The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church/XXXIV

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Manegum mannum is cuð seo halige stów Sce Michaheles, on þære dúne þe is geháten Garganus. Seo dún stent on Campania landes gemæron, wið þa sǽ Adriaticum, twelf mila on upstige fram anre byrig þe is geháten Sepontina. Of ðære stowe wearð aræred þises dæges freols geond geleaffulle gelaðunge. Þær eardode sum þurhspedig mann Garganus geháten: of his gelimpe wearð seo dún swa gecíged. Hit gelámp, þaþa seo ormæte micelnyss his orfes on ðære dune læswede, þæt sum modig fearr wearð ángencga, and þære heorde-drafe oferhógode. Hwæt se hláford þa Garganus gegaderode micele menigu his in-cnihta, and ðone fearr gehwær on ðam westene sohte, and æt nextan hine gemette standan uppon ðam cnolle þære healican dune, æt ánes scræfes inngange; and he ða mid graman wearð astyred, hwí se fearr ángenga his heorde forsáwe, and gebende his bogan, and mid geættrode flan hine ofsceotan wolde; ac seo geættrode flá wende ongean swilce mid windes blæde aðrawen, and þone ðe hi sceat þærrihte ofsloh. To many men is known the holy place of St. Michael, on the mountain which is called Garganus. The mountain stands on the borders of the land of Campania, towards the Adriatic sea, twelve miles in ascent from a town which is called Sepontina. From that place originated this day's festival throughout the faithful church. There dwelt a very rich man called Garganus: from his adventure the mountain was so named. It happened when the immense multitude of his cattle was grazing on the mountain, that an unruly bull wandered alone and despised the drove. Hereupon the master Garganus gathered a great many of his household servants, and sought the bull everywhere in the waste, and at last found him standing on the knoll of the high mountain, at the entrance of a cavern; and he was then moved with anger, because the solitary bull had despised his herd, and bent his bow, and would shoot him with a poisoned arrow; but the poisoned arrow turned back as if thrown by the wind's blast, and instantly slew him who had shot it.
His magas ða and nehgeburas wurdon þearle þurh ða dæde ablicgede, and heora nán ne dorste ðam fearre genealæcan. Hí ða heora biscop rǽdes befrunon, hwæt him be ðam to donne wære. Se biscop ða funde him to rǽde, þæt hí mid þreora daga fæstene, swutelunge þæs wundres æt Gode bædon. Þa on ðære ðriddan nihte þæs fæstenes æteowde se heah-engel Michahel hine sylfne þam biscope on gastlicere gesihðe, þus cweðende, "Wislice ge dydon, þæt ge to Gode sohton þæt þæt mannum digle wæs. Wite ðu gewislice, þæt se mann ðe mid his agenre flán ofscoten wæs, þæt hit is mid minum willan gedón. Ic eom Michahel se heah-engel Godes Ælmihtiges, and ic symle on his gesihðe wunige. Ic secge ðe, þæt ic ða stowe þe se fearr geealgode synderlice lufige, and ic wolde mid þære gebícnunge geswutelian þæt ic eom ðære stowe hyrde; and ealra ðæra tácna ðe ðær gelimpað, ic eom sceawere and gymend." And se heah-engel mid þisum wordum to heofonum gewát. His kinsmen then and neighbours were greatly astonished by that deed, and not one of them durst approach the bull. They then asked counsel of their bishop, what they should do in the matter. The bishop then found it advisable, that they should ask from God an explanation of the miracle with a fast of three days. On the third night of the fast the archangel Michael appeared to the bishop in a ghostly vision, thus saying, "Wisely ye did to seek at God that which was hidden to men. Know thou for certain, that the man who was shot with his own arrow, that it was done with my will. I am Michael, the archangel of God Almighty, and I continue ever in his sight. I say to thee that I especially love the place which the bull defended, and I would by that sign manifest that I am the guardian of the place; and of all the miracles which there happen, I am the spectator and observer." And with these words the archangel departed to heaven.
Se biscop rehte his gesihðe þam burhwarum, and hi ða syððan gewunelice þider sohton, and þone lifigendan God and his heah-engel Michahel geornlice bædon. Twá dura hí gesawon on ðære cyrcan, and wæs seo suþ duru sume dæle mare, fram ðære lagon stapas to ðam west-dæle; ac hí ne dorston þæt halige hús mid ingange geneosian, ac dæghwomlice geornlice æt ðære dura hí gebædon. The bishop recounted his vision to the townsfolk, and they afterwards usually resorted thither, and fervently prayed the living God and his archangel Michael. Two doors they saw in the church, and the south door was somewhat larger, from which there lay steps to the west part: but they durst not visit the holy house with entrance, but daily prayed fervently at the door.
