The History of England from the Accession of James II

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For works with similar titles, see History of England.
The History Of England From the Accession of James II  (1848) 
by Thomas Babington Macaulay

The History of England from the Accession of James the Second is the full title of the multi-volume work by Lord Macaulay more generally known as "The History of England".

The history is famous for its brilliant ringing prose and for its confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive model of British history, according to which the country threw off superstition, autocracy and confusion to create a balanced constitution and a forward-looking culture combined with freedom of belief and expression. This model of human progress has been called the Whig interpretation of history.










"Volume I."


Introduction 13
Britain under the Romans 15
Britain under the Saxons 16
Conversion of the Saxons to Christianity 17
Danish Invasions; The Normans 20
The Norman Conquest 23
Separation of England and Normandy 25
Amalgamation of Races 26
English Conquests on the Continent 28
Wars of the Roses 30
Extinction of Villenage 31
Beneficial Operation of the Roman Catholic Religion 32
The early English Polity often misrepresented, and why? 34
Nature of the Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages 36
Prerogatives of the early English Kings 37
Limitations of the Prerogative 38
Resistance an ordinary Check on Tyranny in the Middle Ages 42
Peculiar Character of the English Aristocracy 45
Government of the Tudors 46
Limited Monarchies of the Middle Ages generally turned into Absolute Monarchies 49
The English Monarchy a singular Exception 50
The Reformation and its Effects 51
Origin of the Church of England 55
Her peculiar Character 57
Relation in which she stood to the Crown 59
The Puritans 63
Their Republican Spirit 65
No systematic parliamentary Opposition offered to the Government of Elizabeth 66
Question of the Monopolies 67
Scotland and Ireland become Parts of the same Empire with England 68
Diminution of the Importance of England after the Accession of James I. 72
Doctrine of Divine Right 73
The Separation between the Church and the Puritans becomes wider 77
Accession and Character of Charles I. 85
Tactics of the Opposition in the House of Commons 86
Petition of Right 87
Petition of Right violated; Character and Designs of Wentworth 88
Character of Laud 89
Star Chamber and High Commission 90
Ship-Money 91
Resistance to the Liturgy in Scotland 94
A Parliament called and dissolved 95
The Long Parliament 97
First Appearance of the Two great English Parties 98
The Remonstrance 105
Impeachment of the Five Members 107
Departure of Charles from London 108
Commencement of the Civil War 111
Successes of the Royalists 112
Rise of the Independents 114
Oliver Cromwell 115
Selfdenying Ordinance; Victory of the Parliament 116
Domination and Character of the Army 117
Rising against the Military Government suppressed 120
Proceedings against the King 121
His Execution 124
Subjugation of Ireland and Scotland 126
Expulsion of the Long Parliament 127
The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell 130
Oliver succeeded by Richard 135
Fall of Richard and Revival of the Long Parliament 137
Second Expulsion of the Long Parliament 138
The Army of Scotland marches into England 139
Monk declares for a Free Parliament 141
General Election of 1660 142
The Restoration 143
Conduct of those who restored the House of Stuart unjustly censured 145
Abolition of Tenures by Knight Service; Disbandment of the Army 147
Disputes between the Roundheads and Cavaliers renewed 148
Religious Dissension 150
Unpopularity of the Puritans 153
Character of Charles II. 159
Character of the Duke of York and Earl of Clarendon 162
General Election of 1661 165
Violence of the Cavaliers in the new Parliament 166
Persecution of the Puritans 167
Zeal of the Church for Hereditary Monarchy 168
Change in the Morals of the Community 169
Profligacy of Politicians 171
State of Scotland 173
State of Ireland 176
The Government become unpopular in England 177
War with the Dutch 180
Opposition in the House of Commons 181
Fall of Clarendon 182
State of European Politics, and Ascendency of France 185
Character of Lewis XIV. 187
The Triple Alliance 189
The Country Party 190
Connection between Charles II. and France 191
Views of Lewis with respect to England 194
Treaty of Dover 196
Nature of the English Cabinet 197
The Cabal 198
Shutting of the Exchequer 201
War with the United Provinces, and their extreme Danger 202
William, Prince of Orange 203
Meeting of the Parliament; Declaration of Indulgence 205
It is cancelled, and the Test Act passed 207
The Cabal dissolved 208
Peace with the United Provinces; Administration of Danby 209
Embarrassing Situation of the Country Party 211
Dealings of that Party with the French Embassy 213
Peace of Nimeguen 213
Violent Discontents in England 214
Fall of Danby; the Popish Plot 216
Violence of the new House of Commons 221
Temple's Plan of Government 223
Character of Halifax 225
Character of Sunderland 228
Prorogation of the Parliament; Habeas Corpus Act; Second General Election of 1679 230
Popularity of Monmouth 231
Lawrence Hyde 235
Sidney Godolphin 236
Violence of Factions on the Subject of the Exclusion Bill 237
Names of Whig and Tory 238
Meeting of Parliament; The Exclusion Bill passes the Commons; Exclusion Bill rejected by the Lords 239
Execution of Stafford; General Election of 1681 240
Parliament held at Oxford, and dissolved 241
Tory Reaction 242
Persecution of the Whigs 244
