason stripes are especially suitable for short, stout people, and large and prominent checks for tall and thin people. Light colours or those which attract the light have the effect of apparently increasing the aim, whilst dark colours diminish it. To test this, put a light check coat on a stout man, and then get him to remove it and put a black one on him, and the apparent difference will be surprising. This is where art comes in in fitting, and the sooner tailors make themselves acquainted with a few of its general rules, or, if we may use a paradoxical term, the Science of Art, the sooner will the glaring errors that are daily walking about our streets be avoided.

Ladies have long since acknowledged this fact and put it into practice, hence the beautiful and graceful effect produced in many of their costumes. They certainly adorn the works of God, and the responsibility of taking lessons from them and applying the same to our everyday duties, so that our sex may appear the very embodiment of masculine strength and energy, devolves upon us. Let us awake to a sense of our duty and study our calling, practically. scientifically, and artistically, for it is impossible to attain the highest degree of excellence till we combine the teachings of these phases. We all know that one garment suits us and that another does not, but how few of us can deduce the rules which point us to the course of this effect, much less put them into practice, and advise our customers in their choice of style and materiel. It is a knowledge of such that makes the tailor an artist, and enables him to embody a grace of outline to the seems, to cut the shape of a suit- able style, which, combined with a corresponding material, enable him to clothe his customer in a garment which shall hide all the defects of his figure and bring into prominence every point of beauty. There is in this a study which will make his soul swell with a pride in his calling, and acknowledge that it is indeed noble, a science to be proud of, an

art to develop, and, combining the whole, produce those coverings for his fellow-creatures which make them appear adorned and beautified images of our Creator. We trust our readers will pardon this digression from our subject proper, but art is a phase of our culling so seldom developed, if not wholly ignored, that we could not let the oppur- tunity slip without a few words, and we trust that we shall not appeal in vain, for we are desirous of impressing on the coming as well as the present race of cutters the necessity of individual effort to maintain what the past and present race have achieved in planing their nation first in our particular amongst the civilised world. This Can Only he done individual effort, and such will command individual recompense, for as we sow, so shall we reap; and if we make our profession a study in all its branches, we shall, in a few years reap a commensurate golden harvest.

The Prince

Dias. 94 and 95. Fig. 42.

This suit is made from diagonal, and trimmed with a bracket of wide funny braid, traced all round with a Russia braid, in a fancy design which is both simple and effective. The pocket is put in slightly on the bias and traced round with eyes of Russia braid and finished off with crow's toes at the ends. The cull, as illustrated on diagram 95, is to match, whilst a similar design is placed on the side of the knickers. As will be seen, it fasten: down the front with holes and buttons, and an Eton collar finishes it at neck.

The Count,

Dias. 96 and 98, Fig. 43,

Illustrates the cuff and forepart of a similar design, though quite different in actual detail. As with the former, two widths of braid are used, the brood one of a fancy plaited design being placed at the beck, and the front rows of Russia braid being laid on infancy figures. The cuffs designed in harmony, and as with the former the knickers should be trimmed to correspond. Some very stylish effects may he produced by contrasting colours of braid such as a brown on a drub, and so en; but on this point it will be best for our readers to experiment, and then if they have a good eye for effect they will soon be able to decide what will produce the best style under the circumstances.

The Duke.

Dias. 97 to 99. Fig. 44.

This is another similar combination of broad funny braid and a Russia. The effect of this design is very pretty, besides which it is very simple. Some of our readers may possibly experience difficulty in doing this braiding, and it might be of great service to them to know the name and address of a firm who do all kinds of braiding for the trade. Messrs. Lyons. of 66 and 67, Milton-street, London, make this business a speciality, and do a large trade in it both for the wholesale and retail trades. There is still another plan which will help the tailor over the difficulty, viz., to use Mr. Briggs' transfer papers, which me arranged with the design on a piece of thin tissue paper, laid on the part desired to be braided, and a warm iron passed over it; this transfers the pattern to the cloth, when the braid can be easily run on the marks so obtained. Books of the various designs may be had from them at a very small cost, and the price of the papers is quite nominal. His address is 8a, Church-street, Manchester.

The Rifle.

Diagram 100. Figure 45.

This style is an adaptation of the style of used for the Rides of Her Majesty's army. The edges are corded and six drop loops are passed across the breast, the top one extending to the shoulder seams and gradually reducing in width to the bottom one. The double cord in formed in a loop top and bottom. and a netted button put on the top of the drop. Olivets are pinned down the front on one side, and loops of the cord left on the other. The pocket is corded round with a crow°s toe in centre of top, two loops placed at equal distances along the lower edge. The cuffs shown in diagrams 101 and 105 are reduced from that excellent work, "Garment Marking" published at the Tailor and

Cutter Office, and show respectively the designs for braiding the cults of lieutenants, captain, and major of the rifles. The more elaborate of them we hardly likely to be used for juveniles. Still, with n knowledge of the correct. thing, they may be utilised or modified to taste.

The Gordon.

Da. 102 and 103. Flg. 40.

This is a very simple style of braiding and is the some as on the statue of the late General Gordon in Trafalgar-square. It merely consists of braid laid on flat and the ends pointed and dropped over. This should properly be done with two rows of braid. It will, however, simplify matters if one wide one is used. As will be seen, this, too, Is fastened down the front with hook; and eyes, and olivets put down the fronts, which makes a neat finish. A facing should be put all down the front to prevent the underclothing allowing through between the hooks and eyes.