Þa on ðære ylcan tíde Neapolite, þe wæron ða-gyt on hæðenscipe wunigende, cwædon gefeoht togeanes þære burhware Sepontiniscre ceastre, þe þa halgan stowe wurðodon, and togeanes Beneuentanos. Hí ða, mid heora biscopes mynegungum gelærde, bædon þreora daga fæc, þæt hi binnon þam ðrim dagum mid fæstene þæs heah-engles Michaheles fultum bædon. Þa hæðenan eac swilce mid lacum and offrungum heora leasra goda gecneordlice múnde and gescyldnysse bædon. Then at the same time the Neapolitans, who yet continued in heathenism, declared war against the inhabitants of the city of Sepontina, who worshiped the holy place, and against those of Benevento. They then, instructed by the admonitions of their bishop, prayed for a space of three days, that they might, in those three days, implore with fasting the succour of the archangel Michael. The heathen also in like manner, with gifts and offerings, diligently implored the guardianship and protection of their false gods.
Efne ða on ðære nihte þe þæt gefeoht on merigen toweard wæs, æteowde se heah-engel Michahel hine sylfne ðam biscope, and cwæð, þæt he heora bena gehyrde, and his fultum him behét, and het þæt hí ane tíd ofer undern hí getrymedon ongean heora fynd. Hí ða on merigen bliðe and orsorge, þurh ðæs engles behát, and mid truwan his fultumes, ferdon togeanes ðam hæðenum. Þa sona on anginne þæs gefeohtes wæs se múnt Garganus bifigende mid ormætre cwacunge, and micel liget fleah of ðære dúne swilce flán wið þæs hæðenan folces, and þæs múntes cnoll mid þeosterlicum genipum eal oferhangen wæs. Hwæt ða hæðenan ða forhtmode fleames cepton, and gelice hí wurdon mid þam fyrenum flanum ofscotene, gelice mid þæra cristenra wæpnum hindan ofsette, oðþæt hi heora burh Neapolim sámcuce gesohton. Soðlice ða ðe ða frecednyssa ætflugon, oncneowon þæt Godes engel ðam cristenum to fultume becom, and hí ðærrihte heora swuran Criste underþeoddon, and mid his geleafan gewæpnode wurdon. Witodlice þæs wæles wæs geteald six hund manna mid þam fyrenum flanum ofsceotene. Þa cristenan ða sigefæste mid micelre bylde and blisse hám gecyrdon, and ðam Ælmihtigan Gode and his heah-engle Michahele heora behát to ðam temple gebrohton. Þa gesawon hí ætforan ðære cyrcan norð-dura, on þam marmanstane, swilce mannes fótlæsta fæstlice on ðam stane geðyde, and hí ða undergeaton þæt se heah-engel Michahel þæt tácen his andwerdnysse geswutelian wolde. Hi ða sona ðær-ofer cyrcan arǽrdon and weofod, þam heah-engle to lofe, ðe him on þam stede fylstende stód. Lo, on the night then on the morrow of which the fight was to take place, the archangel Michael appeared to the bishop, and said that he had heard their prayers, and promised them his succour, and commanded them to array themselves against their foes one hour after morning-tide. They then on the morrow blithe and free from care, through the angel's promise, and with confidence in his succour, marched against the heathen. Then immediately at the beginning of the fight the mount Garganus was trembling with immense quaking, and great lightning flew from the mountain as it were arrows against the heathen folk, and the knoll of the mount was all overhung with dark clouds. Whereupon the heathen with affrighted mind took to flight, and at the same time that they were shot with fiery arrows, they were overwhelmed from behind by the weapons of the christians, until half-dead they sought their city Naples. But those who escaped from those perils, acknowledged that God's angel came to the succour of the christians, and they straightways subjected their necks to Christ, and became armed with his faith. Verily in that slaughter there were counted six hundred men shot with the fiery arrows. The christians then victorious returned home with great confidence and joy, and brought their promise to the temple to Almighty God and his archangel Michael. Then saw they before the north door of the church, on the marble stone, as it were a man's footsteps, firmly impressed on the stone, and they then understood that the archangel Michael would manifest that token of his presence. They then forthwith raised a church and an altar thereover, to the praise of the archangel, who had stood in that place succouring them.