Charter of the City confiscated; Whig Conspiracies 245
Detection of the Whig Conspiracies 247
Severity of the Government; Seizure of Charters 248
Influence of the Duke of York 250
He is opposed by Halifax 251
Lord Guildford 252
Policy of Lewis 254
State of Factions in the Court of Charles at the time of his Death 256
Great Change in the State of England since 1685 257
Population of England in 1655 259
Increase of Population greater in the North than in the South 261
Revenue in 1685 264
Military System 266
The Navy 273
The Ordnance 280
Noneffective Charge; Charge of Civil Government 281
Great Gains of Ministers and Courtiers 282
State of Agriculture 285
Mineral Wealth of the Country 289
Increase of Rent 291
The Country Gentlemen 292
The Clergy 296
The Yeomanry; Growth of the Towns; Bristol 306
Norwich 308
Other Country Towns 309
Manchester; Leeds; Sheffield 311
Birmingham 313
Liverpool 314
Watering-places; Cheltenham; Brighton; Buxton; Tunbridge Wells 315
Bath 316
London 318
The City 320
Fashionable Part of the Capital 324
Police of London 329
Lighting of London 330
Whitefriars; The Court 331
The Coffee Houses 334
Difficulty of Travelling 338
Badness of the Roads 339
Stage Coaches 343
Highwaymen 346
Inns 349
Post Office 350
Newspapers 352
News-letters 354
The Observator 356
Scarcity of Books in Country Places; Female Education 357
Literary Attainments of Gentlemen 359
Influence of French Literature 360
Immorality of the Polite Literature of England 361
State of Science in England 368
State of the Fine Arts 373
State of the Common People; Agricultural Wages 376
Wages of Manufacturers 378
Labour of Children in Factories 379
Wages of different Classes of Artisans 380
Number of Paupers 381
Benefits derived by the Common People from the Progress of Civilisation 382
Delusion which leads Men to overrate the Happiness of preceding Generations 385
Death of Charles II. 387
Suspicions of Poison 398
Speech of James II. to the Privy Council 400
James proclaimed 401
State of the Administration 402
New Arrangements 404
Sir George Jeffreys 406
The Revenue collected without an Act of Parliament 410
A Parliament called 411
Transactions between James and the French King 412
Churchill sent Ambassador to France; His History 415
Feelings of the Continental Governments towards England 418
Policy of the Court of Rome 420
Struggle in the Mind of James; Fluctuations in his Policy 423
Public Celebration of the Roman Catholic Rites in the Palace 425
His Coronation 427
Enthusiasm of the Tories; Addresses 430
The Elections 431
Proceedings against Oates 435
Proceedings against Dangerfield 440
Proceedings against Baxter 442
Meeting of the Parliament of Scotland 446
Feeling of James towards the Puritans 447
Cruel Treatment of the Scotch Covenanters 449
Feeling of James towards the Quakers 453
William Penn 455
Peculiar Favour shown to Roman Catholics and Quakers 458
Meeting of the English Parliament; Trevor chosen Speaker; Character of Seymour 461
The King's Speech to the Parliament 463
Debate in the Commons; Speech of Seymour 464
The Revenue voted; Proceedings of the Commons concerning Religion 465
Additional Taxes voted; Sir Dudley North 467
Proceedings of the Lords 469
Bill for reversing the Attainder of Stafford 470
Whig Refugees on the Continent 472
Their Correspondents in England 473
Characters of the leading Refugees; Ayloffe; Wade 474
Goodenough; Rumbold 475
Lord Grey 476
Monmouth 477
Ferguson 478
Scotch Refugees; Earl of Argyle 483
Sir Patrick Hume; Sir John Cochrane; Fletcher of Saltoun 486
Unreasonable Conduct of the Scotch Refugees 487
Arrangement for an Attempt on England and Scotland 488
John Locke 490
Preparations made by Government for the Defence of Scotland 491
Conversation of James with the Dutch Ambassadors; Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Argyle from sailing 492
Departure of Argyle from Holland; He lands in Scotland 495
His Disputes with his Followers 496
Temper of the Scotch Nation 498
Argyle's Forces dispersed 501
Argyle a Prisoner 502
His Execution 507
Execution of Rumbold 508
Death of Ayloffe 510
Devastation of Argyleshire 511
Ineffectual Attempts to prevent Monmouth from leaving Holland 512
His Arrival at Lyme 514
His Declaration 515
His Popularity in the West of England 516
Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Bridport 518
Encounter of the Rebels with the Militia at Axminster; News of the Rebellion carried to London; Loyalty of the Parliament 520
Reception of Monmouth at Taunton 524
He takes the Title of King 527
His Reception at Bridgewater 531
Preparations of the Government to oppose him 532
His Design on Bristol 535
He relinquishes that Design 536
Skirmish at Philip's Norton; Despondence of Monmouth 538
He returns to Bridgewater; The Royal Army encamps at Sedgemoor 540
Battle of Sedgemoor 544
Pursuit of the Rebels 550
Military Executions; Flight of Monmouth 551
His Capture 553
His Letter to the King; He is carried to London 555
His Interview with the King 556
His Execution 560
His Memory cherished by the Common People 563
Cruelties of the Soldiers in the West; Kirke 566
Jeffreys sets out on the Western Circuit 571
Trial of Alice Lisle 572
The Bloody Assizes 576
Abraham Holmes 579
Christopher Battiscombe; The Hewlings 580
Punishment of Tutchin 581
Rebels Transported 582
Confiscation and Extortion 583
Rapacity of the Queen and her Ladies 585
Grey; Cochrane; Storey 591
Wade, Goodenough, and Ferguson 591
Jeffreys made Lord Chancellor 593
Trial and Execution of Cornish 594
Trials and Executions of Fernley and Elizabeth Gaunt 596
Trial and Execution of Bateman 598
Persecution of the Protestant Dissenters 599