The Artilleur.

Diagram 108. Figure 41.

}

Thin is an adpatation of the Artillery Shell Jacket trimming when the cord in yellow on the blue cloth. It is very effective and one which can be easily produced by any intelligent tailor. The edge is corded, as is also the pocket. The chief feature to notice is the finish at top and bottom. The front is finished with ball buttons, which are passed through the cord. This, however, is only done for ornament, it being fastened down with hooks and eyes as with the others The cuff illustrated on diagram 104 is the Regulation pattern for a Major of the Infantry, and is suitable for those on diagram 100, or an adaptation may be used. There is another military design in digram 13. which shows the Infantry Patrol Jacket, and which is equally suitable for juveniles and youths, if not more so. These designs of braiding will give the principal ideas to be embodied in trimming juvenile clothing and the further adaptation of it shown on Plate 19 illustrates the application of braid. i.e. to fancy materials, such as plush, &c. Plate 18, however, is the one which deals more particularly with braiding, and will he found quite sufficient illustration of this phase of artistic tailoring, especially if the points we have directed attention to are thoroughly under- stood.

Plate 19.

On this plate is shown the application of silk, plush, velvet, and braid. and by which some very good effects are produced.


The Court.

Diagram 101. Figure 48.

This presents a modification of the old style of dress worn in the 17th Century, when the gentlemen wore long coats. and their vests reached almost to the thighs. The diagram is considerably modified, hence if that style of dress were required it would be necessary to make it longer. As represented here, the body of the coat and sleeves, as well as the breeches (diagram 113), are made of plush, and a false vest inserted down the front of silk. This latter may, of course, be made separately if no desired, and in which case diagram 114 may be followed; still, there are many suits made which have false vests inserted, which are all treated in this may, viz., allowed to just go under the fore part, say at leant a couple of inches, and then fastened to the lining; the pointed lace collar and cuffs invariably form a part of this costume. As regards the cutting this suit, it is produced in just the same way as already described, the fronts of the jacket being cut away from the neck, to allow of the vest being seen, which buttons down the front. If it is made to come very low, it will be advisable to leave the bottom button about three or four inches below the waist, so that the bottom of the vest may not contract the section of the legs. Diagram l08 illustrates the cuff for this style of costume, and which is merely a plain cuff with A lace cuff put on afterwards.

{{c|Which ls the Right Way to Cut Velvets, &e. ? Is a question which often puzzles the tailor, as it seems so contrary to his ordinary practice to cut it with the pile running up, and he fancies he has

heard that is the correct way. There is a difference of opinion on this point, end although it is generally considered correct with the pile running up, yet that plan is by no means universally adopted; for although it is generally conceded that when cut with me pile running up it presents a very much richer appearance, yet those who cut it with the pile running down content that it wears very much cleaner, and does not catch the dust nearly as readily, and in brushing the dirt can be more easily removed, so that our readers will see there is no universal custom, but in the absence of any instructions this mutter, he would certainly be safer in cutting all velvets, plushes, furs, &c., with the pile running up.

The Lancer.
Dias. 110 and 111. Fig. 49.

As will be gathered from these diagrams, the only variations in the cut are as follows: It is cut a trifle shorter and the forepart only cut to come to the breast line, the fastening of the front being effected by a kind of double lapel which allows of it being fastened over on either side. It certainly forms a very Stylish garment, and is something out of the ordinary run, yet simple, and such that any tailor might make with ease. The style of trimming illustrated on the lapel, diagram 111, is both simple and effective, being formed by a crow's toe at either end, the button-hole being in the centre of this; care should be taken to carefully conceal the ends of the braid, as if these are not out of sight, they detract very much from the finish of the garment; this style of suit blends itself very readily to what many firms call

The Four-In-Hand,

Owing to the ease to which it can be converted into various styles, for instance, the lapel might be braided one side end left plain or differently braided the other; then by leaving the lapel: off, and fastening the fronts with hooks end eyes would make another style, whilst the fourth may be arranged by fastening the lapel inside and making it form a sham vest, as it were, the fronts left loose and open. At my rate there is plenty of scope for the display of ingenuity in dealing with juvenile clothing, still we do not think the fancy styles ever have a very large sale, people generally preferring to dress their children in plain useful garments; still, there are always a few who go in for novelties such as these, and those who make a lending line of this branch of the profession should always have a few of this class to add character to their stock; if they make a display at all in their window, it gives a variety which is often very telling in obtaining customers.

The Regent.
Dias. 109 and 112. Fig. 50.

This is another very effective style of making up velvet, being first braided with mohair braid on the edge, and trimmed up the the fronts with a fancy braid. The fronts are arranged to fasten with hooks and eyes, some fancy buttons being put on the front edge to take off the plainness of this style of fastening. Diagram 109 illustrates the style of cuff to correspond. In giving this illustration of trimming, we do not wish our readers to look on this in any other way than as a specimen of the style in which velvet and plush suits are male up by those houses who cuter largely for the wants of juveniles, as, of course, the styles of trimming are innumerable, and it would be useless for us _to attempt to describe them all, it being rather our aim to select a few of those which may be looked upon as representative styles, and of which plate 19 is composed. It also contains

The Court Breeches.

Dia. 113.

