The Iliad of Homer (Buckley)/BOOK THE THIRD

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The Iliad of Homer  (1860) 
by Homer, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley
BOOK THE THIRD

BOOK THE THIRD.

ARGUMENT.

Just as the armies ore on the point of engaging, Paris proposes a single combat, but, on Menelaus advancing, retires in affright. Being rebuked by Hector, he consents to engage Menelaus, and a treaty is arranged. Paris is vanquished, but is brought back safe to Ilium by Venus, who appeases the anger of Helen. Menelaus, as conqueror, calls upon the Trojans to fulfill the conditions of the challenge.

But after they had each been marshaled along with their leaders, the Trojans, on the one hand, moved along with both clamor and battle-shout, like birds; just as is the noise of cranes forth under heaven, which, after they have escaped the winter and immeasurable[1] shower, with a clamor do these wing their way toward the streams of the ocean, bearing slaughter and fate to the Pygmæan men; and they then at earlv dawn bring fatal strife. But the Greeks, on the other hand, breathing might,[2] advanced in silence, anxious in mind to aid one another.

As when the south wind sheds a mist over the top of a mountain, by no means friendly to the shepherds, but more serviceable even than night to the robber, and one can see [only] so far as he hurls a stone. So under the feet of them proceeding an eddying dust kept rising: and very speedily they traversed the plain.

But when they now were near, approaching each other, godlike Alexander advanced in front of the Trojans, having a panther's skin on his shoulders, and his crooked bow, and a sword; but he brandishing two spears tipped with brass, challenged all the bravest of the Greeks to fight against him in grievous conflict.

But when Mars-beloved Menelaus perceived him advancing before the host, taking long strides, as a hungering lion exults, when happening on a carcase of large size, having found either a horned stag or a wild goat. For be greedily devours it, although swift hounds and vigorous youths pursue him. Thus Menelaus rejoiced, having beheld with his eyes godlike Alexander. For he thought he would be revenged upon the guilty wretch; forthwith, therefore, with his arms he leaped from his chariot to the earth.

But when, therefore, godlike Alexander perceived him appearing among the foremost warriors, he was smitten in his heart, and gave way back into the band of his companions, avoiding death. And as when any one having seen a serpent in the thickets of a mountain, has started back, and tremor has seized his limbs under him, and he has retired backward, and paleness seizes his cheeks: thus godlike Alexander shrank back into the band of the haughty Trojans, dreading the son of Atreus.

But Hector having seen him, upbraided him with opprobrious words: "Cursed Paris,[3] most excellent in form, thou woman-raving seducer, would that thou hadst either not been born, or that thou hadst perished unmarried. This, indeed, I would wish, and indeed it would be much better, than that thou shouldst thus be a disgrace and scandal to others. In truth the long-haired Achæans may laugh, haying suspected that thou wast a noble champion, because a fine person belongs [to thee]; but there is not strength in thy soul, nor any nerve. Didst thou, being such a one, having sailed over the ocean in sea-traversing ships, having collected congenial associates, and mingled with foreigners, take away a beauteous lady, from the Apian land, the spouse of martial men, a great detriment to thy father, to the city and to all of the people; a joy indeed to our enemies, but a disgrace to thyself? Couldst thou not have awaited warlike Menelaus? Then shouldst thou have known of how brave a man thou dost possess the blooming spouse. Nor will thy harp, and the gifts of Veuus. and thy hair, and thy figure avail thee, when thou shalt be mingled with the dust[4] But the Trojans are very pusillanimous; else wouldst thou have been arrayed in a garment of stone, on account of the evils which thou hast done.[5]

Him then godlike Alexander in turn addressed: "Hector, since thou hast reproached me justly, and not unjustly, [I will submit]. Ever is thy spirit unwearied, like an ax, which penetrates the wood, [driven] by the man who with art cuts out the naval plank, and it increases the force of the man: so in thy breast is there an intrepid heart. Reproach me not with the lovely gifts of golden Venus: the distinguished gifts of the gods are by no means to be rejected, whatever indeed they give; for no one can choose them at his own pleasure. Now, however, if thou desirest me to wage war and to fight, cause the other Trojans and all the Greeks to sit down, but match me and Mars-beloved Menelaus to contend in the midst for Helen and all the treasures. And whichever of us shall conquer, and shall be superior, having received all the treasures without reserve, and the woman, let him conduct them home. But let the rest of you, striking a friendship and faithful league, inhabit fertile Troy; and let them return to the steed-nourishing Argos, and fair-damed Achaia."