"Volume II."

The Power of James at the height 13
His Foreign Policy 14
His Plans of Domestic Government; The Habeas Corpus Act; The Standing Army 15
Designs in favour of the Roman Catholic Religion 17
Violation of the Test Act; Disgrace of Halifax 22
General Discontent 23
Persecution of the French Huguenots 24
Effect of that Persecution in England 27
Meeting of Parliament; Speech of the King 27
An Opposition formed in the House of Commons 28
Sentiments of Foreign Governments 30
Committee of the Commons on the King's Speech 31
Defeat of the Government 35
Second Defeat of the Government; The King reprimands the Commons; Coke committed by the Commons for Disrespect to the King 37
Opposition to the Government in the Lords; The Earl of Devonshire 39
The Bishop of London; Viscount Mordaunt 40
Prorogation; Trials of Lord Gerard and of Hampden 43
Trial of Delamere 45
Effect of his Acquittal 47
Parties in the Court; Feeling of the Protestant Tories 48
Publication of Papers found in the Strong Box of Charles II. 50
Feeling of the respectable Roman Catholics 51
Cabal of violent Roman Catholics; Castelmaine; Jermyn; White; Tyrconnel 53
Feeling of the Ministers of Foreign Governments 56
The Pope and the Order of Jesus opposed to each other; The Order of Jesus 58
Father Petre; The King's Temper and Opinions 65
The King encouraged in bis errors by Sunderland 67
Perfidy of Jeffreys; Godolphin; The Queen 70
Amours of the King; Catherine Sedley 71
Intrigues of Rochester in favour of Catherine Sedley 73
Decline of Rochester's Influence 76
Castelmaine sent to Rome; The Huguenots ill-treated by James 79
The Dispensing Power 82
Dismission of refractory Judges 83
Case of Sir Edward Hales 85
Roman Catholics authorised to hold Ecclesiastical Benefices; Sclater 86
Walker 87
The Deanery of Christchurch given to a Roman Catholic; Disposal of Bishoprics 88
Resolution of James to use his Ecclesiastical Supremacy against the Church 89
His Difficulties 90
He creates a new Court of High Commission 93
Proceedings against the Bishop of London 96
Discontent excited by the Public Display of Roman Catholic Rites and Vestments 97
Riots 99
A Camp formed at Hounslow 101
Samuel Johnson 102
Hugh Speke 103
Proceedings against Johnson 104
Zeal of the Anglican Church against Popery 106
The Roman Catholic Divines overmatched 107
State of Scotland 109
Queensberry; Perth and Melfort 110
Favour shown to the Roman Catholic Religion in Scotland; Riots at Edinburgh 112
Anger of the King 113
His Plans concerning Scotland; Deputation of Scotch Privy Councillors sent to London 114
Their Negotiations with the King 115
Meeting of the Scotch Estates; They prove refractory 116
They are adjourned; Arbitrary System of Government in Scotland 120
Ireland; State of the Law on the subject of Religion 122
Hostility of Races 123
Aboriginal Peasantry; Aboriginal Aristocracy 124
State of the English Colony 126
Course which James ought to have followed 128
His Errors 130
Clarendon arrives in Ireland as Lord Lieutenant 132
His Mortifications; Panic among the Colonists 133
Arrival of Tyrconnel at Dublin as General 136
His Partiality and Violence 137
He is bent on the Repeal of the Act of Settlement; He returns to England 138
The King displeased with Clarendon 139
Rochester attacked by the Jesuitical Cabal 140
Attempts of James to convert Rochester . 142
Dismission of Rochester 146
Dismission of Clarendon; Tyrconnel Lord Deputy 148
Dismay of the English Colonists in Ireland 150
Effect of the Fall of the Hydes 151
William, Prince of Orange; His Appearance 152
His early Life and Education 153
His theological Opinions 154
His military Qualifications 156
His Love of Danger: his bad Health 158
Coldness of his Manners and Strength of his Emotions; His Friendship for Bentinck 158
Mary, Princess of Orange 162
Gilbert Burnet 163
He brings about a good Understanding between the Prince and Princess 167
Relations between William and English Parties 169
His Feelings towards England; His Feelings towards Holland and France 169
His Policy consistent throughout 174
Treaty of Augsburg 177
William becomes the Head of the English Opposition 178
Mordaunt proposes to William a Descent on England 179
William rejects the Advice 180
Discontent in England after the Fall of the Hydes; Conversions to Popery; Peterborough; Salisbury 181
Wycherley; Tindal; Haines 182
Dryden 183
The Hind and Panther 186
Change in the Policy of the Court towards the Puritans 187
Partial Toleration granted in Scotland 192
Closeting; It is unsuccessful 193
Admiral Herbert 194
Declaration of Indulgence 195
Feeling of the Protestant Dissenters 197
Feelings of die Church of England 198
The Court and the Church 199
Letter to a Dissenter; Conduct of the Dissenters 202
Some of the Dissenters side with the Court; Care; Alsop; Rosewell; Lobb 205
Penn; The Majority of the Puritans are against the Court; Baxter 206
Howe; Bunyan 207
Kiffin 210
The Prince and Princess of Orange hostile to the Declaration of Indulgence 215
Their Views respecting the English Roman Catholics vindicated 217
Enmity of James to Burnet 223
Mission of Dykvelt to England; Negotiations of Dykvelt with English Statesmen 225
Dauby; Nottingham 226
Halifax; Devonshire 228
Edward Russell; Compton; Herbert 232
Churchill 233
Lady Churchill and the Princess Anne 234
Dykvelt returns to the Hague; with Letters from many eminent Englishmen 237
Zulestein's Mission 238
Growing Enmity between James and William 239
Influence of the Dutch Press; Correspondence of Stewart and Fagel 241
Castelmaine's Embassy to Rome 242
Consecration of the Nuncio at St. James's Palace; His public Reception; The Duke of Somerset 247
Dissolution of the Parliament; Military Offences illegally punished 249
Proceedings of the High Commission; The Universities 252
Proceedings against the University of Cambridge 254
The Earl of Mulgrave 255
State of Oxford 258
Magdalene College, Oxford 260
Anthony Farmer recommended by the King for President 263
Election of the President 264
The Fellows of Magdalene cited before the High Commission 265
Parker recommended as President; The Charterhouse 266
The Royal Progress 267
The King at Oxford; He reprimands the Fellows of Magdalene 270
Penn attempts to mediate 271
Special Ecclesiastical Commissioners sent to Oxford 274
Protest of Hough; Parker 275
Ejection of the Fellows 277
Magdalene College turned into a Popish Seminary 278
Resentment of the Clergy 279
Schemes of the Jesuitical Cabal respecting the Succession 280
Scheme of James and Tyrconnel for preventing the Princess of Orange from succeeding to the Kingdom of Ireland 282
