The Uranian and Uraniad as Degenerates, as Criminals and as Social and Legal Victims: Types and Biographies.
Misleading Uses of the Word "De- generate."
Within a few years, particularly through printed "disclosures" of similisexualism, in London New York and Paris, in club-life and other social fraternities, we have seen the word "degenerate" in frequent employ. So used, it has acquired a meaning inexact for close students of similisexual problems. The American and the English newspapers especially have aided in misusing "degenerate" as a common vocable. The work of psychiatric specialists, should teach thoughtful men and women that the similisexual instincts—Uranianism, homosexualism, even feminosexualism and Uraniadism—do not necessarily mean clear physical, intellectual or moral degeneracy.
The similisexual passion is a sex-determinant,—without the stigma of sex-decadence as its necessary consequence. It is a concurrent quality in all sorts and conditions of human beings, good and bad, moral and immoral, superior or inferior, as to physiques and minds. As we have seen, Uranians and Uraniads may be (in a great proportion are) perfectly developed and normal; they often are striking examples of "model" humanity in many traits. The intersexual instinct mixes in temperaments of the more or less perfect or imperfect, of the noble or ignoble. It can appear in types richly endowed with bodily vigour and sexual force, possessed of an aggressive mental, physical and ethical superiority. Or else it can be blended with effeminacy and a shameful un-virility. It can join to a perfect external womanliness and unwomanliness. It characterizes the high and debased. It is an ingredient that often unites to no determinative externals. It is not strictly, psychologically, a definitely "contra-sexual" impulse. It refers to no hard-and-fast logic of individualisais, in innumerable instances. It has no necessary and inevitable relationship to any disease, to any distortion of the intellectual aesthetic, ethical or physical types. It is a product and an impulse by itself, the nature-right of distinct, or of indistinct and medial sexes; the semi-tones of the psychic and sexual gamut. Each intersex sounds the melody of its own string, in the mysterious human instrument of which it is arbitrarily made a part. It completes, as an indispensable, Nature's calm cycles. In fact, as to the term "degenerate" one of the very first principles in studying homosexualism is to remember that a similisexual man is not necessarily demonstrable as a decadent man or woman.
"Not necessarily", has been written. Nevertheless, it is not remarkable that decadence has been so placarded on the homosexual, that to the mass of educated people not uranistic, and even to the Uranian himself, the terms have become synonymous. For—unfortunately—there are obviously large elements of debasement in the legion of Uranians and Uraniads. They depress the observer by salient degeneracy of mind, soul, heart, and body. To analyze such phases is our least agreeable task. But the true Nature-student has no right to shirk Nature's problems, nor must he be deflected by what is ugly, grotesque, unclean or vile.
Correct Use of the Term "Degenerate".
Compared with some other aspects of Uranian degeneracy, we find that downright bodily effeminacy, corporeal imperfections or abnormalities do not play a peculiarly large role in homosexualism, even when linked with weakness, disgrace, vice and crime. Often the "worst" type of homosexual differs physically from the normal man by merely the less obvious details of structure; or by none. It is in his temperamental, in his mental and moral making-up that we remark vicious divergences. By the Intersexual Theory, much that is called degeneracy is divergence from relatively a few male sexual attributes only.
The examples of Uranianism joined to such decadence are varied, just as are instances of Uranianism when conjoined with fine moral and intellectual fibre. We can pass from the Uranian who exhibits merely a refined weakness of character, or a 'secondary' physique, to the Uranian that is a prostitute, blackmailer, thief, child-ravisher, murderer; or perhaps a type physically deficient, plainly abnormal and even monstrous.
Moral Degeneracy Often Less Noticeable than Intellectual; or Other Sorts.
This degeneracy of the Uranian often appears only intellectually. It is true that disgracefully debased, degenerate Uranians are frequently simply shrewd. The applied intellectualism of such types is usually not remarkable. On the other hand, a vast number of quite homosexual men, Uranians of widely diverse social educations, show little loss of moral sensibilities. In social, life and in family and business relations they are not ethical "degenerates"; while details of mental shortcoming may be noted. Again, wholesomeness or unwholesomeness of the soil from which the human plant springs, youthful environments, later associations, all share in the growth or the checking of real degeneracy in the homosexual world, just as they affect so much else in humanity.
Two Special Classes.
Two types of Uranians we constantly find morally and intellectually deficient. First, the non-mercenary but passive sodomist in general, without regard to his class or to his social station. Second, the Uranian prostitute, who is professionally quite of the mercenary class, active or passive. Sexual passivists, offer a considerable proportion of types, with even a degeneracy of the sexual organs, as of some other physical traits. To this topic an Appendix to this study will refer. Passive similisexualism seems to work toward bodily and intellectual degeneracy, far more frequently than does "active" homosexualism. There is some intersexual logic here. The passivist (cinœdus) is more feminine than the activist; and his deficiencies and degeneracies often logically are in key with distinctively womanish deficiencies.
Instances of Degenerately Psychic Kind; but not Physically nor Morally Such.
