The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church/XII

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:Abiit Iesus trans mare Galileæ: et reliqua. :Abiit Jesus trans mare Galileæ: et reliqua.
"Se Hælend ferde ofer ða Galileiscan sǽ, þe is gehaten Tyberiadis, and him filigde micel menigu, forðon þe hi beheoldon ða tacna þe hé worhte ofer ða untruman men. Þa astah se Hælend up on ane dune, and þær sǽt mid his leorning-cnihtum, and wæs ða swiðe gehende seo halige Eastertid. Þa beseah se Hælend up, and geseah þæt ðær wæs mycel mennisc toweard, and cwæð to anum his leorning-cnihta, se wæs geháten Philippus, Mid hwam mage we bicgan hláf ðisum folce? Þis he cwæð to fándunge þæs leorning-cnihtes: he sylf wiste hwæt he dón wolde. Ða andwyrde Philippus, Þeah her wæron gebohte twa hund peningwurð hlafes, ne mihte furðon hyra ælc anne bitan of ðam gelæccan. Þa cwæð an his leorning-cnihta, se hátte Andreas, Petres broðor, Her byrð án cnapa fif berene hlafas, and twegen fixas, ac to hwán mæg þæt to swa micclum werode? Þa cwæð se Hælend, Doð þæt þæt folc sitte. And þær wæs micel gǽrs on ðære stowe myrige on to sittenne. And hí ða ealle sæton, swa swa mihte beon fíf ðusend wera. Ða genam se Hælend þa fíf hláfas, and bletsode, and tobræc, and todælde betwux ðam sittendum: swa gelíce eac þa fixas todælde; and hí ealle genoh hæfdon. Þaða hí ealle fulle wæron, ða cwæð se Hælend to his leorning-cnihtum, Gaderiað þa lafe, and hí ne losion. And hi ða gegaderodon ða bricas, and gefyldon twelf wilian mid ðære lafe. Þæt folc, ða ðe ðis tacen geseah, cwæð þæt Crist wære soð witega, seðe wæs toweard to ðisum middangearde." "Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is called of Tiberias, and a great multitude followed him, because they had seen the miracles which he had wrought on the diseased men. Then Jesus went up into a mountain, and there sat with his disciples, and the holy Easter-tide was then very nigh. Jesus then looked up, and saw that there was a great multitude coming, and said to one of his disciples, who was called Philip, With what can we buy bread for this people? This he said to prove the disciple: himself knew what he would do. Then Philip answered, Though two hundred pennyworth of bread were bought, yet could not every one of them get a morsel. Then said one of his disciples, who was called Andrew, Peter's brother, Here beareth a lad five barley loaves, and two fishes, but what is that for so great a multitude? Then said Jesus, Make the people sit. And there was much grass on the place pleasant to sit on: and they then all sat, about five thousand men. Then Jesus took the five loaves, and blessed, and brake, and divided them among those sitting: in like manner also he divided the fishes; and they all had enough. When they all were full, Jesus said to his disciples, Gather the remainder, and let it not be lost. And they gathered the fragments, and filled twelve baskets with the remainder. The people, who saw this miracle, said that Christ was the true prophet who was to come to this world."
Seo sǽ, þe se Hælend oferferde, getacnað þas andweardan woruld, to ðære com Crist and oferferde; þæt is, he com to ðisre worulde on menniscnysse, and ðis lif oferferde; he com to deaðe, and of deaðe aras; and astah up on ane dune, and þær sæt mid his leorning-cnihtum, forðon ðe he astah up to heofenum, and þær sitt nuða mid his halgum. Rihtlice is seo sǽ wiðmeten þisre worulde, forðon ðe heo is hwíltidum smylte and myrige ón to rowenne, hwilon eac swiðe hreoh and egeful on to beonne. Swa is þeos woruld; hwíltidum heo is gesundful and myrige on to wunigenne, hwilon heo is eac swiðe styrnlic, and mid mislicum þingum gemenged, swa þæt heo for oft bið swiðe unwynsum on to eardigenne. Hwilon we beoð hale, hwilon untrume; nu bliðe, and eft on micelre unblisse; forðy is þis líf, swa swa we ær cwædon, þære sǽ wiðmeten. The sea which Jesus passed over betokeneth this present world, which Christ came to and passed over; that is he came to this world in human nature, and passed over this life; he came to death, and from death arose; and went up on a mountain, and there sat with his disciples, for he ascended to heaven, and there sits now with his saints. Rightly is the sea compared to this world, for it is sometimes serene and pleasant to navigate on, sometimes also very rough and terrible to be on. So is this world; sometimes it is desirable and pleasant to dwell in, sometimes also it is very rugged, and mingled with divers things, so that it is too often very unpleasant to inhabit. Sometimes we are hale, sometimes sick; now joyful, and again in great affliction; therefore is this life, as we before said, compared to the sea.