Þa wearð micel twynung betwux ðære burhware be ðære cyrcan, hwæðer hí inn-eodon, oððe hí halgian sceoldon. Hwæt hí ða on þam east-dæle ðære stowe cyrcan arærdon, and þam apostole Petre to wurðmynte gehalgodon, and þær-binnan Sce Marian, and Iohanne ðam Fulluhtere weofod asetton. Þa æt nextan sende se biscop to ðam papan, and hine befrán, hú him embe þæs heah-engles getimbrunge to dónne wære. Se papa þisum ærende ðus geandwyrde, "Gif mannum alyfed is þæt hi ða cyrcan ðe se heah-engel sylf getimbrode halgian moton, þonne gebyrað seo halgung on ðam dæge þe hé eow sige forgeaf, þurh unnan ðæs Ælmihtigan. Gif ðonne hwæt elles þam heah-engle gelicige, axiað his willan on þam ylcan dæge." Þaða ðeos andswaru þam biscope gecydd wæs, þa bead hé his ceastergewarum þreora daga fæsten, and bǽdon þa Halgan Þrynnysse þæt him wurde geswutelod sum gewiss beácn embe heora twynunge. Se heah-engel ða Michahel, on ðære ðriddan nihte þæs fæstenes, cwæð to ðam biscope on swefne, "Nis eow nan neod þæt ge ða cyrcan halgion þe ic getimbrode. Ic sylf hi getimbrode and gehalgode. Ac gað eow into ðære cyrcan unforhtlice, and me ætstandendum geneosiað þa stowe æfter gewunan mid gebedum; and þu þær to-merigen mæssan gesing, and þæt folc æfter godcundum ðeawe to husle gange; and ic þonne geswutelige hú ic ða stowe ðurh me sylfne gehalgode." There was then a great doubt among the townsfolk concerning the church, whether they should go in, or should hallow it. Whereupon they raised a church in the east part of the place, and hallowed it to the honour of the apostle Peter, and therein placed an altar to St. Mary and John the Baptist. Then at last the bishop sent to the pope, and asked him, how they were to do concerning the archangel's structure. To this errand the pope answered thus, "If it is allowed to men to hallow the church which the archangel himself constructed, then the hallowing ought to be on the day on which, through the grace of the Almighty, he gave you victory. But if aught else should be pleasing to the archangel, ask his will on the same day." When this answer was announced to the bishop, he enjoined to his fellow-citizens a fast of three days, and prayed to the Holy Trinity that some certain sign might be shown him concerning their doubt. The archangel Michael then, on the third night of the fast, said to the bishop in a dream, "There is no need for you to hallow the church which I have constructed. I myself constructed and hallowed it. But go into the church fearlessly, and in my presence visit the place according to custom with prayers; and do thou sing mass there to-morrow, and let the people, after the divine rites, go to housel; and I will then show how I through myself hallowed the place."
Hi ða sona þæs on merigen ðider mid heora offrungum bliðe comon, and mid micelre ánrædnysse heora bena on ðam suþ-dæle inn-eodon. Efne ða hí gesawon an láng portic on ðam norð-dæle astreht for nean to ðam marmanstane þe se engel onstandende his fótlæste æteowde. On ðam east-dæle wæs gesewen micel cyrce to ðære hí stæpmælum astigon. Seo cyrce mid hire portice mihte fif hund manna eaðelice befón on hire rymette: and þær stód, gesett wið middan þæs suð-wages, arwurðe weofod, mid readum pælle gescrydd. Næs þæt hús æfter manna gewunan getimbrod, ac mid mislicum torrum gehwemmed, to gelicnysse sumes scræfes. Se hróf eac swylce hæfde mislice heahnysse: on sumere stowe hine man mihte mid heafde gerǽcan, on sumere mid handa earfoðlice. Ic gelyfe þæt se heah-engel mid þam geswutelode þæt he micele swiðor sohte and lufode þære heortan clænnysse þonne ðæra stána frætwunge. Þæs muntes cnoll wiðutan is sticmælum mid wuda oferwexen, and eft sticmælum mid grenum felda oferbræded. They then straightways on the morrow went joyfully thither with their offerings, and with great unity of their prayers went in on the south part. Lo then they saw a long portico on the north part stretching very near to the marble stone, on which the angel standing had manifested his foot-marks. On the east part was seen a great church to which they step by step ascended. The church with its portico could easily contain in its space five hundred men: and there stood, placed against the middle of the south wall, a venerable altar covered with a red pall. That house was not constructed after the fashion of men, but had divers towers at the corners, in likeness of a cave. The roof also was of various height: in one place a man might reach it with his head, in another hardly with his hand. I believe that the archangel would thereby manifest that he much more sought and loved cleanness of heart than the adornment of stones. The mountain's knoll without is partly overgrown with wood, and again partly overspread with the green field.