Of late there has been a very decided tendency to have the nether garments for boys to fit rather close at the knee ; there can be no doubt they look very smart and stylish, and are particularly appropriate to wear with old styles of dress such as illustrated on figure 48 and diagram 107; they are usually finished with three buttons at the knee and sometimes a narrow band and buckle. The manner in which they are cut in very similar to that already described for trousers, still, it may be just as well if we go over the various points again, so that there may not be my difficulty in cutting these little garments. O to 14 is the side length to the knees

and to 17+12 the full side length, from 12 to 172 is the leg length., now draw a line at right angles to 9 17+12, from 12 to 12+12, *from 12 to 6 is 12 seat to 9, 12 and on to 12+14 22 and l of 14 inch. Now drew a line up at right angles to 9, and another down from 6. Find the level of the natural waist by going up a fourth of the seat, and 1 inch. and than measure on this line 14 waist. and 12 inch, and then drew the hollow of the fork, carefully avoiding making it too hollow. A very good rule is to make it about 14 of 12+14 inch more than half the distance between 9 and 12+14. Now divide the width of the lega at knee and bottom equally on either side of line drawn at right angles to point 7, and if it is desired to have the buttons to run forwards at the knee, the width of the topsides at the side again may be reduced, end the extra width put on the undersides. The under- sides are produced by the topsides; come up from 9 to 3,12,and draw a line from 3 to 12, and by which draw the seat seam at right angles; make a pivot of the knee, and sweep from 0 to l9. and them proceed to measure off the size of the seat and measuring from 9 to O. but on the natural waist line, and placing whatever quantity that is at 9 X, and measure towards 19 the waist plus the one inch consumed in the seams. Now measure the seat in the some way as the waist, but allowing from 1+12 to 2 inches for ease and seams. The mole of measuring the seat is on follows: Apply the tape to the fore- part from S to E, then take the tape back to A on the underside: and make up the seat measure, and 1+12 or 2 inches as just described. If these breeches are made to fit the knee very tight it will be as well to allow about 12 or 34 inch to be fulled on over the knee of the topsides, but this is scarcely necessary unless they are mode to fot the knee very close.

The Regent Knickers.

Diagram 115. Figure 80.

These are produced in precisely the some way as just described, the variation in the width of the log: being arranged equally on either side of the centre line. The dress should be taken out for all styles, although we know some people do not do this for little boys, still, if they wish them to fit smart and clean at the fork a small quantity must be taken out


The Court Vest.

Dia.. 114.

In order to illustrate the style of vest generally made to wear with suit of this class we added this diagram; it may either be reproduced by the graduated tape: to agree with the breast measure, or by the divisions of the breast measure you on page 28. The only feature worthy of note is that it is made of the no-collar type and generally fastening close up to the throat. We also illustrate on this plate the principal style of collars worn by juveniles. For very little boys the lace pointed collar and cuffs are particularly appropriate and becoming, and for older boys there can be nothing better then either the plain or fancy style of Eton. We now come to deal with plate 20, which deals exclusively with


Varieties of Sailor Costume.

Dia. 116 to 129. Figs. 51 to 54.

Of all the styles adopted for juvenile wear there ere probably none in such universal favour as the sailor suit, and which in worn by boys and youths of all ages with only some little variation in the details, thus, when the little one is first put into suits he generally has the sailor blouse and a kilt, then he comes to wear knickers, and than very soon the regular jack-tar trousers, and as this style is so universal, we have little doubt this plate will prove one of unusual interest, and in anticipation of this we shell treat of ot as fully as possible. We begin with

The Sallor Blouse.

Diagram 115. Figure 51.

This is produced on the same lines as previously described for the shirt. but as this diagram is arranged somewhat differently, it will be as well if we describe it again. Square lines O 18, O 20. From 0 to 2+12 is 16 neck, from O to 34 is always 34 of an inch, from 0 to 2+12 is 14 of an inch more than on eighth; from O to 9 is half the breast, and continue on to 17, the full length the garment is desired, plus whatever amount it is desired to "bag over" at the waist. whilst an inch of round is put on to compensate for hollowing tendency of the

drawing in at the waist; now square across from all these points, and make2+12 to O, 12 breast, and continue on to 11+14 whatever amount of ease you may desire to give your blouse; in this instance we have made this 2+14 inches, or equal to 16 of the breast. 13+12 is the same distance from 11+34 as 11+14 is from 9, and from 113+12 to 22+12 is a fourth of the breast, point 20 is 16 of the neck back from this, and draw the shoulder side from 20 to 13+12 of the front, and 2+12 to O of the back, and than draught the scye by hollowing the front 1 inch in front of line 13+12 The front may be advanced slightly at the waist; and a button stand added all down the front if it is desired to fasten it in that way, the same amount of round is added on the front at the button as at the back; as described this will produce a moderately loose-fitting blouse, but if it in desired to fit looser, the extra width which would be placed mostly at the waist would be equally distributed at the back under the arm and on the front, putting twice as much under the arm as at ether buck or front; for instance, if it were desired to add 2 inches at the waist it would be distributed in this manner: 1 inch would be put in at the side, 12 an inch added to both the back and front; these garments are generally made up with a whole back, and put into a band at the waist or a hem put all round the bottom and a piece of elastic run through it. A patch pocket is generally added, trimmed in the same style as the collar.

The Sailor Collar.
Dia. 119.