Þa se Hælend gesæt up on ðære dune, ða ahóf hé up his eagan, and geséh þæt ðær wæs micel mennisc toweard. Ealle þa ðe him to cumað, þæt is ða ðe bugað to rihtum geleafan, þa gesihð se Hælend, and þam hé gemiltsað, and hyra mod onliht mid his gife, þæt hí magon him to cuman butan gedwylde, and ðam hé forgifð ðone gastlican fodan, þæt hí ne ateorian be wege. Þaða he axode Philippum, hwanon hí mihton hláf ðam folce gebicgan, ða geswutelode hé Philippes nytennysse. Wel wiste Crist hwæt hé dón wolde, and he wiste þæt Philippus þæt nyste. Ða cwæð Andreas, þæt an cnapa þær bære fif berene hlafas and twegen fixas. Þa cwæð se Hælend, "Doð þæt þæt folc sitte," and swa forðon swa we eow ær rehton. Se Hælend geseh þæt hungrige folc, and hé hí mildheortlice fedde, ægðer ge þurh his gódnysse ge þurh his mihte. Hwæt mihte seo gódnys ana, buton ðær wære miht mid þære gódnysse? His discipuli woldon eac þæt folc fedan, ac hí næfdon mid hwam. Se Hælend hæfde þone gódan willan to ðam fostre, and þa mihte to ðære fremminge. When Jesus was sitting on the mountain, he lifted up his eyes, and saw that there was a great multitude coming. All those who come to him, that is those who incline to the right faith, Jesus sees, and on them he has pity, and enlightens their understanding with his grace, that they may come to him without error, and to these he gives ghostly food, that they may not faint by the way. When he asked Philip, whence they could buy bread for the people, he showed Philip's ignorance. Well Christ knew what he would do, and he knew that Philip knew not. Then said Andrew, that a lad there bare five barley loaves and two fishes. Then said Jesus, "Make the people sit," and so on, as we have before repeated it to you. Jesus saw the hungry people, and he compassionately fed them, both by his goodness and by his might. What could his goodness alone have done, unless there had been might with that goodness? His disciples would also have fed the people, but they had not wherewithal. Jesus had the good will to nourish them, and the power to execute it.
Fela wundra worhte God, and dæghwamlice wyrcð; ac ða wundra sind swiðe awácode on manna gesihðe, forðon ðe hí sind swiðe gewunelice. Mare wundor is þæt God Ælmihtig ælce dæg fét ealne middangeard, and gewissað þa gódan, þonne þæt wundor wære, þæt he þa gefylde fif ðusend manna mid fif hlafum: ac ðæs wundredon men, na forði þæt hit mare wundor wære, ac forði þæt hit wæs ungewunelic. Hwa sylð nu wæstm urum æcerum, and gemenigfylt þæt gerip of feawum cornum, buton se ðe ða gemænigfylde ða fif hlafas? Seo miht wæs ða on Cristes handum, and þa fif hlafas wæron swylce hit sæd wære, na on eorðan besawen, ac gemenigfyld fram ðam ðe eorðan geworhte. God hath wrought many miracles and daily works; but those miracles are much weakened in the sight of men, because they are very usual. A greater miracle it is that God Almighty every day feeds all the world, and directs the good, than that miracle was, that he filled five thousand men with five loaves: but men wondered at this, not because it was a greater miracle, but because it was unusual. Who now gives fruit to our fields, and multiplies the harvest from a few grains of corn, but he who multiplied the five loaves? The might was there in Christ's hands, and the five loaves were, as it were, seed, not sown in the earth, but multiplied by him who created the earth.
