The Habitat of the Eurypterida

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The Habitat of the Eurypterida  (1916) 
by Marjorie O'Connell


CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
VOL. XXVI, No. 7


THE HABITAT OF THE EURYPTERIDA


BY
MARJORIE O'CONNELL, A.M.
Curator in Palæontology in Columbia University



Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
of Doctor of Philosophy, in the Faculty of Pure Science,
Columbia University.





Reprinted from
The Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences,

Vol. XI, No. 3, pp. 1–278, Buffalo, N. Y., 1916

CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction 7
Chapter I. Systematic Review of the Occurrence of the Eurypterida in each Period from the Pre-Cambric through the Permic 11
Introductory 11
North America 11
Pre-Cambric 11
Cambric 13
Ordovicic 13
Siluric 15
Lower Siluric or Niagaran 15
Middle Siluric or Salinan 17
Upper Siluric or Monroan 19
Devonic 22
Mississippic 23
Carbonic 23
Great Britain 25
Siluric 25
Lower Siluric or Llandovery—Wenlock 25
Upper Siluric or Ludlow 26
The Lanarkian 28
Devonic 28
Mississippic or Calciferous 28
Carbonic or Carboniferous 30
Bohemia 30
Siluric 30
Lower Siluric or E e1 and E e2 of Barrande 30
Upper Siluric or F f1 or Barrande 32
Carbonic 32
Coal measures of Bohemia 32
Belgium 32
Devonic 32
Upper Devonic 32
Baltic Islands and Russia 33
Siluric 33
Upper Siluric of Gotland 33
Upper Siluric of Oesel 34
Austro-Russian Border Lands 35
Siluric 35
Upper Siluric of Podolia and Galicia 35
Devonic 35
Middle Devonic of Galicia 35
PAGE
Australia 35
Siluric 35
Upper Siluric 35
Germany 35
Carbonic 35
Middle Saarbrüicker 35
South America 36
Carbonic 36
Coal Measures of Brazil 36
Africa 36
Devonic 36
Witteberg series 36
Portugal 37
Permic 37
Summary Tables 37
Table I. Geological and Geographical Distribution of the Eurypterida throughout the World 37
Table II. Summary of the Geological and Geographical Distribution of the Eurypterida throughout the World 37
Table III. Summary of the Distribution, Facies and Mode of Occurrence of the Eurypterida 38
Synonymy 50
 
Chapter II. A Résumé of the Opinions on the Habitat of the Eurypterida 52
 
Chapter III. The Bionomy of the Eurypterid Faunas 64
Introduction 64
Classification of Recent Aqueous Habitats 65
Classification of Aqueous Bionomic Realms According to Salinity 66
Recent Aquatic Faunas 67
Marine 67
Fresh Water 69
Table Showing Number of Genera and Species of Mollusca in Various Bionomic Realms 69
Brackish Water 70
The Baltic Sea 70
Comparative Number of Species of Invertebrates in the Baltic, etc. 72
The Severn Estuary 73
Summary of Faunal Criteria for Determining the Type of an Aqueous Habitat 76
Application to the Past 77
Marine Deposits and Faunas 78
Fluviatile Deposits and Faunas 79
Brackish Water and Estuarine Deposits and Faunas 83
The Eurypterid Faunas and their Associated Organisms 84
Ordovicic 84
Normanskill Fauna 84
Schenectady Fauna 84
The Eurypterid Faunas and their Associated Organisms—continued PAGE
Siluric 84
Lower Siluric (E e1) Fauna of Bohemia 84
Upper Lower Siluric (E e1) of Bohemia 85
Wenlock fauna of Pentland Hills, Scotland 85
Shawangunk Fauna of Eastern North America 86
Pittsford Fauna of New York 86
Bertie Fauna 87
Kokomo Fauna 87
Upper Siluric Fauna of Oesel 87
Temeside Fauna of England 88
Ludlow Fauna of Scotland 88
Lanarkian Fauna of Scotland 90
Devonic 90
Old Red Sandstone Fauna of Scotland 90
 
Chapter IV. The Lithogenesis of the Eurypterid-bearing Beds 93
1. The Belt Terrane 93
2. The Normanskill and Schenectady Beds 96
Summary 100
3. The Shawangunk Conglomerate 100
4. The Pittsford Shale 102
5. The Bertie Waterlime 106
Theories of Origin 108
a. Chemical Origin 108
b. c. Organic Origin 109
d. Clastic origin 109
Summary 117
6. The Kokomo Waterlime 118
7. The Tarannon-Wenlock Beds of Southern Scotland 120
Distribution of Formations 120
The Llandovery-Tarannon 123
Wenlock of the Pentland Hills 131
8. The Upper Siluric of Oesel 140
History of Discoveries 141
General Stratigraphy 143
9. Upper Siluric of Podolia and Galicia 149
10. The Ludlow of England and the Ludlow and Lanarkian of Scotland 151
Introduction 151
The Upper Siluric of England 153
The Ludlow and Lanarkian of Lanarkshire 159
1. The Lesmahagow Inlier 160
2. The Anticline of the Hagshaw Hills 165
11. The Old Red Sandstone 167
History and Subdivisions 167
The Caledonian 172
The Orcadian 176
Theories of Deposition 177
11. The Old Red Sandstone—continued PAGE
Deposition in Lakes 177
Deposition in the Sea 179
Objections to Lake and Marine Theories 180
1. Physical 180
(a) Red Color 180
(b) Marine Denudation 181
(c) Salt Indicative of Marine Deposition 182
(d) Thickness of Deposits 182
(e) Structural Features 184
2. Faunal 184
Summary 186
Theory of Fluviatile Deposition 186
Summary of evidence of Fluviatile Deposition 189
(a) Lithogenesis 189
(b) Faunal 191
12. Miscellaneous Occurrences 193
 
Chapter V. The Geological and Geographical Distribution of the Eurypterids and the Conditions of Migration 200
Summary of Facts Observed Regarding the Distribution of the Eurypterids 200
Migration and Dispersal of Recent Fluviatile Organisms 203
A. Species Identical in Distant Continents 203
B. Genera Identical in Distant Continents 204
C. Families Identical in Distant Continents 204
Summary 205
Application of Principles Deduced from Modern Faunal Distribution 207
Migration and Distribution of the Eurypterids 212
Theory of Early Marine Habitat and Routes of Migration 212
Objection to Marine Habitat Theory 212
Theory of River Habitat 216
The Eurypterid Faunas Considered by Continents 217
The Eurypterid Faunas of Appalachia 217
Comparison of Pittsford and Shawangunk Faunas 225
Summary of Facts of Distribution in Continent of Appalachia 226
The Eurypterid Faunas of Atlantica 228
Comparison of Pittsford-Shawangunk and Bertie Faunas 229
The Upper Siluric Faunas of the Baltic Region 236
The Fauna of the Wenlock 238
Summary of the Wenlock Faunas 242
The Fauna of the Ludlow 242
The Old Red Sandstone Fauna 247
Summary of Facts of Distribution on Continent of Atlantica 253
The Eurypterid Fauna of Mississippia 253
 
Concluding Remarks 256
Bibliography 257
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).