Thus he spoke, but Hector on the other hand rejoiced greatly, having heard his speech; and having advanced into the center, holding his spear by the middle, he restrained the phalanxes of the Trojans, and they all sat down. Against him the waving-haired Achæans were directing their bows, and taking aim were going to hurl with shafts and with stones. But Aganaeranon, he,[6] the king of men, exclaimed aloud:

"Withhold. Argives! cast not. yc sons of the Achæans; for helm-nodding Hector stands as if intending to propose something."

Tnus he spoke; but they abstained from battle, and instantly became silent. But Hector between both [armies] spoke thus:

"Hear-from me, ye Trojans, and well-greaved Greeks, the proposal of Alexander, on whose account this strife has arisen. Pie advses that the other Trojans and all the Greeks should lay down their beauteous arms upon the bounteous earth; but that he and Mars-beloved Menelaus alone should fight in the midst for Helen and all the treasures: and whichever shall conquer, and shall be superior, having received all the treasures without reserve, and the woman, let him conduct them, home: but let the rest of us strike a friendship and faithful league."

Thus he said, and all became mute in silence. But amid them Menelaus, valiant in the din of war, thus spoke:

"Now hear mo also; for anguish has invaded my soul most: but I purpose that the Greeks and Trojans should now be separated, since ye have suffered many evils on acount of my quarrel and the beginning of [this strife through] Alexander. And to whichever of us death and fate has been ordained, let him die; but do the rest of you be very speedily seperated. And bring lambs—one white, the other black—to the Earth and to the Sun; and we will bring another to Jove. Moreover ye shall bring the might of Priam, that he may strike the league himself, for his sons are overbearing and faithless; lest any one, by transgression, violate the covenant of Jove. For the minds of younger men are ever fluctuating; but for those among whom a senior is present, he looks at the same time both backward and forward, in order that the best results may accrue to both parties,"

Thus he spoke. But both Greeks and Trojans rejoiced, hoping to have respite from grievous war. And they accordingly reined back their horses to the ranks [of the foot], but dismounted themselves, and put off their arms, and laid them down on the ground near each other; and around [each pile of arms] there was a little space.

Bat Hector dispatched two heralds to the city with speed to bring the lambs, and to call Priam. While, on the other hand, king Agamemnon sent Talthybius to go to the hollow ships, and ordered him to bring a lamb. And he did not disobey noble Agamemnon.

And meantime came Iris a messenger to white-armed Helen, likening herself to her husband's sister, the wife of Antenor's son, most excelling in beauty of the daughters of Priam, Laodice, whom the son of Antenor, king Helicaon, possessed. But she found her in her palace, and she was weaving an ample web. a double [mantle],[7] resplendent, and on it was working many labors both of the horse-taming Trojans and the brazen-mailed Greeks, which on her account they suffered at the hand of Mars. Standing near, the swift-footed Iris accosted her thus:

"Come hither, dear lady,[8] that thou mayest view the wondrous deeds of the horse-taming Trojans, and of the brazen-mailed Greeks, who formerly against each other waged tearful war in the plain, eager for destructive battle. Now, however, they sit in silence (and the war has ceased), leaning on their shields, and near them their long spears are fixed. But Alexander and Mars-beloved Menelaus are about to fight for thy sake with their long spears, and thou shalt be called the dear wife of him who conquers."

Thus having spoken, the goddess infused a tender desire into her mind both of her former husband, and of her city, and her parents. And instantly vailing herself in white linen robes,[9] she rushed from her chamber, shedding a tender tear: not alone, for two domestics accompanied her, Œthra, daughter of Pittheus, and large-eyed Clymene. Then they quickly came to where the Scæan gates were. But Priam and Panthous, and Thymœtes, Lampus, Clytius, Hicetaon, an offshoot of Mars, Ucalegon, and Antenor, both prudent, elders of the people, sat at the Scæan gates, long since desisting from, war, through old age: but good orators, like unto the Cicadæ,[10] which, in the woods, sitting on a tree, send forth a delicate voice; such leaders of the Trojans at that time were sitting on the tower. But when they saw Helen coming to the tower, in low tone they addressed to each other winged words:

"It is not a subject for indignation, that Trojans and well-greaved Greeks endure hardships for a long time on account of such a woman. In countenance she is wondrous like unto the immortal goddesses, but even so, although being such, let her return in the ships, nor be left a destruction to us and to our children hereafter."