Þis wundor is swiðe micel, and deop on getacnungum. Oft gehwa gesihð fægre stafas awritene, þonne herað he ðone writere and þa stafas, and nat hwæt hi mænað. Se ðe cann ðæra stafa gescead, he herað heora fægernysse, and ræd þa stafas, and understent hwæt hí gemænað. On oðre wisan we sceawiað metinge, and on oðre wisan stafas. Ne gæð na mare to metinge buton þæt þu hit geseo and herige: nis na genóh þæt þu stafas sceawige, buton ðu hí eac ræde, and þæt andgit understande. Swa is eac on ðam wundre þe God worhte mid þam fif hlafum: ne bið na genóh þæt we þæs tacnes wundrian, oþþe þurh þæt God herian, buton we eac þæt gastlice andgit understandon. This miracle is very great, and deep in its significations. Often some one sees fair characters written, then praises he the writer and the characters, but knows not what they mean. He who understands the art of writing praises their fairness, and reads the characters, and comprehends their meaning. In one way we look at a picture, and in another at characters. Nothing more is necessary for a picture than that you see and praise it: but it is not enough to look at characters without, at the same time, reading them, and understanding their signification. So also it is with regard to the miracle which God wrought with the five loaves: it is not enough that we wonder at the miracle, or praise God on account of it, without also understanding its spiritual sense.
Þa fif hlafas ðe se cnapa bær getacniað þa fif béc ðe Moyses se heretoga sette on ðære ealdan ǽ. Se cnapa ðe hi bær, and heora ne onbyrigde, wæs þæt Iudeisce folc, ðe ða fif béc ræddon, and ne cuðe þæron nan gastlic andgit, ærðan ðe Crist com, and þa béc geopenode, and hyra gastlice andgit onwreah his leorning-cnihtum, and hi siððan eallum cristenum folce. We ne magon nu ealle þa fif béc areccan, ac we secgað eow þæt God sylf hi dihte, and Moyses hí awrát, to steore and to lare ðam ealdan folce Israhel, and eac ús on gastlicum andgite. Þa béc wæron awritene be Criste, ac þæt gastlice andgit wæs þam folce digle, oð þæt Crist sylf com to mannum, and geopenede þæra boca digelnysse, æfter gastlicum andgite. The five loaves which the lad bare, betoken the five books which the leader Moses appointed in the old law. The lad who bare them, and tasted not of them, was the Jewish people, who read the five books, and knew therein no spiritual signification, before Christ came, and opened the books, and disclosed their spiritual sense to his disciples, and they afterwards to all christian people. We cannot now enumerate to you all the five books, but we will tell you that God himself dictated them, and that Moses wrote them, for the guidance and instruction of the ancient people of Israel, and of us also in a spiritual sense. These books were written concerning Christ, but the spiritual sense was hidden from the people, until Christ came himself to men, and opened the secrets of the books, according to the spiritual sense.
Alii euangelistæ}} ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus discipulis distribuisset, discipuli autem ministrauerunt turbis. He tobrǽc ða fif hlafas and sealde his leorning-cnihtum, and het beran ðam folce; forðon þe hé tæhte him ða gastlican láre: and hí ferdon geond ealne middangeard, and bodedon, swa swa him Crist sylf tæhte. Mid þam ðe hé tobræc ða hlafas, þa wæron hí gemenigfylde, and weoxon him on handum; forðon ðe ða fíf béc wurdon gastlice asmeade, and wise lareowas hí trahtnodon, and setton of ðam bocum manega oðre béc; and we mid þæra boca lare beoð dæghwonlice gastlice gereordode. Alii evangelistæ ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus discipulis distribuisset, discipuli autem ministraverunt turbis. He brake the five loaves and gave to his disciples, and bade them bear them to the people; for he taught them the heavenly lore: and they went throughout all the world, and preached, as Christ himself had taught. When he had broken the loaves then were they multiplied, and grew in his hands; for the five books were spiritually devised, and wise doctors expounded them, and founded on those books many other books; and we with the doctrine of those books are daily spiritually fed.