The Queen pregnant; General Incredulity 283
Feeling of the Constituent Bodies, and of the Peers 286
James determines to pack a Parliament 288
The Board of Regulators 289
Many Lords Lieutenants dismissed; The Earl of Oxford 290
The Earl of Shrewsbury 291
The Earl of Dorset 293
Questions put to the Magistrates; Their Answers; Failure of the King's Plans 297
List of Sheriffs; Character of the Roman Catholic Country Gentlemen 301
Feeling of the Dissenters 304
Regulation of Corporations 305
Inquisition in all the Public Departments 308
Dismission of Sawyer 310
Williams Solicitor General 311
Second Declaration of Indulgence; The Clergy ordered to read it 312
They hesitate; Patriotism of the Protestant Nonconformists of London 314
Consultation of the London Clergy 315
Consultation at Lambeth Palace 317
Petition of the Seven Bishops presented to the King 318
The London Clergy disobey the Royal Order 321
Hesitation of the Government 322
It is determined to prosecute the Bishops for a Libel 324
They are examined by the Privy Council 325
They are committed to the Tower 326
Birth of the Pretender; He is generally believed to be supposititious 328
The Bishops brought before the King's Bench and bailed 332
Agitation of the Public Mind 335
Uneasiness of Sunderland 336
He professes himself a Roman Catholic 337
Trial of the Bishops 338
The Verdict; Joy of the People 348
Peculiar State of Public Feeling at this time 353
Change in the Opinion of the Tories concerning the Lawfulness of Resistance 357
Russell proposes to the Prince of Orange a descent on England; Henry Sidney 365
Devonshire 366
Shrewsbury; Halifax; Danby 367
Bishop Compton 368
Nottingham; Lumley 369
Invitation to William despatched 370
Conduct of Mary 371
Difficulties of William's Enterprise 372
Conduct of James after the Trial of the Bishops 376
Dismissions and Promotions 378
Proceedings of the High Commission. Sprat resigns his Seat 379
Discontent of the Clergy; Transactions at Oxford 380
Discontent of the Gentry; Discontent of the Army 382
Irish Troops brought over; Public Indignation 384
Lillibullero 389
Politics of the United Provinces; Errors of the French King 390
His Quarrel with the Pope concerning Franchises 393
The Archbishopric of Cologne 394
Skilful Management of William 395
His Military and Naval Preparations 396
He receives numerous Assurances of Support from England 398
Sunderland 399
Anxiety of William; Warnings conveyed to James 403
Exertions of Lewis to save James 405
James frustrates them 406
The French Armies invade Germany 408
William obtains the Sanction of the States General to his Expedition 410
Schomberg; British Adventurers at the Hague 411
William's Declaration 413
James roused to a Sense of his Danger 415
His Naval Means 416
His Military Means: He attempts to conciliate his subjects 417
He gives Audience to the Bishops 419
His Concessions ill received 420
Proofs of the Birth of the Prince of Wales submitted to the Privy Council 423
Disgrace of Sunderland 425
William takes leave of the States of Holland 426
He embarks and sails; He is driven back by a Storm 427
His Declaration arrives in England; James questions the Lords 428
William sets sail a second time 430
He passes the Straits 432
He lands at Torbay 433
He enters Exeter 437
Conversation of the King with the Bishops 442
Disturbances in London 415
Men of Rank begin to repair to the Prince; Lovelace 416
Colchester; Abingdon 448
Desertion of Cornbury 419
Petition of the Lords for a Parliament 453
The King goes to Salisbury 455
Seymour; Court of William at Exeter 456
Northern Insurrection 457
Skirmish at Wincanton 460
Desertion of Churchill and Grafton 462
Retreat of the Royal Army from Salisbury 463
Desertion of Prince George and Ormond 464
Flight of the Princess Anne 465
Council of Lords held by James 467
He appoints Commissioners to treat with William 471
The Negotiation a Feint 472
Dartmouth refuses to send the Prince of Wales into France 474
Agitation of London 475
Forged Proclamation 476
Risings in various Parts of the Country 477
Clarendon joins the Prince at Salisbury; Dissension in the Prince's Camp 479
The Prince reaches Hungerford; Skirmish at Reading 482
The King's Commissioners arrive at Hungerford; Negotiation 483
The Queen and the Prince of Wales sent to France; Lauzun 489
The King's Preparations for Flight 492
His Flight 493
The Flight of James known; Great Agitation 495
The Lords meet at Guildhall 496
Riots in London 499
The Spanish Ambassador's House sacked 501
Arrest of Jeffreys 502
The Irish Night 504
The King detained near Sheerness 508
The Lords order him to be set at liberty 513
William's Embarrassment 514
Arrest of Feversham; Arrival of James in London 515
Consultation at Windsor 517
The Dutch Troops occupy Whitehall; Message from the Prince delivered to James 521
James sets out for Rochester; Arrival of William at St. James's 522
He is advised to assume the Crown by Right of Conquest 521
He calls together the Lords and the Members of the Parliaments of Charles II. 526
Flight of James from Rochester 529
Debates and Resolutions of the Lords 530
Debates and Resolutions of the Commoners summoned by the Prince; A Convention called; Exertions of the Prince to restore Order 532
His tolerant Policy 533
Satisfaction of Roman Catholic Powers; State of Feeling in France 535
Reception of the Queen of England in France 537
Arrival of James at Saint Germains 538
State of Feeling in the United Provinces 540
Election of Members to serve in the Convention 541
Affairs of Scotland 542
State of Parties in England 545
Sherlock's Plan 547
Sancroft's Plan 549
Danby's Plan 551
The Whig Plan 553
Meeting of the Convention; Leading Members of the House of Commons 554
Choice of a Speaker 550
Debate on the State of the Nation 558
Resolution declaring the Throne vacant 500
It is sent up to the Lords; Debate in the Lords on the Plan of Regency 562
Schism between the Whigs and the Followers of Danby 569
Meeting at the Earl of Devonshire's 571
Debate in the Lords on the Question whether the Throne was vacant; Majority for the Negative; Agitation in London 573
Letter of James to the Convention 574
Debates; Negotiations; Letter of the Princess of Orange to Danby; The Princess Anne acquiesces in the Whig Plan 575
William explains his Views 577
The Conference between the Houses 579
The Lords yield; New Laws proposed for the Security of Liberty 581
Disputes and Compromise 583
The Declaration of Right 584
Arrival of Mary 586
Tender and Acceptance of the Crown 587
William and Mary proclaimed; Peculiar Character of the English Revolution 588