Thus they spoke. But Priam called Helen,—"Coming hither before us, dear daughter, sit by me, that thou mayst see thy former husband, thy kindred, and thy friends—(thou art not at all in fault toward me; the gods, in truth, are in fault toward me, who have sent against me the lamentable war of the Greeks)—that thou mayest name for me this mighty man, who is this gallant and tall Grecian hero. Certainly there are others taller in height; but so graceful a man have I never yet beheld with my eyes, nor so venerable; for he is like unto a kingly man."

But him Helen, one of the divine women, answered in [these] words: "Revered art thou and feared by me, dear father-in-law; would that an evil death had pleased me, when I followed thy son hither, having left my marriage-bed, my brothers, my darling[11] daughter, and the congenial company of my equals. But these things were not done: therefore I pine away with weeping. But this will I tell thee, which thou seekest of me and inquirest. This is wide-ruling Agamemnon, son of Atreus, in both characters,[12] a good king and a brave warrior. He was the brother-in-law, moreover,[13] of shameless me, if ever indeed he was."[14]

Thus he spoke. But him the old man admired, and said: "O blessed son of Atreus, happy-born, fortunate, truly indeed were many Achæan youths made subject to thee. Before now I entered vine-bearing Phrygia, where I beheld many Phrygians, heroes on fleet horses, the forces of Otreus and godlike Mygdon, who encamped there near the banks of the Sangarius. For I also, being an ally, was numbered with them on that day, when the man-opposing Amazons came. But not even these were so numerous as the black-eyed Greeks."

But next perceiving[15] Ulysses, the old man asked her: "Come, tell me of this one also, dear daughter, who he is? he is less indeed in height[16] than Agamemnon, the son of Atreus, but is broader to behold in shoulders and breast. His arms lie upon the fertile earth, but he himself, like a ram, goes round the ranks of the men. I for my part compare him to a thick-fleeced ram, which wanders through a great flock of snowy sheep."

But him Helen, sprung from Jove, answered: "Now, this one again is the son of Laertes, much-scheming Ulysses, who was bred in the country of Ithaca, rugged though it be, skilled in all kinds of stratagems and prudent counsels."

Her then the sage Antenor adressed in reply: "O lady, assuredly hast thou spoken this word very truly: for already in former times divine Ulysses came hither also, on an embassy concerning thee, with Mars-beloved Menelaus. I received them as guests, and entertained them in my palace, and became acquainted with the genius of both, and their prudent counsels; but when they were mingled with the assembled Trojans, Menelaus indeed overtopped him, as they stood by his broad shoulders; but when both were sitting, Ulysses was more majestic.[17] But when they began to weave words and counsels for all, Menelaus, on his part, would harangue very fluently; a few [words] indeed, but very sweetly, since he was not loquacious, nor a random talker, though he was younger in age. But when much-counseling Ulysses arose, he stood and looked down, fixing his eyes on the earth, but he neither moved his scepter backward nor forward, but held it unmoved like an un- skillful man: you would say indeed that he was a very irritable man, as well as devoid of reason. But when he did send forth the mighty voice from his breast, and words like unto wintery flakes of snow, no longer then would another mortal contend with Ulysses. And beholding, we then marveled not so much at the aspect of Ulysses, [as at his words]."

Then in the third place, having beheld Ajax, the old man asked: "Who is that other Achæan hero, valiant and great, out-topping the Argives by his head and broad shoulders?"

But him long-robed Helen answered, divine of women: "This indeed is mighty Ajax, the bulwark of the Achæans: on the other side, among the Cretans, stands Idomeneus like unto a god: but around him the leaders of the Cretans are collected. Often did Mars-beloved Menelaus entertain him in our palace, when he would come from Crete. But now I behold all the other rolling-eyed Greeks, whom I could easily recognize, and pronounce their names; but two leaders of the people I can not see: horse-taming Castor, and Pollux skilled in boxing, twin brothers, whom the same mother brought forth with me. Either they have not followed from pleasant Lacedæmon, or they indeed have followed hither in the sea-traversing ships, but now are reluctant to enter the fight of the heroes, fearing the disgrace, and the many reproaches which are mine."

Thus she spoke; but them the life-bestowing earth already possessed: there in Lacedæmon, in their dear native land.[18]

But heralds through the city were bearing the firm pledges of the gods, two lambs and joyous wine, the fruit of the earth, in a goat-skin flagon. But the herald Idaeus also brought a splendid goblet, and golden cups; and standing by him, incited the old man in these words:

"Arise, son of Laomedon; the chiefs of the horse-breaking Trojans, and of the brazen-mailed Greeks, call thee to descend into the plain, that thou mayest ratify a faithful league. For Alexander and Mars-beloved Menelaus are about to fight with long spears for the woman. But let the woman and the effects attend the conqueror; but let the rest of us, having struck a friendship and faithful league, inhabit fruitful Troy, and they shall return to horse-feeding Argos, and to Achaia, famed for fair dames."