Þa hláfas wæron berene. Bere is swiðe earfoðe to gearcigenne, and þeah-hwæðere fet ðone mann, þonne hé gearo bið. Swa wæs seo ealde ǽ swiðe earfoðe and digle to understandenne; ac ðeah-hwæðere, þonne we cumað to ðam smedman, þæt is to ðære getacnunge, þonne gereordað heo ure mod, and gestrángað mid þære diglan lare. Fif hlafas ðær wæron, and fif ðusend manna þær wæron gereordode; forðan ðe þæt Iudeisce folc wæs underðeodd Godes ǽ, ðe stód on fif bocum awriten. Þaða Crist axode Philippum, and he his afandode, swa swa we ær ræddon, þa getacnode he mid þære acsunge þæs folces nytennysse, þe wæs under ðære ǽ, and ne cuðe þæt gastlice andgit, ðe on ðære ǽ bediglod wæs. The loaves were of barley. Barley is very difficult to prepare, and, nevertheless, feeds a man when it is prepared. So was the old law very difficult and obscure to understand; but, nevertheless, when we come to the flour, that is to the signification, then it feeds and strengthens our mind with the hidden lore. There were five loaves, and there were five thousand men fed; because the Jewish people was subject to God's law, which stood written in five books. When Christ asked Philip, and proved him, as we before read, by that asking he betokened the people's ignorance, who were under that law, and knew not the spiritual sense which was concealed in that law.
Ða twegen fixas getácnodon sealm-sang and ðæra witegena cwydas. An ðæra gecydde and bodode Cristes to-cyme mid sealm-sange, and oðer mid witegunge. Nu sind þa twa gesetnyssa, þæt is sealm-sang and witegung, swylce hí syflinge wæron to ðam fíf berenum hlafum, þæt is, to ðam fíf ǽlicum bocum. Þæt folc, þe ðær gereordode, sǽt úp on ðam gærse. Þæt gærs getacnode flæsclice gewilnunge, swa swa se witega cwæð, "Ælc flæsc is gærs, and þæs flæsces wuldor is swilce wyrta blostm." Nu sceal gehwá, seðe wile sittan æt Godes gereorde, and brucan þære gastlican lare, oftredan þæt gærs and ofsittan, þæt is, þæt he sceal ða flæsclican lustas gewyldan, and his lichaman to Godes þeowdome symle gebígan. The two fishes betokened the Psalms and the sayings of the prophets. The one of these announced and proclaimed Christ's advent with psalm-singing, and the other with prophecy, as if they were meat to the five barley loaves, that is, to the five legal books. The people, who were there fed, sat on the grass. The grass betokened fleshly desire, as the prophet said, "Every flesh is grass, and the glory of the flesh is as the blossom of plants." Now should everyone who will sit at God's refection, and partake of spiritual instruction, tread and press down the grass, that is, he should overpower his fleshly lusts, and ever dispose his body to the service of God.
Þær wæron getealde æt ðam gereorde fif ðusend wera; forðon þe ða menn, þe to ðam gastlican gereorde belimpað, sceolon beon werlice geworhte, swa swa se apostol cwæð; he cwæð, "Beoð wacole, and standað on geleafan, and onginnað werlice, and beoð gehyrte." Ðeah gif wifmann bið werlice geworht, and strang to Godes willan, heo bið þonne geteald to ðam werum þe æt Godes mysan sittað. Þusend getel bið fulfremed, and ne astihð nán getel ofer þæt. Mid þam getele bið getácnod seo fulfremednys ðæra manna ðe gereordiað heora sawla mid Godes láre. There were counted at that refection five thousand males; because those men who belong to the spiritual refection should be manfully made, as the apostle said; he said, "Be watchful, and stand on faith, and undertake manfully, and be bold." Though if a woman be manly by nature, and strong to God's will, she will be counted among the men who sit at the table of God. Thousand is a perfect number, and no number extends beyond it. With that number is betokened the perfection of those men who nourish their souls with God's precepts.