"Volume III."

William and Mary proclaimed in London 13
Rejoicings throughout England; Rejoicings in Holland 14
Discontent of the Clergy and of the Army 15
Reaction of Public Feeling 17
Temper of the Tories 18
Temper of the Whigs 21
Ministerial Arrangements 23
William his own Minister for Foreign Affairs 24
Danby 25
Halifax 26
Nottingham 27
Shrewsbury; The Board of Admiralty 29
The Board of Treasury; The Great Seal 30
The Judges 31
The Household 32
Subordinate Appointments 34
The Convention turned into a Parliament 35
The Members of the Two Houses required to take the Oaths 39
Questions relating to the Revenue 41
Abolition of the Hearth Money 43
Repayment of the Expenses of the United Provinces; Mutiny at Ipswich 45
The first Mutiny Bill 49
Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act 53
Unpopularity of William 54
Popularity of Mary 57
The Court removed from Whitehall to Hampton Court 60
The Court at Kensington 62
William's foreign Favourites 63
General Maladministration 65
Dissensions among Men in Office 67
Department of Foreign Affairs 71
Religious Disputes 72
The High Church Party 74
The Low Church Party 75
William's Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity; Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury 77
Nottingham's Views concerning Ecclesiastical Polity 81
The Toleration Bill 83
The Comprehension Bill 90
The Bill for settling the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy 99
The Bill for settling the Coronation Oath 113
The Coronation 115
Promotions 118
The Coalition against France; The Devastation of the Palatinate 119
War declared against France 123
State of Ireland at the Time of the Revolution; The Civil Power in the hands of the Roman Catholics 125
The Military Power in the hands of the Roman Catholics 128
Mutual Enmity between the Englishry and the Irishry 128
Panic among the Englishry 129
History of the Town of Kenmare 130
Enniskillen 134
Londonderry 135
Closing of the Gates of Londonderry 137
Mountjoy sent to pacify Ulster 140
William opens a Negotiation with Tyrconnel 142
The Temples consulted 143
Richard Hamilton sent to Ireland on his Parole 144
Tyrconnel sends Mountjoy and Rice to France; Tyrconnel calls the Irish People to arms 146
Devastation of the Country 147
The Protestants in the South unable to resist 152
Enniskillen and Londonderry hold out; Richard Hamilton marches into Ulster with an Army 153
James determines to go to Ireland 155
Assistance furnished by Lewis to James 156
Choice of a French Ambassador to accompany James; The Count of Avaux 158
James lands at Kinsale; James enters Cork 160
Journey of James from Cork to Dublin 162
Discontent in England 165
Factions at Dublin Castle 166
James determines to go to Ulster; Journey of James to Ulster 172
The Fall of Londonderry expected 176
Succours arrive from England; Treachery of Lundy; The Inhabitants of Londonderry resolve to defend themselves 177
Their Character 179
Londonderry besieged 184
The Siege turned into a Blockade 185
Naval Skirmish in Bantry Bay 187
A Parliament summoned by James sits at Dublin 188
A Toleration Act passed 193
Acts passed for the Confiscation of the Property of Protestants 194
Issue of Base Money 198
The Great Act of Attainder 200
James prorogues his Parliament 203
Persecution of the Protestants in Ireland 204
Effect produced in England by the News from Ireland 206
Actions of the Enniskilleners 209
Distress of Londonderry 210
Expedition under Kirke arrives in Lough Foyle; Cruelty of Rosen 211
The Famine in Londonderry extreme 214
Attack on the Boom 217
The Siege of Londonderry raised 219
Operations against the Enniskilleners 222
Battle of Newton Butler 224
Consternation of the Irish 225
The Revolution more violent in Scotland than in England 227
Election for the Convention; Rabbling of the Episcopal Clergy 229
State of Edinburgh 232
The Question of an Union between England and Scotland raised 233
Wish of the English Low Churchmen to preserve Episcopacy in Scotland 237
Opinions of William about Church Government in Scotland 238
Comparative Strength of Religious Parties in Scotland 240
Letter from William to the Scotch Convention; William's Instructions to his Agents in Scotland 241
The Dalrymples 242
Melville 245
James's Agents in Scotland: Dundee; Balcarras 246
Meeting of the Convention 249
Hamilton elected President 250
Committee of Elections; Edinburgh Castle summoned 251
Dundee threatened by the Covenanters 252
Letter from James to the Convention 254
Effect of James's Letter 255
Flight of Dundee 256
Tumultuous Sitting of the Convention 257
A Committee appointed to frame a Plan of Government 259
Resolutions proposed by the Committee 261
William and Mary proclaimed; The Claim of Right; Abolition of Episcopacy 262
Torture 264
William and Mary accept the Crown of Scotland 266
Discontent of the Covenanters 267
Ministerial Arrangements in Scotland; Hamilton; Crawford 269
The Dalrymples; Lockhart; Montgomery; Melville 270
Carstairs; The Club formed; Annandale; Ross 271
Hume; Fletcher of Saltoun 272
War breaks out in the Highlands; State of the Highlands 274
Peculiar Nature of Jacobitism in the Highlands 285
Jealousy of the Ascendency of the Campbells 288
The Stewarts and Macnaghtens; The Macleans 290
The Camerons; Lochiel 291
The Macdonalds 294
Feud between the Macdonalds and Mackintoshes; Inverness 294