This readily explains itself as it shows how these are produced. As will be seen it is the same as is used by the majority of the trade to produce the Three-quarters Circle Cpae, and merely ennsiml in putting the buck and forepart together at the shoulder and making she centre of the collar to run with the back seam; whilst the size is entirely a mutter of taste, Although the diagram illustrates a vary suitable one, and which is made nearly as wide as the back and to come nearly to a level with the bottom of the soya. It is shown on this diagram as rolling rather low, but if desired it can be made to fasten close up to the throat, but in that case it loses much of its grace. It is generally trimmed with three rows of narrow white tape or braid, the rows being kept 18 of an inch apart. An anchor is generally, or at least often, put in the corner as shown, but this is not in accordance with those worn by the genuine sailor. A silk handkerchief is put round the neck and fastened just below the collar with a sailor's knot, whilst the buttons generally used are gilt anchor.

The Material

From which these are mostly made is ordinary blue Serge and trimmed with while tape, which in the same as used by sailors generally. Some very pretty effects are often produced by arranging contrasting shades of cloth or velvet in this style, whilst a very large number are made for summer wear from white drill with blue Joan collars and vuffs; the various patterns of Galatea are also used for this type of garment. We Now come to

The Sleeve,
Dia. 118

This in very simple. Draw line 0 25, and make from O to 2+12 the same as 9 to 11+14 of the forepart, whilst, if it is desirable to put the sleeve in quite plain, 2+14 to 10 may be mode the some as half the scye. and if pleats are desired, as is often the case, the extra width must of courses be allowod for them between 2+14 and 10. The length of the sleeve is made to measure, and the width of the cuff fixed to taste, pleats being arranged here also; the bottom of the sleeve is generally finished with a cuff, as is illustrated on diagram 123. As will be readily gathered, the sleeve is cut on the crease, the seam coming under the arm and going into the scye at 11+14 on the level of scye line; this diagram also shows the position of the good conduct stripes and the marks of distinction. These are worked in gold for the full dress; in red worsted on the blue serge, and in blue worsted on the white drill ones. This style of jacket may either be worn with the knickers as illustrated by diagram 115, but of course cut from material to match the blouse, or with

The Ordinary Kilt Frost.
Diagram 126. Figures 52 and 52a.

We have already gone into the question of Kilt Frocks somewhat fully in dealing with the

Highland Costume. so that it will be quite unnecessary to make more than a few passing comments.

This Frock forms, as it were, the connecting link between the little boy-baby and the little man just breached, and. Although more generally worn in connection with the Sailor Blouse, it allows of some of his undergarments being retained; yet it is quite suitable to wear with many other styles of locket such ea me to be found in this volume; then, again, it is suitable for girls' wear, as in figure 52a. There can scarcely be said to be any cutting required. although there should be a certain amount of spring over the seat to allow of sufficient freedom for the logs, so that before the kilns are definitely fixed, it should be seen that they agree with the diagram. O to 18 is the half waist, and from which square down 9 and go out 12 inches on either side, and hollow the top at the waist 34 of an inch. These are sometimes made up ou a foundation, in which case it would be cut in this way: the manner of arranging the kilt is shown on diagram 89. whilst diagram 90 shows the method of arranging the box pleat. It should always be the aim of the cutter to preserve harmony throughout the Costume, so that if the Jacket is trimmed will be advisable to trim the skirt in the same manner.

The Genuine Jack Tar Frock and Trousers.
Dias. 119 to 125. Fig. 53.

These are token from our work on Naval Uniforms which recently appeared in the monthly parts of the Tailor and Cutter. Diagrams are marked out to the 36 size, so that all our readers will have to do will be to selected graduated tape to agree with the breast measure they wish to reproduce, and mark of the same quantities as are here marked with it, or they may be reproduced as follows: Make the width 34 breast A, midway the armhole at 10 1 inch more than 14breast, and the sides hollowed 1 inch, A to 3 16 neck. The sleeve heed, as at 13, is cut 2 to 3 inches larger than the armhole, which is pleated in at top, as also is the bottom to the cuff.

As this is a duly recognised part of Naval Uniforms, it will be as well if we give the Admiralty Regulations respecting them, which run as follows:

"Trousers of navy blue cloth or white duck, fitting tight at the waistband, to be tied at the back with black silk ribbon or white tape, with a pocket and broad flaps, and stained hone or white metal deed- eye buttons.

"White Frock to be made of drill, with collar and wristbands of blue jean, the collar having a border of three rows of three-sixteenths of an inch, white tape one-eighth of an inch apart, and the wristbands to be peaked with two rows of white tape along the upper margin, and one along the lower, with one metal dead-eye button at the wrist. The blue Frock is just the same, except the collars and cuffs, which are of the same material."

"Collars.—All seaman's collars are to be of the dimensions given on diagram 119."

Designing.
Diagrams 136 to 137.
Figures 55, 58, 67, 58, and 89.