Thus he said, but the old man shuddered, and ordered his attendants to yoke his horses; and they briskly obeyed. Priam then mounted his chariot, and drew back the reins: and beside him Antenor mounted the beautiful chariot. So they guided their fleet steeds through the Scæan gates, to-ward the plain.

But when they had now come between the Trojans and the Greeks, descending from their steeds to the fruitful earth, they advanced into the midst of the Trojans and Greeks. Then Agamemnon, king of heroes, immediately arose, and much-counseling Ulysses arose. But the illustrious heralds collected together the faithful pledges of the gods, and mixed wine in a bowl, and poured water upon the hands of the kings. And the son of Atreus, drawing with his hands his dagger, which was always suspended at the huge sheath of his sword, cut off hairs from the heads of the lambs: and then the heralds distributed them to the chiefs of the Trojans and the Greeks. Among them the son of Atreus prayed earnestly, having stretched forth his hands:

"O father Jove, ruling from Ida, most glorious, most mighty—and thou, O sun, who beholdest all things, and hearest all things—and ye rivers, and thou earth, and ye below who punish men deceased, whosoever swears with perjury, be ye witnesses and preserve the faithful league. If, on the one hand, Alexander should slay Menelaus, let him thenceforth retain Helen and all her possessions; but let us return in our sea-traversing ships. But if, on the contrary, yellow-haired Menelaus slay Alexander, let the Trojans then restore Helen and all her treasures, and pay a fine to the Argives such as is just, and which may be [recorded] among posterity. But if Priam and the sons of Priam will not pay me the fine, on Alexander falling, then will I afterward fight on account of the fine, remaining here till I find an end of the war."

He spoke, and cut the throats of the lambs with the cruel steel, and he laid them on the earth panting, wanting life; for the brass had taken away their [vital] strength. Then having drawn wine from the goblet, they poured it into the cups, and prayed to the immortal gods. But thus some one of the Greeks and Trojans said:

"O Jove, most glorious, most mighty, and ye other immortal gods, whoever first shall offend against the leagues, so let the brain of themselves and of their children stream upon the ground like this wine, and let their wives be mingled with other men."

Thus they said, nor yet did the son of Saturn ratify [their Vows]. Then Priam, the son of Dardanus, addressed them:

"Hear me, ye Trojans, and ye well-greaved Greeks; I, indeed, return again to wind-swept Ilion, since I can by no means endure to behold with these eyes my dear son fighting with Mars-beloved Menelaus. Jove, certainly, knows this, and the other immortal gods, to which of them the event of death is destined."

He spoke, and the godlike man placed the lambs in the chariot, and ascended himself, and drew back the reins; and beside him Antenor mounted the very beautiful chariot. They on their part returning went back toward Ilion.

But Hector on the other hand, the son of Priam, and divine Ulysses, first measured the ground; then taking the lots, they shook them in the brazen helmet, [to decide] which should hurl the brazen spear first. But the people meantime supplicated, and stretched forth their hands to the gods; and thus some one of the Greeks and Trojans said:

"O father Jove, ruling from Ida, most glorious, most mighty, whichever has caused these evil works to both sides, grant that he, being slain, may enter the house of Pluto, but that to us, on the other hand, there may be friendship and a faithful league."

Thus then they spoke, and now mighty helm-quivering Hector shook the lots, looking backward; and quickly the lot of Paris leaped forth. They then sat down in their ranks, where the fleet steeds of each stood, and their varied arms lay. But divine Alexander, the husband of fair-haired Helen, put on his beauteous armor around his shoulders. In the first place, around his legs he placed his beautiful greaves fitted with silver clasps; then again he put on his breast the corselet of his brother Lycaon, for it fitted him: but around his shoulders he slung his brazen, silver-studded sword and then his huge and solid shield. But on his valiant head he placed a well-wrought helmet, crested with horse-hair, and the crest nodded dreadfully from above; and he grasped his doughty spear, which fitted to his hands. In this same manner the martial Menelaus put on his arms.