Soðlice æfter ðære mæssan and ðam halgan husel-gange gecyrde gehwá mid micclum gefean to his agenum. Se biscop ða ðær Godes ðeowas gelogode, sangeras, and ræderas, and sacerdas, þæt hi dæghwomlice ðær Godes þenunge mid þæslicere endebyrdnysse gefyldon; and him ðær mynsterlic botl timbrian hét. Nis þeah-hwæðere nan mann to ðam dyrstig þæt hé on nihtlicere tide binnan ðære cyrcan cuman durre, ac on dǽgrede, þa Godes þeowas þær-binnan Godes lof singað. Of ðam hróf-stane on norþ-dæle þæs halgan weofodes yrnð dropmælum swiðe hluttor wæter, and wered, þæt gecigdon ða ðe on þære stowe wunodon, stillam, þæt is, dropa. Þær is ahangen sum glæsen fǽt mid sylfrenne racenteage, and þæs wynsuman wætan onfehð. Þæs folces gewuna is, þæt hí æfter þam halgan husel-gange stæpmælum to ðam fæte astigað, and þæs heofonlican wætan onbyriað. Se wæta is swiðe wynsum on swæcce, and swiðe hálwende on hrepunge. Witodlice forwel menige æfter langsumum fefere and mislicum mettrumnyssum, þurh ðises wætan þigene hrædlice heora hæle brucað. Eac swilce on oðrum gemete, ungerime untruman þær beoð oft and gelome gehælede, and menigfealde wundra þurh ðæs heah-engles mihte ðær beoð gefremode; and ðeah swiðost on þysum dæge, ðonne þæt folc of gehwilcum leodscipe þa stowe geneosiað, and þæs engles andwerdnyss mid sumum gemete ðær swiðost bið, þæt ðæs apostoles cwyde beo lichamlice gefylled, þæt þæt hé gastlice gecwæð: he cwæð, þæt "englas beoð to ðening-gastum fram Gode hider on worulde asende, þæt hi beon on fultume his gecorenum, þæt hi ðone ecan eðel onfón mid him." But after the mass and the holy housel every one with great joy returned to his own. The bishop then placed God's servants there, singers, and readers, and priests, that they might daily there perform God's service in a fitting manner; and commanded a monastic house to be there built for them. There is, however, no man daring to that degree that he dares to come within the church in the night-time, but at dawn, when God's servants are singing God's praise therein. From the roof-stone on the north part of the holy altar there runs drop by drop water very pure and sweet, which those who dwelt in the place called 'stilla,' that is drop. There is hung a glass vessel with a silver chain, which receives the pleasant fluid. It is the people's wont, after the housel, to go up step by step to the vessel, and taste the heavenly fluid. The fluid is very pleasant of taste, and very salutary to the touch. Verily very many after a tedious fever and divers sicknesses, by drinking this fluid, speedily enjoy their health. Also in another manner, innumerable sick are there often and frequently healed, and many miracles, through the archangel's power, are there performed; but chiefly on this day, when the people from every nation visit the place, and the angel's presence is there in some measure most sensible, that the words of the apostle may be bodily fulfilled, that which he spake spiritually: he said, that "angels shall be sent as ministering spirits from God hither into the world, that they may be for a succour to his chosen, that they may receive the eternal country with him."



Accesserunt ad Iesum discipuli dicentes, Quis putas maior in regno cœlorum: et reliqua. Accesserunt ad Jesum discipuli dicentes, Quis putas major in regno cœlorum: et reliqua.