Probably there is no brunch of the trade that requires as much skill as designing in order to produce successful results. and it in one that is probably less cultivated than any other. We are content to jog along in the some style your after year, when probably all around us are striving their utmost to introduce improvements or changes which will increase their trade; and as it in clearly our interest to produce changes in the fashion as speedily as possible, it must he apparent to all that the designer's art plays a very important part in the moulding of our fortunes. During Mr. D. E. Ryan's visit to England he laid very great stress on this point, and the method of designing we now explain is the same as he advocated and practised and as he is probably one of, if not the most successful designers we know of, we may justly look upon his method as a good one. His plan, then, was to have a piece of cloth and mark the pattern of a boy`a jacket, such as is illustrated on diagram 130, and have the same stitched in coloured silk on the cloth, so that whenever he wished to design a new style would take this piece of cloth which he called "the designer," and set to work to either alter the position of the seams, inserts a pleat or a series of pleats, put a yoke on the shoulder, and so on, till an altogether new style of dress was the

result; his designs were looked upon as the beat in the United States, so that our readers may safely take a hint from such an authority; for although, to use a. tailor's phrase, it is only " striking brights," yet that is just where the originality comes from, and which we are apt to so often deplore as being lacking in our trade. It is not necessary we should describe the few examples of designing we give in minute detail. as our readers will be able to easily follow how these are produced, as the dotted marks show diagram 130 in each case. when pleats are added they are generally laid on, and when they are inserted as in

The Yoke Norfolk

Diagram l3l, Figure 55,

The forepart is cut down and a piece inserted large enough to form the pleats, the seam being carefully hidden under the folds of the material. This style of design might be produced with straps laid on and stitched through the front and terminating at the pocket-mouth.

The New York.

Figure 56. Diagram 132.

}

This design, or one very similar to it, emanated from Mr. Ryan, and was considered a very pretty and stylish draw. It consists of the foreparts and back being out away and pleats put up front and buck to go under this deep yoke, as it were. It is very suitable for little boys' wear.


The Brighton.

Figure 51. Diagram 133.

In this the same idea is developed, but in addittion to the piece inserted in the front to form the pleats a. sham vest is inserted, and showing 2 buttons below the coat; this may, of course, be a real vest if so desired ; but they look very well just put to the front of jacket as illustrated.


The Dresden

Dia. 138.

This is a really pretty style of dress, and consists of it loose-fitting bodypart mode D.B., and put into a band at waist, below which small skirts are put on as with the Doublet, only smaller and consequently more in number.

The Monte Carlo.

Dia. 139. Fig. 59.

This is a very dressy suit for little boys, and is, as will be seen, an adaptation of the Gents' Dress Lounge. It makes a very pretty suit for little boys’ evening wear at parties, especially if a light vest is worn as on figure 59. The lapels of ooats should be faced with silk.

The Négligé.

Dia. 140.

This is an adaptation of the Sailor Dress. It is louse fitting and draw into a band at the waist, buttons to the throat, and has a pointed Sailor collar. It was very much worn a few years ago, but has given place to the more modern styles such as are illustrated on plates 18, 19, 20, and 21.

The Sydenham.

Dia. 131. Fig. 58.

This is very suitable for plush or velvet with silk facings or vest of a contrasting colour. The scope for variety this opens up is very wide, and con~ sequently there should be no lack of variety in the juvenile deptatment, and if a really smart man possessed of an artistic taste and in addition a fair amount of originality were to take this matter up we are convinced he would succeed. The jacket is cut much longer than the rest of the diagrams on this page, it representing the Historic or 17th Century Dress.

We will now proceed to deal with two or three styles of little boys Overcoat, and foremost amongst these we find


The Scarborough.

Dias. l4l and 142. Fig. 60.

This is really an Inverness. but with the cape extending all round, and which have been very popular during the past season. They undoubtedly possess advantages over the old style, as whilst they lit the body much closer, they are yet very much freer in wear, there being an absence of that contraction so often experienced in the old style. The method of cutting them is the same as previously described for Overcoats, with the ex- ception that the scye is made very much deeper, a little more or less is of no consequence, as they have no sleeves in them; there is nothing taken out between the back and forepart at the waist, as it is not desired to make them too close-fitting in the waist. The diagram illustrates the back as slightly hollowed, but this is often made whole, and in which case the back seam would be from the back tacking to the top O; as will be noticed, there is plenty of spring allowed at the bottom, a very necessary point, especially for little boys who are wearing kilts, &c., and in which case the amount (3 inches of overlap) we have illustrated may be increased with advantage. A button stand is left down the front, 1+12 inches wide, and it is made to button through almost to the bottom. The cape portion of this garment is cut as follows (see diagram 142). Place the forerpart down as illustrated, and mark round the forepart at gorge, shoulder and down the scye for a few inches, say 8, and then mark upwards again, so that about 12 an inch V will be taken out, let this part come about 1 inch above the shoulder, and then place the back with the shoulder point touching it, and the back seam run- ning at right angles to the front, and mark round the back shoulder, neck, and backseam; then mark off the length you desire it in the back, and then measure down from the neck point of front shoulder this same quantity, plus 34 of an inch. The side length may be obtained in a similar manner, but adding from 1+12 to 2 inches; now, if you desire to have a very close-fitting Cape, you may reduce the width round the bottom by taking out a V from the bottom of from 3 to 4 inches (but using care the size is not reduced round the shoulders) as per dot and dash line. These garments are generally finished with a Prussian collar and patch pockets, whilst tabs are often put in to prevent the cape flying up in the wind; these are placed one in the centre of the back and one on each forepart. We now come to

The Kilt Ovcrcoat.'

Dia. 143 and 144. Fig. 61.