But they, when they were armed from each side of the throng advanced to the middle between the Trojans and Greeks, looking dreadfully; and amazement seized the beholders, both the horse-breaking Trojans and the well-greaved Greeks. They then stood near in the measured-out space, brandishing their spears, incensed against each other. Alexander first hurled his long-shadowed spear, and smote the shield of the son of Atreus, equal on all sides, nor did the brass break, for the point was bent upon the strong shield: but next Menelaus, son of Atreus, commenced the attack with his brazen spear, praying to father Jove:

"O king Jove, grant [me] to avenge myself [on him] who first injured me, and subdue impious Alexander under my hands, that every one, even of future men, may shudder to offer injury to a guest who may have afforded [him] an hospitable reception."

He spoke; and brandishing, he hurled his long-shadowed spear, and smote the shield of the son of Priam, equal on all sides; and through the glittering shield went the impetuous spear, and was stuck firmly into the deftly-wrought corselet: and the spear pierced right through his soft tunic beside the flank: but he bent sideways, and evaded black death. Next the son of Atreus having drawn his silver-studded sword, raising it, struck the cone[19] of his helmet, but it fell from his hand shivered round about into three or four pieces. And the son of Atreus groaned aloud, looking toward the wide heaven:

"O father Jove, none other of the gods is more baleful than thou. Certainly I hoped to be revenged upon Alexander for his wickedness; but now my sword has been broken in my hands, and my spear has been hurled from my hand in vain, nor have I smote him."

He spoke; and rushing on, he seized him by the horse-hair tufted helmet, and turning, began to drag him to the well-greaved Greeks: but the richly-embroidered band under his tender throat was choking him, which was drawn under his chin as the strap of his helmet. And now he had dragged him away, and obtained infinite glory, had not Venus, the daughter of Jove, quickly perceived it, who broke for him[20] the thong, [made] from the hide of an ox slaughtered by violence: and thereupon the empty helmet followed with his strong hand. It, then, the hero whirling round, cast to the well-greaved Greeks, and his dear companions took it up. And he [Menelaus] again rushed on, desiring to slay him with his brazen spear: but him [Paris] Venus very easily, as being a goddess, rescued, and covered him in a thick mist; then placed him down in his fragrant chamber, exhaling perfumes.

But she herself, on the other hand, went to call Helen, and she found her on the lofty tower, and many Trojan dames around her. Then with her hand catching her by the fragrant mantle, she shook her: and likening herself to an ancient dame, a spinner of wool, who used to comb fair wool for her when dwelling at Lacedæmon, and she loved her much: to her having likened herself, divine Venus accosted [Helen]:

"Come hither, Alexander calls thee to return home. He himself is in his chamber and turned bed, shining both in beauty and attire; nor wouldst thou say that he had returned after having fought with a hero, but that he was going to the dance, or that just ceasing from the dance, he sat down."

Thus she said, and agitated the heart in her breast: and when she beheld the all-beauteous neck of the goddess, and her lovely bosom, and her flashing eyes, she was awe-struck, and spoke a word, and said:

"Strange one! why dost thou desire to deceive me in these things? Wilt thou lead me any where further on to one of the well-inhabited cities, either of Phrygia or pleasant Mæonia, if there be any of articulately-speaking men dear to thee there? Is it because Menelaus, having now conquered noble Alexander, wishes to bring hated me home, that therfore with artful purpose thou now standest near me? Going, sit with him thyself, and renounce the path of the gods. And mayest thou no more return on thy feet to Olympus: but always grieve beside him, and watch him, until he either make thee his consort, or he indeed [make thee] his handmaid. But there I will not go to adorn his couch, for it would be reprehensible: all the Trojan ladies henceforth will reproach me. But I shall have woes without measure in my soul."

But her, divine Venus, incensed, thus addressed: "Wretch, provoke me not, lest in my wrath I abandon thee, and detest thee as much as heretofore I have wonderfully loved thee, and lest I scatter destructive hate in the midst of the Trojans and Greeks, and thou perish by an evil fate."

Thus she spoke: but Helen, sprung from Jove, dreaded, and she went covered with a white transparent robe, in silence; and escaped the notice of all the Trojan dames, for the goddess led the way.

But when they reached the very beautiful palace of Alexander, then the maids, on their part, turned themselves speedily to their tasks; but she, divine of women, ascended into her lofty-roofed chamber: and then laughter-loving Venus, carrying, placed a seat for her opposite Alexander: there Helen, daughter of the ægis-bearlng Jove, sat, averting her eyes, and reproached her husband with these words:

"Thou hast come from the war: would that thou hadst perished there, slain by that brave hero, who was my former husband. Certainly, thou didst formerly boast, that thou wast superior to Mars-beloved Menelaus, in might, in hands, and at the spear. But go now, challenge Mars-beloved Menelaus to fight once more against thee! But I advise thee to refrain, nor unadvisedly wage war and fight against fair-haired Menelaus, lest perchance thou mayest be subdued beneath his spear."