Þis dægþerlice godspell cwyð, þæt "Drihtnes leorning-cnihtas to him genealæhton, þus cweðende, La leof, hwá is fyrmest manna on heofenan rice? Se Hælend him ða to clypode sum gehwǽde cild:" et reliqua. This day's gospel says, that "The Lord's disciples approached him, thus saying, Sir, which is the first of men in the kingdom of heaven? Jesus then called to him a little child," etc.
Hægmon trahtnað þis godspell, and segð, hú ðæs caseres tolleras axodon Petrus ðone apostol, ðaða hi geond ealne middangeard ðam casere toll gegaderodon; hi cwædon, "Wyle eower láreow Crist ænig toll syllan? Þa cwæð Petrus, þæt he wolde. Þa mid þam ðe Petrus wolde befrínan þone Hælend, þa forsceat se Hælend hine, ðe ealle ðing wát, þus cweðende, Hwæt ðincð þe, Petrus, æt hwam nimað eorðlice cynegas gafol oððe toll, æt heora gesiblingum, oþþe æt ælfremedum? Petrus cwæð, Æt ælfremedum. Se Hælend cwæð, Hwæt la synd heora siblingas frige? Þe lǽs ðe we hí æswicion, ga to ðære sǽ, and wurpe út ðinne angel, and þone fisc ðe hine hraðost forswelhð, geopena his muð, þonne fintst þu ðær-on ænne gyldenne wecg: nim ðone, and syle to tolle for me and for ðe." Haymo expounds this gospel, and says, that the emperor's tollgatherers asked Peter the apostle, when they were gathering toll for the emperor over all the world; they said, "Will your lord Christ give any toll? Then Peter said that he would. Then when Peter would ask Jesus, Jesus, who knows all thing, prevented him, thus saying, What thinkest thou, Peter, of whom do earthly kings take tribute or toll, of their own relations, or of strangers? Peter said, Of strangers. Jesus said, What, are their relations free? Lest we should offend them, go to the sea, and cast out thine hook, and of the fish which first swalloweth it, open the mouth, then wilt thou find therein a golden coin: take that, and give as toll for me and for thee."
Þa for ðam intingan þe hé cwæð, "Syle for me and for ðe," wendon þa apostolas þæt Petrus wære fyrmest, and axodon ða ðone Hælend, "Hwá wære fyrmest manna on heofonan rice?" Þa wolde se Hælend heora dwollican geþohtas mid soðre eadmodnysse gehælan, and cwæð, þæt hí ne mihton becuman to heofonan rice, buton hí wæron swa eadmode, and swa unscæððige swa þæt cild wæs ðe he him to clypode. Bilewite cild ne gewilnað oðra manna æhta, ne wlitiges wifes; þeah ðe hit beo gegremod, hit ne hylt langsume ungeþwærnysse to ðam ðe him derode, ne hit ne híwað mid wordum, þæt hit oðer ðence, and oðer sprece. Swa eac sceolon Godes folgeras, þæt synd þa cristenan, habban þa unscæððignysse on heora mode þe cild hæfð on ylde. Then for that reason, that he said, "Give for me and for thee," the apostles imagined that Peter was first, and asked Jesus, "Who was the first of men in the kingdom of heaven?" Jesus would then heal their erroneous thoughts with true humility, and said, that they could not come to the kingdom of heaven, unless they were as humble and as innocent as the child was which he called to him. A meek child desires not other men's possessions, nor a beauteous woman; though it be vexed it holds no lasting animosity towards those who injured it, nor feigns it with words, so that it think one thing and say another. In like manner should God's followers, that is, christians, have that innocence in their mind which a child has in its age.