This is another illustration of over-garments for little boys wear. who have not yet got out of their petticoats. As will be seen it is very similar to the last with the exception that the scye is filled up and sleeves added. We have duly noted the charac- teristics of little boys, viz.; as large at the waist as at the chest, as well as being decidedly erect. This, it will be noticed, we have arranged for by taking 12 of an inch from the depth of scye on the beck, and adding it to the front shoulder measures, whilst the over-shoulder remains the same. The sleeve is produced on the same lines as already described; we merely give the diagram here so that those who use graduated tape might have the diagram complete. These are often made to fasten up to the throat without a collar, as lace and other fancy style of collars are worn with them. All kinds of materials are used for this, and probably there are few which produce a prettier effect than plush ; but of course, that is for very little children. We now come to

The Austrian.

Dia. 146. Plate 23. Fig. 62.

This is more especially suitable for a little boy in his first suit, and is certainly one of the prettiest garments we have seen for boys at this age. It is generally made from a blue beaver trimmed with astracan and ornamented with five rows of tubular braid, finished at the ends with crows' toes. The braid is allowed to go beyond the forepart in order that it might fasten to the barrel on the opposite side. It will be noticed it is cut rather short, and there is not nearly ms much spring as in the last one, but with those exceptions it is cut on similar lines, although in this case the measures are only taken over the vest, and in the last it would be taken over the dress on which it would be worn. This bring us to nearly the last diagram illustrative of style. viz. :-

The Real Little Lord Fauntloroy.

Dia. 146. Fig. 63.

This style has been forced into popularity by the play bearing a similar name; it is certainly unique and artistic, although slightly effeminate, the lead- ing feature, as will be gathered, is the sash, whilst the lace collar and cuffs are also very conspicuous. As will be noticed, the jacket is very short (although they are often cut longer than our illustra- tion), and the breeches tight-fitting, see diagram 113 and figure 62; the sash, however, prevents its looking by any means bare as it goes over the bottom of the jacket, and the ends hang over the breeches. The material from which these are generally made is velvet, plush, and similar materials, but. of course, it is by no means confined to either, as any- thing that forms a good contrast would be equally suitable. As it is not necessary at this stage to show the system for producing with every draught, we have drawn this by the aid of the designer, and if it is required to reproduce it by graduated tapes the same quantities may be taken as are marked on diagram 130. The last diagram relating to this branch is a reduced model of gaiters and which if reproduced by the ordinary inch tape, will he suitable for a boy or girl of about 8 years of age; the measures are as follows: length 16, knee 10+12, small 9+14, calf 10+12, ankle 8, and bottom 15. These are a good deal used in some district: and are very useful in cold and weather. We now give a chapter on

Variations and Alterations.

One of the things that often puzzles the cutter in daily practice is how to produce in the scye, and as we recently had a student write to us in this difficulty we thought it would probably be of use to other of our fellow-craftsmen, as it enabled our ex-student to avoid a kill. He had been trying the old dodge of sinking and advancing the scye, but as soon as the customer lifted his arms it was almost unbearable. Of course, the scye had been made very much too deep, and when the arms were raised the whole garment rested on them. We sent him a diagram the same as this, told him to rip his sleeves out and collar off and bring the coat up to its proper position on the figure; then take his pattern and put either one or two wedges in the original pattern and have his coat finished in this altered form. We afterwards had the pleasure of hearing from him that the alteration was highly successful, and that now he was glad the alteration had occurred, as it had taught him a valuable lesson, so our readers may take a timely hint, and if they know their customers are particularly tender at this part they may make this provision in their coat at the start, and although it may not fit quite as clean just in the front of the scye, yet that will he overlooked by the customer in the fact that he has got a comfortable coat at last. Of course, we do not give this as a cure-all, but we are pretty sure this will prove effectual in nine cases out of ten, the principal causes of tightness in the scye being in- sufficient distance from the centre of back to the front of scye; insufficient depth, and a to crooked cut-shoulder, a too short front shoulder, or a too short collar, all of which have a very similar effect.

Straightnees and Crookedness.

Dia. 149.

Such a difference of opinion exists on what really constitutes this or whether such a thing really exists, that we felt we ought to give just a few lines to its elucidation as far as lies in our power.

The popular idea of straightnees and crookednees is a deviation in the location of the neck point either forwards or backwards, the advanced neck point being called straight, and the receded one crooked : but inasmuch as there are so many variations which alter it in this way it is hardly a satisfactory definition; for instance, if the collar-stand or part of it were cut in one with the forepart, that would not make the garment straight, nor would the cutting away of the shoulder, an in a lady's evening bodice, make it crooked. so that it is necessary to advance a step further and to, define it more closely.


The Straight and crooked Shoulder.

Straightness and crookednees of the shopulder is shown diagram 149. As will be seen, lines are drawn at the level of neck point 1, the level of shoulder point 9, and the level of bottom of scye 3. all parallel to each other. Taking the shaded pattern as the normal, the dot and dash line shown the straight shoulder, all the points being advanced on lines 1 and 2, say 1 inch, the lower part of the pattern remaining the same, whilst the reverse operation, vlz.: shifting the points backwards, as in dotted lines, produces the crooked shoulder. But those are variations which lead to no practical results, and if done to any extent, are only of service to produce misfits and alterations, hence we are constrained to say that this is false straightness and crookedness, and is only a complication of disorders upsetting the balance, the shoulder slope, and the length of front-edge in such a way as will destroy the fit of any garment. The crooked shoulder shortens the distance from nape of neck to bottom of scye in front as covered by the front shoulder. It lengthens the distance from the shoulder point to front of scye, or that part covered by the over-shoulder measure. It also lengthens the front edge. If the front edge is drawn in sufficiently to make it it snug to the figure in front the result will be creases on the front shoulder, as the neck-end of front shoulder has been shortened, and the scye end lengthened ; this will at once be seen by referring to diagram 149. It is a very erroneous notion to fancy that straightening the shoulder in this way produces ease in the scye, for it actually reduces its circumference. The best way to do that is as we have pointed out in diagram 148, and is the same in result as if the front shoulder and over shoulder measure had been increased, the latter in greater ratio than the former, whilst 12 an inch will be plenty to add to the front shoulder when sweeping from front of breast, but people who adopt this method must not expect their garments to fit as clean and smart as when produced to the customer's measures, We have seldom found it necessary to resort to such an alteration as this, having always been able to give quite sufficient ease by giving a proper shape to the scye, and cutting it to the customer's measures. As we call the alterations shown on 149 false, it will be necessary for us to show what in our judgment is