But her Paris answering addressed in words: "Woman! assail me not in soul with reproachful taunts; for now indeed has Menelaus conquered by Minerva's aid; but I in turn will vanquish him, for gods are with us also. But come, let us delight in dalliance, reclining together, for never before did love so fondly enwrap my soul, not even when formerly, having borne thee away from pleasant Lacedæmon, I sailed in the sea-traversing ships, and was united with thee in love and in the couch in the island Cranaë; so now am I enamored of thee, and sweet desire possesses me.

He spoke, and led the way, ascending the couch; but his wife followed with him: they therefore rested upon their perforated couch.

Meanwhile the son of Atreus was wandering through the crowd like to a savage beast, if any where he could perceive godlike Alexander. But none of the Trojans or their illustrious allies could then point out Alexander to Mars-beloved Menelaus; for neither through friendship would they have concealed him, if any one did see him; for he was hateful to them all, like sable death. But among them spoke Agamemnon, king of heroes:

"Hear me, ye Trojans, Greeks, and allies: the victory indeed appears [to belong to] Mars-beloved Menelaus. Do ye therefore restore Argive Helen and her treasures with her and pay the fine which is fitting, and which shall be remembered by future men."

Thus spoke the son of Atreus, and the other Greeks approved.


  1. See Alberti on Hesych. s. v., t. i. p. 126; lit. "what even a god would not say."—Buttm. Lexil p. 359.
  2. Paradise Lost, i 559:—

    "―――thus they,
    Breathing united force with fixed thought,
    Moved on in silence."

  3. Δὺς here denotes the evils which fatally resulted to Paris and his friends δυσελένας, "baleful Helen." Eur. Or. 1388. Cf. Æsch. Ag. 689, sqq.) in consequence of his having been preserved, despite the omens attending his birth. See Hygin. Fab. xci. Henco the Schol. on II. xii. 93, derive his name of Paris, ὅτι τὸν μόνον παρῆλθεν.
  4. Cf. Hor. Od. i. 15, 13:—
    "Nequicquam, Veneris præsidio ferox

    Pectes cæsariem, grataque feminis
    Imbelli cithara carmina divides: . . .
    . . . tamen, heu! serus adulteros

    Crines pulvere collines."
  5. i. e., thou wouldst have been stoned to death.
  6. Mark the force of the pronoun.
  7. By χλαινᾶν is understood a mantle which could be worn doubled. Others suppose it means cloth of double tissue.
  8. An affectionate use of the word νυμφα, which properly means a bride. or young wife.
  9. The plural is used to denote a long flowing robe.
  10. By some the cicada or τέττιξ, this is to be considered to be the balm cricket.
  11. See Buttm. Lexil. s. v. and Arnold.
  12. Observe the force of the neuter.
  13. Cf. Duport, Gnom. Hom. p. 18.
  14. "Si unquam fuit, quod nunc non est amplius i. e., si recte dici potest fuisse, quod ita sui factum est dissimile, ut fuisse unquam vix credas"—Herm. on Vig. p. 946, quoted by Anthon.
  15. This whole passage may be compared with the similar enumeration and description of the seven Argive chieftians in Eurip. Phœn. 119, sqq.
  16. Not "a head less" in height; for line 169 would then mean that Agamemnon was a head less than others, and consequently Ulysses would be two heads under the ordinary size. Anthon has adopted this common mistake, although Wolf had pointed it out.
  17. Observe the Attic construction, where the genitive would have been espected. So Od. M. 73. II. ii. 317. Compared by Lesbonax, περὶ σχημ. p. 183, sq. ed. Valck. See, also, my note on Æsch. Prom. p. 8; intpp. on Theocrit. i. 48.
  18. They had fallen in combat with Lynceus and Idas, while besieging Sparta.—Hygin. Poet. Ast. ii. 22. According, however to other mythologists, they shared immortality in turns. See Od. xi. 302; Virg. Æn. vi. 121; with Servius, and Apollodor, iii. 11, 2.
  19. Buttmann, Lexil. p. 521, makes ϕάλος to be the same as κῶνος, a metal ridge in which the plume was fixed.
  20. i. e., Menelaus=to his confusion.