Inverness threatened by Macdonald of Keppoch 296
Dundee appears in Keppoch's Camp 297
Insurrection of the Clans hostile to the Campbells 300
Tarbet's Advice to the Government 302
Indecisive Campaign in the Highlands 303
Military Character of the Highlanders 304
Quarrels in the Highland Army 309
Dundee applies to James for assistance; The War in the Highlands suspended 311
Scruples of the Covenanters about taking Arms for King William 312
The Cameronian Regiment raised 313
Edinburgh Castle surrenders 314
Session of Parliament at Edinburgh; Ascendency of the Club 315
Troubles in Athol 319
The war breaks out again in the Highlands 321
Death of Dundee 328
Retreat of Mackay 329
Effect of the battle of Killiecraukie; The Scottish Parliament adjourned 331
The Highland Army reinforced 334
Skirmish at Saint Johnston's 338
Disorders in the Highland Army 337
Mackay's Advice disregarded by the Scotch Ministers; The Cameronians stationed at Dunkeld 338
The Highlanders attack the Cameronians and are repulsed 339
Dissolution of the Highland Army 341
Intrigues of the Club; State of the Lowlands 342
Disputes in the English Parliament; The Attainder of Russell reversed 343
Other Attainders reversed; Case of Samuel Johnson 346
Case of Devonshire; Case of Gates 347
Bill of Rights 355
Disputes about a Bill of Indemnity 358
Last Days of Jeffreys 360
The Whigs dissatisfied with the King 364
Intemperance of Howe; Attack on Caermarthen 366
Attack on Halifax 367
Preparations for a Campaign in Ireland 371
Schomberg 372
Recess of the Parliament; State of Ireland; Advice of Avaux 374
Dismission of Melfort; Schomberg lands in Ulster 378
Carrickf ergus taken; Schomberg advances into Leinster 379
The English and Irish Armies encamp near each other; Schomberg declines a Battle 381
Frauds of the English Commissariat 382
Conspiracy among the French Troops in the English Service 383
Pestilence in the English Army 384
The English and Irish Armies go into Winter Quarters 387
Various Opinions about Schomberg's Conduct 388
Maritime Affairs 389
Maladministration of Torrington 390
Continental Affairs 391
Skirmish at Walcourt; Imputations thrown on Marlborough 393
Pope Innocent XI. succeeded by Alexander VIII. 395
The High Church Clergy divided on the Subject of the Oaths 396
Arguments for taking the Oaths 397
Arguments against taking the Oaths 400
A great Majority of the Clergy take the Oaths 405
The Non jurors: Ken 407
Leslie; Sherlock 409
Hickes 411
Collier 412
Dodwell 414
Kettlewell; Fitzwilliam; General Character of the Nonjuring Clergy 416
The Plan of Comprehension; Tillotson 420
An Ecclesiastical Commission issued 421
Proceedings of the Commission 423
The Convocation of the Province of Canterbury summoned; Temper of the Clergy 427
The Clergy ill-affected towards the King 428
The Clergy exasperated against the Dissenters by the Proceedings of the Scotch Presbyterians 431
Constitution of the Convocation 433
Election of Members of Convocation 434
Ecclesiastical Preferments bestowed 435
Compton discontented 437
The Convocation meets 438
The High Churchmen a Majority of the Lower House of Convocation 439
Difference between the Two Houses of Convocation 441
The Lower House of Convocation proves unmanageable 442
The Convocation prorogued 443
The Parliament meets; Retirement of Halifax 445
Supplies voted; the Bill of Rights passed 446
Enquiry into Naval Abuses 448
Enquiry into the Conduct of the Irish War 449
Reception of Walker in England 451
Edmund Ludlow 453
Violence of the Whigs 456
Impeachments 457
Committee of Murder 458
Malevolence of John Hampden 459
1690. The Corporation Bill 462
Debates on the Indemnity Bill 468
Case of Sir Robert Sawyer 469
The King purposes to retire to Holland 473
He is induced to change his intention; the Whigs oppose his going to Ireland; He prorogues the Parliament 474
Joy of the Tories 476
Dissolution and General Election 478
Changes in the Executive Departments 480
Caermarthen then Chief Minister 481
Sir John Lowther 483
Rise and Progress of Parliamentary Corruption in England 484
Sir John Trevor 489
Godolphin retires 490
Changes at the Admiralty 491
Changes in the Commissions of Lieutenancy 492
Temper of the Whigs; Dealings of some Whigs with Saint Germains; Shrewsbury; Ferguson 494
Hopes of the Jacobites 496
Meeting of the New Parliament; Settlement of the Revenue 497
Provision for the Princess of Denmark 500
Bill declaring the Acts of the preceding Parliament valid 507
Debate on the Changes in the Lieutenancy of London 508
Abjuration Bill 509
Act of Grace 514
The Parliament prorogued; Preparations for the First War 517
Administration of James at Dublin 518
An Auxiliary Force sent from France to Ireland 520
Plan of the English Jacobites: Clarendon, Ailesbury, Dartmouth 523
Penn 524
Preston 525
The Jacobites betrayed by Fuller 526
Crone arrested 527
Difficulties of William 529
Conduct of Shrewsbury 530
The Council of Nine 533
Conduct of Clarendon; Penn held to bail 534
Interview between William and Burnet; William sets out for Ireland 535
Trial of Crone 536
Danger of Invasion and Insurrection; Tourville's Fleet in the Channel 538
Arrests of suspected Persons 539
Torrington ordered to give Battle to Tourville 540
Battle of Beachy Head 542
Alarm in London; Battle of Fleurus; Spirit of the Nation 543
Conduct of Shrewsbury 546