Se Hælend cwæð, "Soð ic eow secge, Ne becume ge to heofonan rice, buton ge beon awende, and gewordene swa swa lyttlingas." Ne bebead he his gingrum þæt hí on lichaman cild wæron, ac þæt hí heoldon bilewitra cildra unscæððignysse on heora þeawum. On sumere stowe he cwæð, þaða him man to bær cild to bletsigenne, and his gingran þæt bemændon, "Geðafiað þæt ðas cild to me cumon; swilcera is soðlice heofonan rice." Be ðisum manode se apostol Paulus his underðeoddan, and cwæð, "Ne beo ge cild on andgite, ac on yfelnyssum: beoð on andgite fulfremede." Se Hælend cwæð, "Swa hwá swa hine sylfne geeadmet, swa swa ðis cild, he bið fyrmest on heofonan rice." Uton habban ða soðan eadmodnysse on urum life, gif we willað habban ða healican geðincðe on Godes rice; swa swa se Hælend cwæð, "Ælc ðæra ðe hine onhefð bið geeadmet, and se ðe hine geeadmet, he bið aháfen." Se hæfð bilewites cildes unscæððignysse, þe him sylfum mislicað to ði þæt he Gode gelicige; and he bið swa micele wlitegra ætforan Godes gesihðe, swa he swiðor ætforan him sylfum eadmodra bið. "Se ðe underfehð ænne swilcne lyttling on minum naman, hé underfehð me sylfne." Eallum Godes ðearfum man sceall wel-dǽda þenian, ac ðeah swiðost þam eadmodum and liðum, þe mid heora lífes ðeawum Cristes bebodum geþwæriað; forðam him bið geðenod mid his ðearfena þenunge, and hé sylf bið underfangen on heora anfenge. Jesus said, "Verily I say unto you, ye shall not come to the kingdom of heaven, unless ye are changed and become as children." He did not enjoin to his disciples that they should be children in body, but that they should hold the innocence of meek children in their conduct. In one place he said, when a child was brought to him to be blessed, and his disciples reproved it, "Suffer these children to come unto me, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." Of this the apostle Paul admonished his followers, and said, "Be ye not children in understanding, but in evilnesses: be perfect in understanding." Jesus said, "Whosoever humbleth himself like this child, he shall be first in the kingdom of heaven." Let us have true humility in our lives, if we will have high dignity in God's kingdom, as Jesus said, "Every one of those who exalt themselves shall be humbled, and he who humbleth himself shall be exalted." He has the innocence of a meek child, who is displeasing to himself that he may be pleasing to God; and he will be so much the fairer in the sight of God as he shall be the more humble before himself. "He who receives one such little one in my name, receives myself." To all God's poor we should minister benefactions, though above all to the humble and meek, who in their life's conduct conform to the commandments of Christ; for he will be served by serving his poor, and he himself will be received by receiving them.
He cwæð eac on oðre stowe, "Se ðe wítegan underfehð, he hæfð wítegan mede; se ðe rihtwisne underfehð, he hæfð rihtwises mannes edlean." Þæt is, Se ðe witegan, oððe sumne rihtwisne Godes ðeow underfehð, and him for Godes lufon bigwiste foresceawað, þonne hæfð he swa micele mede his cystignysse æt Gode, swilce hé him sylf wítega wære, oþþe rihtwis Godes þeow. "Se ðe geǽswicað anum ðyssera lyttlinga, ðe on me gelyfað, selre him wære þæt him wære getiged án ormæte cwyrnstán to his swuran, and he swa wurde on deoppre sǽ besenced." Se ǽswicað oðrum þe hine on Godes dæle beswicð, þæt his sawul forloren beo. Se cwyrnstán þe tyrnð singallice, and nænne færeld ne ðurhtihð, getácnað woruld-lufe, ðe on gedwyldum hwyrftlað, and nænne stæpe on Godes wege ne gefæstnað. Be swylcum cwæð se witega, "Þa arleasan turniað on ymbhwyrfte." Se ðe genealæhð halgum háde on Godes gelaðunge, and siððan mid yfelre tihtinge oþþe mid leahterfullre drohtnunge oðrum yfele bysnað, and heora ingehyd towyrpð, þonne wære him selre þæt he on woruldlicere drohtnunge ana losode, þonne hé on halgum híwe oðre mid him þurh his ðwyrlican þeawas to forwyrde getuge. He said also in another place, "He who receiveth a prophet shall have a prophet's meed; he who receiveth a righteous man shall have a righteous man's reward." That is, He who receives a prophet, or a righteous servant of God, and provides sustenance for him for love of God, shall then have as great a meed from God for his bounty, as if he himself were a prophet, or a righteous servant of God. "He who offends one of these little ones, who believe in me, better were it for him that an immense millstone were tied to his neck, and he were so sunk in the deep sea." He offends another who deceives him on the part of God, so that his soul be lost. The millstone which turns incessantly, and accomplishes no course, betokens love of the world, which circulates in errors, and fixes no step in the way of God. Of such the prophet said, "The wicked turn in a circle." He who enters upon a holy order in God's church, and afterwards by instigation or by sinful life gives evil example to others, and perverts their understanding, then better were it for him that he alone perished in his worldly life, than that he in holy guise should draw others with him to perdition through his depraved morals.