True Straightness and Crookedness

Diagram 150.

This is nothing to do with the shoulders, the front edge being the only part affected, for although it apparently alters the location of the neck point to others, yet the shoulders in all the three shown in diagram 150 are identical, the variations introduced being nothing more or less than a wedge inserted or taken from the front edge, the former producing a rounder and so a crookeder front edge, and the latter a straighter one. Now let us examine the requirements of any figure there and what do we find but that every figure is hollow down the middle of front, and as the proper way to fit a hollow is by the shortest distance between two points, and as any one with the least knowledge of geometry knows that is found in the perfectly straight line. Now this is what is required in the front, and if the garment is to fit satisfactorily, the centre must either be cut straight or manipulated straight, draw- ing any round there may be in till the straight is produced. But a feature comes in which must be studied in successful cutting, viz. : providing a proper receptacle for the breasts in just the same way that we provide room for the blades. This is done in the system laid down in this volume by adding to the front shoulder measure 1 inch, which extra 1 inch of length should always be drawn in, and the fulness worked back over the breast, so that if we have a prominent breast to provide for as is often found in the erect, we should add 1+12, and in the flat-chested or stooping, 12 inch only, always drawing in the forepart to the straight line, for no matter whether the figure be stooping, normal, or erect, the straight front edge will fit him, provided there is a sufficient receptacle for the breast. To assert that a wedge inserted in the side of forepart at waist to nothing at bottom of scye is identical with cutting the forepert across and lengthening the front edge as shown by dot and dash lines, is one of the most ridiculous. short-sighted assertions that could possibly be made, for surely in the one case the forepart is made wider and in the other longer, the forepart would produce room over the sides, and has nothing whatever to do with straightness and crookedness, whilst the latter has all to do with it, and if properly manipulated would produce room for the breast, and add greatly to the form and style of the garment. We trust this will be clear to our readers. but as it is is subject that requires an elaborate treatment we are only able to touch on the principal features, and hope it will set our readers when we doubt not they will soon form a definite conclusion as to what is true and what is false. We leave this subject by briefly referring to diagram 151, which was recently referred to in the Tailor and Cutter under the title of

What Is the Result?

When the following supposititious cue was given: A cont was out for I. customer and an inlay left all down the front of 1 inch, the coat was tried on and was found to fit splendidly, the tailor had the coat given back to him with instructions to finish it as it was, but by some means the inlay down the front got put into the garment, and as may be readily imagined the coat was too large. The cutter in order to rectify this error had the coat token in under the arms and the scye advanced. Now the result of this operation was to make the coat 1 inch more crooked in the shoulder, and consequently the coat was a misfit, and which will be readily seen would be quite different to the straightness and crookedness shown on diagram l50. Having far exceeded the space we had allotted to the consideration of this question, we will beaten on to consider the

Alterations to Make for Abnormalities.-Erect and Stooping Forms.

Dia. 152.

}

This diagram shows at a glance the variations we should make for these figures. and may be summed up as shortening the back end lengthening the front for an erect form, and a longer beck and shorter front shoulder for a stooping form, unaccompanied with either a prominence or flatness of blades or breast, both very unusual, for the erect man is generally flat at the blades and prominent at breast, the stooping figure the reverse. If our readers will only train themselves to take the measures we have explained, with accuracy, they will bring the garment out to the right shape as far as the body is concerned by the ordinary workings of the system, merely ranging the quantities taken out between back and sidebody to provide for prominent or flat blades, and the amount added to front shoulder for prominent or flat breasts. We know the measures cannot always be taken. so we give those methods generally practised by the most successful cutters of the present day for our readers' use when work- ing from the scale Or divisions of the breast Probably there is no method of alteration for stopping and erect figures so widely practised as that shown on diagram 153, and which merely consists in a wedge being inserted in the back and a similar one taken out of the front for a stooping figure, and the wedge out of the back and put in the front for the erect figure; this method is thoroughly reliable, and we do not know of a better for three seamers or lounges, but in body costs we prefer a straighter backseam, taking out more between back and sidebody both top and bottom. which we are convinced is more correct in principle and practice.

High and Low Shoulders.-Long and Short Necks.

Dia. 152.

This diagram illustrates our method of treating these variations of build when we ere unable to take our own measures: it is not necessary we should any more than to note the alterations marked F are those to make for short necks or square shoulders, E is the normal, and D is suitable for long nooks and sloping shoulders. Our explanation of this is that figures with short nooks are thicker through from side to side, and the long necks thinner, and so require the gorge lowered or raised, There is only one other variation we will note, and that is for corpulent and slander waists, and as the principle is the same for both vests and coats, we have given the diagram on a vest, see diagram 164.