"Volume IV."

William lands at Carrickfergus and proceeds to Belfast 13
State of Dublin; William's Military Arrangements 15
William marches southward 17
The Irish Army retreats 18
The Irish make a stand at the Boyne 19
The Army of James 20
The Army of William 21
Walker, now Bishop of Derry, accompanies the Army 22
William reconnoitres the Irish Position 23
William is wounded 24
Battle of the Boyne 25
Flight of James 31
Loss of the Two Armies 32
Fall of Drogheda; State of Dublin 33
James flies to France; Dublin evacuated by the French and Irish Troops 35
Entry of William into Dublin 36
Effect produced in France by the News from Ireland 37
Effect produced at Rome by the News from Ireland 38
Effect produced in London by the News from Ireland 39
James arrives in France ; His Reception there 41
Tourville attempts a Descent on England 43
Teignmouth destroyed 45
Excitement of the English Nation against the French 47
The Jacobite Press 49
The Jacobite Form of Prayer and Humiliation 50
Clamour against the Nonjuring Bishops 51
Military Operations in Ireland; Waterford taken 53
The Irish Army collected at Limerick; Lauzun pronounces that the Place cannot be defended 55
The Irish insist on defending Limerick 56
Tyrconnel is against defending Limerick 58
Limerick defended by the Irish alone 59
Sarsfield surprises the English Artillery 60
Arrival of Baldearg O'Donnel at Limerick 62
The Besiegers suffer from the Rains; Unsuccessful Assault on Limerick; The Siege raised 64
Tyrconnel and Lauzun go to France; William returns to England 66
Reception of William in England 67
Expedition to the South of Ireland 67
Marlborough takes Cork; Marlborough takes Kinsale 69
Affairs of Scotland 71
Intrigues of Montgomery with the Jacobites 72
War in the Highlands 73
Fort William built; Meeting of the Scottish Parliament 74
Melville Lord High Commissioner; the Government obtains a Majority 75
Ecclesiastical Legislation 77
The Coalition between the Club and the Jacobites dissolved 83 83
The Chiefs of the Club betray each othe 84
General Acquiescence in the new Ecclesiastical Polity; Complaints of the Episcopalian 87
The Presbyterian Nonjuror 90
William dissatisfied with the Ecclesiastical Arrangements in Scotlan 93
Meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotlan 94
State of Affairs on the Continent; the Duke of Savoy joins the Coalitio 95
Supplies voted; Ways and Mean 97
Proceedings against Torrington 100
Torrington's Trial and Acquittal 101
Animosity of the Whigs against Caermarthen 102
A Jacobite Plot 105
Meeting of the Leading Conspirators 106
The Conspirators determine to send Preston to Saint Germains 107
Papers entrusted to Preston 108
Information of the Plot given to Caernaarthen 110
Arrest of Preston and his Companions 111
William's Voyage to Holland 113
William's Entrance into the Hague 115
Congress at the Hague 117
William his own Minister for Foreign Affairs 119
William obtains a Toleration for the Waldenses 122
Vices inherent in the nature of Coalitions 123
Siege and Fall of Mons 124
William returns to England; Trials of Preston and Ashton 125
Execution of Ashton; Preston's Irresolution and Confessions 128
Lenity shown to the Conspirators; Dartmouth 130
Turner 132
Penn; Death of George Fox: his Character 132
Interview between Penn and Sidney 138
Preston pardoned 139
Joy of the Jacobites at the Fall of Mons 140
The vacant Sees filled 141
Tillotson Archbishop of Canterbury 142
Conduct of Sancroft 145
Difference between Sancroft and Ken 146
Hatred of Sancroft to the Established Church. He provides for the Episcopal Succession among the Nonjurors 147
The New Bishops 149
Sherlock, Dean of Saint Paul's 150
Treachery of some of William's Servants 157
Russell 159
Godolphin 160
Marlborough 162
William returns to the Continent 166
The Campaign of 1691 in Flanders 168
The War in Ireland; State of the English Part of Ireland 169
State of the part of Ireland which was subject to James 173
Dissensions among the Irish at Limerick 176 176
Return of Tyrconnel to Ireland 178
Arrival of a French fleet at Limerick; Saint Ruth 179
The English take the Field; Fall of Ballymore; Siege and fall of Athlone 181
Retreat of the Irish Army 187
Saint Ruth determines to fight 189
Battle of Aghrim 191
Fall of Galway 194
Death of Tyrconnel; Second Siege of Limerick 196
The Irish desirous to capitulate 199
Negotiations between the Irish Chiefs and the Besiegers 200
The Capitulation of Limerick 202
The Irish troops required to make the Election between their country and France 205
Most of the Irish Troops volunteer for France 206
Many of the Irish who had volunteered for France desert 207
The last Division of the Irish Army sails from Cork to France 209
State of Ireland after the War 210
Opening of the Parliament 215
Debates on the Salaries and Fees of Official Men 216
Act excluding Papists from Public Trust in Ireland 218
Debates on the East India Trade 221
Debates on the Bill for regulating Trials in Cases of High Treason 240
Plot formed by Marlboro against the Government of William 219
Marlborough's plot disclosed by the Jacobites 254
1092. Disgrace of Marlborough; various reports touching the Cause of Marlborough's Disgrace 255
Rupture between Mary and Anne 257
Fuller's Plot 260
Close of the Session; Bill for ascertaining the Salaries of the Judges rejected 268
Ministerial changes in England 271
Ministerial Changes in Scotland 273
State of the Highlands 274
Breadalbane employed to negotiate with the Rebel clans 275
Glencoe 277
William goes to the Continent; Death of Louvois 300
The French Government determines to send an Expedition against England; James believes that the English fleet is friendly to him 303
Conduct of Russell 304
A Daughter born to James; Preparations made in England to Repel Invasion 307
James goes down to his Army at La Hogue 308
James's Declaration 309
Effect produced by James's Declaration 311
The English and Dutch fleets join; Temper of the English Fleet 315
Battle of La Hogue 317
Rejoicings in England 321
Young's Plot 321
Foreign Policy of William 335
The Northern powers 336
The Pope; Conduct of the Allies 307
The Emperor; Spain 340
William succeeds in preventing the Dissolution of the Coalition 341
New Arrangements for the Government of the Spanish Netherlands 344
Lewis takes the field 345
Siege of Namur 346
Lewis returns to Versailles; Luxemburg 351
Battle of Steinkirk 354
Conspiracy of Grandval 360
Return of William to England 363
Naval Maladministration 364
Earthquake at Port Royal; Distress in England 367
Increase of Crime 368
Meeting of Parliament; State of Parties; The King's Speech 371
Question of Privilege raised by the Lords; Debates on the State of the Nation 373
Bill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of Treason 380
Case of Lord Mohun 381
Debates on the India Trade; Supply 384
Ways and Means; Land Tax 385
Origin of the National Debt 390
Parliamentary Reform 401
The Place Bill 407
The Triennial Bill; 1693 411
The first Parliamentary Discussion on the Libeity of the Press 415
State of Ireland 428
The King refuses to pass the Triennial Bill 433
Ministerial Arrangements 436
The King goes to Holland; A Session of Parliament in Scotland 439
State of the Court of Saint Germains 444
Feeling of the Jacobites. Compounders and Non-Compounders 448
Change of Ministry at Saint Germains: Middleton 451
New Declaration put forth by James 454
Effect of the New Declaration 456
French preparations for the Campaign; Institution of the Order of Saint Lewis; Middleton's Account of Versailles 458
William's Preparations for the Campaign 461
Lewis takes the Field 462
Lewis returns to Versailles 463
Manoeuvres of Luxemburg 465
Battle of Landen 466
Miscarriage of the Smyrna Fleet 473
Excitement in London 476
Jacobite Libels: William Anderton 477
Writings and Artifices of the Jacobites 480
Conduct of Caermarthen 483
New Charter granted to the East India Company 484
Return of William to England: military Successes of France 486
Distress of France 487
A Ministry necessary to Parliamentary Government 492
The First Ministry gradually formed 494
Sunderland 495
Sunderland advises the King to give the preference to the Whigs; Reasons for preferring the Whigs 500
Chiefs of the Whig Party; Russell 502
Somers 503
Montague 506
Wharton 510
Chiefs of the Tory Party; Harley 514
Foley; Howe 519
Meeting of Parliament; Debates about the Naval Miscarriages 521
Russell First Lord of the Admiralty; Retirement of Nottingham 523
Shrewsbury refuses Office 524
Debates about the Trade with India 525
Bill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of Treason; Triennial Bill 528
Place Bill 531
Bill for the Naturalization of Foreign Protestants 535 535
Supply 537
Ways and Means: Lottery Loan 538
1694; the Bank of England 540
Prorogation of Parliament: Ministerial Arrangements; Shrewsbury Secretary of State 552
New Titles bestowed 554
French Plan of War; English Plan of War 555
Expedition against Brest 557
Naval Operations in the Mediterranean 561
War by Land 563
Complaints of Trenchard's Administration 564
The Lancashire Prosecutions 565
Meeting of the Parliament; Death of Tillotson 570
Tenison Archbishop of Canterbury; Debates on the Lancashire Prosecutions 571
Place Bill; Bill for the Regulation of Trials in Cases of Treason; The Triennial Bill passed 574
Death of Mary 575
Funeral of Mary 579
Greenwich Hospital founded 580

"Volume V."