"Wá middangearde for ǽswicungum." Middangeard is her gecweden þa ðe þisne ateorigendlican middangeard lufiað swiðor þonne þæt ece líf, and mid mislicum swicdomum hí sylfe and oðre forpærað. "Neod is þæt æswicunga cumon, ðeah-hwæðere wá ðam menn ðe hi ofcumað." Þeos woruld is swa mid gedwyldum afylled, þæt heo ne mæg beon butan ǽswicungum, and þeah wá ðam menn ðe oðerne æt his æhtum, oððe æt his feore beswicð, and ðam bið wyrs, þe mid yfelum tihtingum oþres mannes sawle to ecum forwyrdum beswicð. "Gif ðin hand oððe ðin fót þe ǽswicige, ceorf of þæt lim, and awurp fram ðe." Þis is gecweden æfter gastlicere getácnunge, na æfter lichamlicere gesetnysse. Ne bebead God nanum menn þæt he his lima awyrde. Seo hánd getácnað urne nydbehefan freond, þe us dæghwomlice mid weorce and fultume ure neode deð; ac ðeah, gif swilc freond us fram Godes wege gewémð, þonne bið us selre þæt we his flæsclican lufe fram ús aceorfon, and mid twǽminge awurpon, þonne we, þurh his yfelan tihtinge, samod mid him on ece forwyrd befeallon. Ealswa is be ðam fét and be ðam eagan. Gif hwilc sibling þe bið swa deorwurðe swa ðin eage, and oðer swa behefe swa ðin hand, and sum swa geðensum swilce ðin agen fót, gif hi ðonne þe þwyrlice tihtað to ðinre sawle forwyrde, þonne bið þe selre þæt þu heora geðeodrædene forbúge, þonne hi ðe forð mid him to ðam ecan forwyrde gelædon. "Behealdað þæt ge ne forseon ænne of þysum lytlingum." Se ðe bepæhð ænne Godes þeowena, he geǽbiligð ðone Hlaford, swa swa he sylf þurh his witegan cwæð, "Se ðe eow hrepað, hit bið me swa egle swilce hé hreppe mines eagan séo." "Wo to the world for offences." The world are here called those who love this perishable world more than everlasting life, and with divers offences pervert themselves and others. "It is needful that offences come, yet wo to the man from whom they come." This world is so filled with errors, that it cannot be without offences, and yet wo to the man who deceives another in his property, or in his life, and for him it shall be worse, who with evil instigation deceives another man's soul to eternal destruction. "If thine hand or thy foot offend thee, cut off the limb, and cast it from thee." This is said according to a spiritual signification, not as a bodily precept. God commanded no man to destroy his limbs. The hand betokens our needful friend, who with work and succour daily ministers to our need; but yet, if such friend entice us from the way of God, then will it be better for us that we cut off from us his fleshly love, and by separation cast it away, than that we, through his evil instigation, together with him fall into eternal perdition. So is it also with the foot and the eye. If any relation be as dear to thee as thine eye, and another as needful to thee as thy hand, and one as serviceable as thy own foot, if they then perversely instigate thee to thy soul's destruction, better will it be for thee that thou shun their fellowship, than that they lead thee on with them to eternal perdition. "Take heed that ye despise no one of these little ones." He who deceives one of God's servants angers the Lord, as he himself through his prophet said, "He who toucheth you, it shall be to me as offensive as if he touched the sight of mine eye."