The first thing to decide on is, what will be your standard of proportion? As the diagrams are drawn out in this book the waist is 4 inches smaller than the chest, so that whenever any variation exists it may be distributed 13 at the side, and 23 at the front, and the front lengthened at bottom 13, and when an extreme case of corpulency occurs add on rather more at the front, and take out rather more at the side for a very thin one.

We will now briefly point out the remedy for a few of the leading misfits and than draw our labours to a close by a reference to the economy lays on the last Plates.

Creases in the front Shoulder.
Dia 155

Those may invariably be traced to a too crooked shoulder which has produced a shortness from A to B and an excess of material at C, the result of which is the creases down the front shoulder, which have puzzled so many, the remedy is to let out both forwards and upwards so as to increase the length from A to B, and if considered neccessary take off a small quantity at C, and in most cases this will prove satisfactory. Of course, like most other defects, it may arise from other causes, and amongst these we mention a too short collar and canvas or facings twisted, whilst we have known a too hollow front shoulder to produce this.


Coat Winging away Behind
Dia. 156.

This is a defect that is often seen in both lounges and morning coats, and as it is one that can easily be remedied, we thought a diagram showing how it might be rectified would be useful. It generally arises from a too long front shoulder, or what is practically the same thing a too short back, for, of, course , the balance is governed by the relative lengths of the back and front shoulders, consequently the correct alteration is shown on diagram 156, and which consists in ripping the shoulder through and then re-adjusting it when on the figure. This is the plan many cutters adopt in order to get the correct balance when trying on and is undoubtedly the most satisfactory plan next to direct measure- ments. This defect sometimes arises from the front edge not being properly worked up, when the remedy suggests itself. We now come to deal with what is probably one of the most frequent defects met with in lounges and similar garments, viz:

Fullness at the Top of Sidesarm
Dia. 157

This too arises from various causes, amongst which we may mention a too short front shoulder, or what has the same effect a too short collar; or the waist too much suppressed between M and L; or it is kept too flat at K, then again it often arises from a difficulty in landing the necessary fulness over the blades, and consequently the suppression at that part, eases the fulness at the back of the seye, in each case the remedy suggests itself. Some advise the taking out of a wedge as from G to H, and which makes the back seam rather round as per dot and dash line at L and J, which clears the back of seye, but it apt to land surplus length in the centre of back; it is always advisable to let the sideseam take the shape shown by the dot and dash line at K.

This, we think, will be sufficient to put the intelligent cutter on the right track, and that is all we desire to do in this work which is not specially devoted to alterations. If our readers desire a more elaborate treatment, they should not do better than procure a copy of the "Art of Trying On" as that deals with this branch of our profession in a thoroughly exhaustive manner, still a hint is often sufficient to put the cutter on the right track. We have selected a few of the most frequent sources of trouble, and on which we have the most inquiries through the Editor's Table.

Tightness at the Top Button

Dia. 158.

This generally arises from a too straight cut shoulder, in which case the remedy is, of course to crooken it, as shown by the dotted lines at that part ; but this is not always the same as it often arises from an insufficiency of room in the sleeve head, this is especially the case when this defect is apparent in ladies' garments, and as of course it is necessary to trust every defect in accordance with its cause, so the remedy is to increase the width and round of the sleeve head. The next defect we will notice is in connection with vests viz.:


Vests Rising in the Neck when seated.

Diagram 159.

This is caused through a tightness on the shoulder point, and consequently the remedy is to let it out at that part, the alteration being clearly defined by the dot and dash line. The defect arising from the opposite cause to this is

Vest Standing away in Front.

Dia. 160.

This arises from a 'too short' front edge or an insufficient length from the neck point to the bottom, and as will be seen the remedy is to lengthen it at the neck point as per dotted line.

Too low at the Back of Neck

Diagram 161.

This defect can be easily remedied by taking it in at the centere of back and letting it out at the side

Creases Across the Front of Vest at the Waist

Dia. 162.

This although by no means a serious defect, yet is a very unsightly one . It may arise from various causes, amongst which we may mention insuffciency of spring at the hips, causing the vest to ride up at that part, or the customer has drawn the buckle and strap too tight. or it may be produced by a too long front edge, and of course the remedy in each case suggests itself. We will now give a

Plan for Lengthening Vest.

Dia. 163,

Which,although a very simple matter, yet is clearly one that is not universally understood, as was evidenced by the somewhat lengthy discussion that took place on this topic at one of our leading foreman tailors' societies. The plan here given is both simple and reliable. It consists in adding on the quantity it is desired to lengthen it on the shoulder as per the shaded part, and then cut the back across as per the shaded part, and open out the pattern the same amount as has been added to the shoulder, and by this means the balance is preserved, then add on a little more spring in the hips. Of course it will be readily followed this will necessitate a new back, but we think that will be the most satisfactory plan of remedying this defect.

Too Loose at Top Button.

Dia 165.

This is often accompanies with looseness around the neck. The most ready method of altering this is to straighten the shoulder as illustrated on diagram 168. The last defect we shall note is in connection with sleeves, and shows itself in a series of

Creases Across the Forearm of the Sleeve.

Dia.166.

The way to remedy this is to sink the forearm as per dotted lines, and if necessary lengthen it at the bottom. This, we think, closes the list of defects we can note in this work, which has already far exceeded the limits we had intended such a work to take.

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