Effect of Mary's Death on the Continent 13
Death of Luxemburg 14
Distress of William; Parliamentary Proceedings: Emancipation of the press 15
Death of Halifax 18
Parliamentary Enquiries into the Corruption of the Public Offices 20
Vote of Censure on the Speaker 24
Foley elected Speaker, Enquiry into the Accounts of the East India Company 25
Suspicious Dealings of Seymour 26
Bill against Sir Thomas Cook 27
Enquiry by a joint Committee of Lords and Commons 28
Impeachment of Leeds 30
Disgrace of Leeds 34
Lords Justices appointed; Reconciliation between William and the Princess Anne 35
Jacobite Plots against William's Person 38
Charnock 40
Porter; Goodman; Parkyns 41
Fenwick 42
Session of the Scottish Parliament; Inquiry into the Slaughter of Glencoe 42
War in the Netherlands: Marshal Villeroy 51
The Duke of Maine 52
Jacobite Plots against the Government during William's Absence 54
Siege of Namur 55
Surrender of the Town of Namur 59
Surrender of the Castle of Namur 64
Arrest of Boultiers 65
Effect of the Emancipation of the English Press 69
Return of William to England: Dissolution of the Parliament 74
William makes a Progress through the Country 76
The Elections 80
Alarming State of the Currency 85
Meeting of the Parliament: Loyalty of the House of Commons 100
Controversy touching the Currency 102
Parliamentary Proceedings touching the Currency 103
Passing of the Act regulating Trials in Cases of High Treason 106
Parliamentary Proceedings touching the Grant of Crown Lands in Wales to Portland 108
Two Jacobite Plots formed 110
Berwick's Plot; the Assassination Plot. Sir George Barclay. 111
Failure of Berwick's Plot 118
Detection of the Assassination Plot 120
Parliamentary Proceedings touching the Assassination Plot 126
State of Public Feeling 127
Trial of Charnock, King, and Keyes 129
Execution of Charnock, King, and Keyes 133
Trial of Friend 134
Trial of Parkyns 135
Execution of Friend and Parkyns 137
Trials of Rookwood, Cranburne, and Lowick; The Association 139
Bill for the Regulation ot Elections 144
Act establishing a Land Bank 147
Military Operations in the Netherlands; Commercial Crisis in England 150
Financial Crisis 154
Efforts to restore the Currency 158
Distress of the People: their Temper and Conduct 160
Negotiations with France; The Duke of Savoy dessrts the Coalition 163
Search for Jacobite Conspirators in England: Sir John Fenwick 165
Capture of Fenwick 167
Fenwick's Confession 169
Return of William to England 176
Meeting of Parliament: State of the Country; Speech of William at the commencement of the Session 177
Resolutions of the House of Commons 178
Return of Prosperity 180
Effect of the Proceedings of the House of Commons on Foreign Governments 181
Restoration of the Finances 182
Effects of Fenwick's Confession 163
Resignation of Godolphin; Feeling of the Whigs about Fenwick 185
William examines Fenwick 186
Disappearance of Goodman 187
Parliamentary Proceedings touching Fenwick's Confession 188
Bill for attainting Fenwick 190
Debates of the Commons on the Bill of Attainder 191
The Bill of Attainder carried up to the Lords 201
Artifices of Monmouth 202
Debates of the Lords on the Bill of Attainder 204
Proceedings against Monmouth 209
Position and Feelings of Shrewsbury 212
The Bill of Attainder passed 213
Attempts to save Fenwick 214
Fenwick's Execution; Bill for regulating Elections 215
Bill for the Regulation of the Press 218
Bill abolishing the Privileges of Whitefriars and the Savoy 219
Close of the Session: Promotions and Appointments 221
State of Ireland 224
State of Scotland; A Session of Parliament at Edinburgh; Act for the Settling of Schools 225
Case of Thomas Aikenhead 226
Military Operations in the Netherlands 229
Terms of Peace offered by France; Conduct of Spain 230
Conduct of the Emperor; Congress of Ryswick 232
William opens a distinct Negotiation 235
Meeting of Portland and Boufflers 237
Terms of Peace between France and England settled 239
Difficulties caused by Spain and the Emperor 241
Attempts of James to prevent a general Pacification; The Treaty of Ryswick signed 243
Anxiety in England; News of the Peace arrives in England 244
Dismay of the Jacobites 245
General Rejoicing; The King's Entry into London 246
The Thanksgiving Day 248
Standing Armies 253
Sunderland; Lord Spencer 255
Controversy touching Standing Armies 258
Meeting of Parliament; The King's Speech well received; Debate on a Peace Establishment 266
Sunderland attacked 267
The Nation averse to a Standing Army 271
Mutiny Act; The Navy 273
Acts concerning High Treason 274
Earl of Clancarty 276
Ways and Means 278
Rights of the Sovereign in reference to Crown Lands 279
Proceedings in Parliament on Grants of Crown Lands 281
Montague accused of Peculation 282
Bill of Pains and Penalties against Duncombe 286
Dissension between the Houses 293
Commercial Questions 294
Irish Manufactures 297
East India Companies 302
Fire at Whitehall 308
Visit of the Czar 310
Portland's Embassy to France 318
The Spanish Succession 329
The Count of Tallard's Embassy 343
Newmarket Meeting: the insecure State of the Roads 345
Further Negotiations relating to the Spanish Succession 346
The King goes to Holland 349
Portland returns from his Embassy 350
William is reconciled to Marlborough 351
Altered Position of the Ministry 354
The Elections 357
First Partition Treaty 361
Domestic Discontent 372
Littleton chosen Speaker 373
King's Speech 374
Proceedings relating to the Amount of the Land Force 375
Unpopularity of Montague 381
Bill for disbanding the Army 392
The King's Speech 393
Death of the Electoral Prince of Bavaria 394
Renewed Discussion of the Army Question 396
Naval Administration 401
Commission on Irish Forfeitures 403
Prorogation of Parliament; Changes in the Ministry and Household 404
Spanish Succession 409
Trial of Spencer Cowper 447
Duels 451
Discontent of the Nation 453
Captain Kidd 456
Meeting of Parliament 461
Attacks on Burnet 464
Renewed Attack on Somers 465
Question of the Irish Forfeitures; Dispute between the Houses 468
Somers again attacked 487
Prorogation of Parliament 489
Death of James the Second 490
The Pretender recognised as King 497
Return of the King 500
General Election 502
Death of William 505


This work was published before January 1, 1928, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

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