"Ic secge eow þæt heora englas symle geseoð mines Fæder ansyne seðe on heofonum is." Mid þisum wordum is geswutelod þæt ælcum geleaffullum men is engel to hyrde geset, þe hine wið deofles syrwunge gescylt, and on halgum mægnum gefultumað, swa swa se sealm-scóp be gehwilcum rihtwisum cwæð, "God bebead his englum be ðe, þæt hi ðe healdon, and on heora handum hebban, þelǽs ðe ðu æt stane þinne fót ætspurne." Micel wurðscipe is cristenra manna, þæt gehwilc hæbbe fram his acennednysse him betæhtne engel to hyrdrædene, swa swa be ðam apostole Petre awriten is, þaða se engel hine of ðam cwearterne gelædde, and he to his geferum becom, and cnucigende inganges bæd. Þa cwædon þa geleaffullan, "Nis hit na Petrus þæt ðær cnucað, ac is his engel." Þa englas soðlice ðe God gesette to hyrdum his gecorenum, hí ne gewitað næfre fram his andweardnysse; forðan ðe God is æghwær, and swa hwider swa ða englas fleoð, æfre hí beoð binnan his andwerdnysse, and his wuldres brucað. Hi bodiað ure weorc and gebedu þam Ælmihtigan, þeah ðe him nán ðing digle ne sy, swa swa se heah-engel Raphahel cwæð to ðam Godes menn, Tobían, "Þaða ge eow gebædon, ic offrode eower gebedu ætforan Gode." "I say unto you, that their angels ever see the countenance of my Father who is in heaven." By these words is manifested that over every believing man an angel is set as a guardian, who shields him against the devil's machination, and supports him in holy virtues, as the psalmist said of every righteous man, "God hath commanded his angels concerning thee, that they may preserve thee, and lift thee in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone." It is a great honour for christian men, that every one has from his birth an angel assigned to him in fellowship, as it is written of the apostle Peter, when the angel led him from the prison, and he came to his companions, and knocking prayed for admission. Then said the faithful, "It is not Peter who there knocketh, but is his angel." But those angels, whom God has set as guardians over his chosen, never depart from his presence; for God is everywhere, and whithersoever}} the angels fly, they are ever in his presence, and partake of his glory. They announce our works and prayers to the Almighty, though to him nothing is hidden, as the archangel Raphael said to the man of God, Tobias, "When ye prayed, I offered your prayers before God."
Seo Ealde Æ ús sægð, þæt heah-englas sind gesette ofer gehwilce leodscipas, þæt hi ðæs folces gymon, ofer ða oðre englas, swa swa Moyses, on ðære fiftan béc ðære Ealdan Æ, þysum wordum geswutelode, "Þaða se healica God todælde and tostencte Adames ofspring, þa sette he ðeoda gemæru æfter getele his engla." Þisum andgite geþwærlæcð se witega Danihel on his witegunge. Sum Godes engel spræc to Danihele embe ðone heah-engel þe Perscisce ðeode bewiste, and cwæð, "Me com to se heah-engel, Greciscre þeode ealdor, and nis heora nán mín gefylsta, buton Michahel, Ebreisces folces ealdor. Efne nú Michahel, án ðæra fyrmestra ealdra, com me to fultume, and ic wunode ðær wið þone cyning Persciscre ðeode." Mid þisum wordum is geswutelod hú micele care ða heah-englas habbað heora ealdordomes ofer mancynn, ðaða he cwæð, þæt Michahel him come to fultume. The Old Law informs us that archangels are set over every nation, that they may take care of the people, over the other angels, as Moses, in the fifth book of the Old Law, manifested in these words, "When God on high divided and scattered Adam's offspring, he set the boundaries of nations according to the number of his angels." In this sense agrees the prophet Daniel in his prophecy. An angel of God spake to Daniel concerning the archangel who directed the Persian people, and said, "The archangel came to me, the prince of the Grecian people, and there is none of these my supporter, save Michael, the prince of the Hebrew folk. Lo, Michael, one of the first princes, came to me in succour, and I continued there with the king of the Persian nation." By these words is manifested how great care the archangels have of their authority over mankind, when he said that Michael came to his succour.
Is nu geleaflic þæt se heah-engel Michahel hæbbe gymene cristenra manna, seðe wæs ðæs Ebreiscan folces ealdor, þa hwile ðe hí on God belyfdon; and þæt he geswutelode, þaða he him sylfum cyrcan getimbrode betwux geleaffulre ðeode, on ðam munte Gargano, swa swa we hwene ǽr ræddon. Þæt is gedón be Godes fadunge, þæt se mǽra heofonlica engel beo singallice cristenra manna gefylsta on eorðan, and þingere on heofonum to ðam Ælmihtigan Gode, seðe leofað and rixað á on ecnysse. Amen. It is now credible that the archangel Michael has care of christian men, who was prince of the Hebrew folk, while they believed in God; and that he manifested when he built himself a church among a faithful people on mount Garganus, as we have read a little before. It is done by God's dispensation, that the great heavenly angel is the constant supporter of christian men on earth, and their intercessor in heaven with Almighty God, who liveth and reigneth to all eternity. Amen.