"Se Hælend het þa gegadrian þa láfe, þæt hí losian ne sceoldon; and hí ða gefyldon twelf wilion mid þam bricum." Ða láfe ðæs gereordes, þæt sind ða deopnyssa ðære láre þe worold-men understandan ne magon, þa sceolon ða lareowas gegaderian, þæt hí ne losian, and healdan on heora fætelsum, þæt is, on heora heortan, and habban æfre gearo, to teonne forð þone wisdom and ða lare ægðer ge ðære ealdan ǽ ge ðære niwan. Hí ða gegaderodon twelf wilian fulle mid þam bricum. Þæt twelffealde getel getacnode þa twelf apostolas; forðan þe hí underfengon þa digelnyssa þære láre, ðe þæt læwede folc undergitan ne mihte. "Jesus then bade the remainder to be gathered, that it might not be lost; and they filled twelve baskets with the fragments." The remainder of the refection, that is the depth of the doctrine, which secular men may not understand, that should our teachers gather, that it may not be lost, and preserve in their scrips, that is, in their hearts, and have ever ready to draw forth the wisdom and doctrine both of the old law and of the new. They gathered then twelve baskets full of the fragments. The twelvefold number betokened the twelve apostles; because they received the mysteries of the doctrine, which the lay folk could not understand.
"Þæt folc, ða þe þæt wundor geseah, cwædon be Criste, þæt he wære soð wítega, ðe toweard wæs." Soð hí sædon, sumera ðinga: wítega hé wæs, forðan ðe hé wiste ealle towearde þing, and eac fela ðing wítegode, ðe beoð gefyllede butan twyn. He is witega, and he is ealra witegena witegung, forðan ðe ealle wítegan be him witegodon, and Crist gefylde heora ealra witegunga. Þæt folc geseah ða þæt wundor, and hí ðæs swiðe wundredon. Þæt wundor is awriten, and we hit gehyrdon. Þæt ðe on him heora eagan gedydon, þæt deð ure geleafa on ús. Hí hit gesawon, and we his gelyfað þe hit ne gesawon; and we sind forði beteran getealde, swa swa se Hælend be ús on oðre stowe cwæð, "Eadige beoð þa þe me ne geseoð, and hi hwæðere gelyfað on me, and mine wundra mærsiað." "The people, who saw that miracle, said of Christ, that he was the true prophet who was to come." In one sense they said the truth: he was a prophet, for he knew all future things, and also prophesied many things which will, without doubt, be fulfilled. He is a prophet, and he is the prophecy of all prophets, for all the prophets have prophesied of him, and Christ has fulfilled the prophecies of them all. The people saw the miracle, and they greatly wondered at it. That miracle is recorded, and we have heard it. What their eyes did in them, that does our faith in us. They saw it, and we believe it, who saw it not; and we are therefore accounted the better, as Jesus, in another place, said of us, "Blessed are they who see me not, and, nevertheless, believe in me, and celebrate my miracles."
Þæt folc cwæð ða be Criste, þæt he wære soð witega. Nu cweðe we be Criste, þæt he is ðæs Lifigendan Godes Sunu, seðe wæs toweard to alysenne ealne middangeard fram deofles anwealde, and fram helle-wíte. Þæt folc ne cuðe ðæra goda, þæt hí cwædon, þæt he God wære, ac sædon, þæt he witega wære. We cweðað nu, mid fullum geleafan, þæt Crist is soð witega, and ealra witegena Witega, and þæt he is soðlice ðæs Ælmihtigan Godes Sunu, ealswa mihtig swa his Fæder, mid ðam hé leofað and rixað on annysse ðæs Halgan Gastes, á butan ende on ecnysse. Amen. The people said of Christ, that he was a true prophet. Now we say of Christ, that he is Son of the Living God, who was to come to redeem the whole world from the power of the devil, and from hell-torment. The people knew not of those benefits, that they might have said that he was God, but they said that he was a prophet. We say now, with full belief, that Christ is a true prophet, and Prophet of all prophets, and that he is truly Son of the Almighty God, as mighty as his Father, with whom he liveth and reigneth in unity of the Holy Ghost, ever without end to eternity. Amen.