An example of degenerated mentality though not perceptibly linked to degeneracy of the moral nature (and scarcely such as to the, physique) occured to the notice of Taylor. The physician was called in to determine, by exploration, the sex of a certain Elise Edwards, an actress" by profession. So came the disclosure that the patient had a manly body of normal structure and appearance, in all essentials; which the "actress" had long concealed in womanly attire. Since the fourteenth year of the patient (whose real name was Z—) he had always worn woman's dress. He had been every where received professionally as an actress. He wore his hair long; had cultivated a female pitch of voice, and so on. The facial type was sufficently feminine to support the role with ease; but the body was male, from head to foot. The generative organs were vigorously male: There were indications of passive sodomy; distention of the anus, etc. In this case, the degeneration seemed merely temperamental and mental. The patient was morally, normal, so far as an impressions suggested. In an earlier chapter of this book, a converse of this case was cited.
A striking example was that of the young German, known in certain circles of Munich homosexualism as well as in many other cities, by the title of "The Pompadour". His autobiography has appeared in part, by the editorial aid of Johannes Guttzeit, in a recently-printed brochure. (Leipsig: W. Besser.) Well-born, of a Dionian-Uranian father and of a perfectly normal mother, fairly educated, and of manly exterior ( including, when he wished it, a full beard) this subject achieved wide South-German notoriety. He was the hero of countless adventures, with the military and the civil, with the Church and the world. Incorrigibly bohemian, "The Pompadour"—for so he came to be nicknamed—threw away efforts at keeping any fixed social station. He became now a confidential servant, now a mere waiter, now a secretary; uniting the complaisances of a passivist with one or another occupation. "The Pompadour" travelled about Europe much. Speaking two or three languages besides German, he became international. The moral nature in him did not degenerate toward criminality, in fact his ethical personality was rather firm. But mental application, a serious view of life and depth of feeling, wholly failed. The muscular organization gradually became degenerated; and the practice of anal coitus had debilitating local effects.
The "Carver" Case.
A singular case comes from across the Atlantic. A few years ago there was a popular woman-barber, who also kept a confectioner's shop, in the town of North Haven, Maine (United States). Women-barbers are not altogether rare in Yankeedom—where so many odd customs are met by the European visitor. Lilian Carver, as she was known, seemed a local fixture, and was a respected member of the small community. For many years, the shop was patronized by the men of the town. Miss Carver also was an expert coiffeuse for—one much demanded. The Carver family had come to North Haven very quietly, and were members of a Baptist Church there. Miss Lilian was their only daughter. She was a plump, fine-skinned, handsome brunette. A circle of admirers hung about her, and some of them were on at least vague sentimental terms with her. One day, Lilian Carver went to Boston. A few days later appeared the published statement in the newspapers of the county, to the following startling purport; sworn-to by "Lilian", by her parents, and by the pastor of her church-society, the Rev. Lyman W. Sweet. The latter had been taken into a secret that stirred the town to lively amazement and wrath:
"Having been known in North Haven, Me., (my birthplace and home for thirty years,) as a female, by the name of Lilian G. Carver, I do hereby publicly declare that I have been masquerading, and for more than ten years against my wishes. Force of habit, filial regard, and dread of the necessary sensation attendant upon such a step have prevented me from doing my duty; which now, as a Christian I undertake to do. My real name is Arthur Leslie Carver. I am a man, and since September this year, (1901) have dressed and have been known as such."
"Lilian's" Carver's degenerative traits were exclusively physical. They were invisible to the layman's notice, as departing much from a plump male type. There was no moral degeneracy whatever in question. The sexual organs were large and perfectly masculine. The sexual tendency was "passive." As Arthur L. Carver, the subject entered business life in Boston, as an employé, and is still in that occupation and city.
A similar case occurred also in the State of Maine about the same date as the "Lilian Carver" one. After having been dressed, employed and known only as a woman during a respectable life, Sylvester Cole, a servant in a family in Vassalboro, had fallen in love with a fellow-servant, Georgiana Bernard. Therewith he disclosed his real sex, ceased to be "Maggie Cole", and was duly married to the young woman of his choice. Cole claimed that the secret of his sex was necessary for reasons of pecuniary kind; but that advantage was not cleared up, although a relative of wealth was named in the riddle. The young man, an Irishman by blood, was not deficient in moral or physical qualifications; although his personal aspect, as to face and figure, degenerated from a truly male type to womanish contours. Also, Cole's mind was not of a robust male sort, and he showed that general temperamental degeneracy toward feminine tastes that comes with the wish to sustain such a masquerade. The sexual organs were stated, by a physician who saw them, to be masculine in all respects, except that of size. The vita sexualis of the subject before his marriage could not be distinctly ascertained. A rumour (not originating in Vassalboro) asserted him to be of "passivist" impulses.
Degrees of the Physical Depart- ure: Real Herm- aphroditism, Monstrosity, etc.
Similar instances are many. There is a departure from the truly male, temperament and intellect. The bodily "secondariness" is noticeable by comparisons with fully virile models. The contrasts apply to such structural matters as the form and weight of the skeleton, the contours of the fleshy parts of the frame, the muscular strength, the proportions of the features, the voice, movements, gait, etc. A tabulation of these is included in an Appendix, for the reader desirous of finding whether his own type or some other approach at all the uranian Intersex, or toward Uraniadism.
Nevertheless, a limited, obscure proportion of homosexuals, Uranian and Uraniads, are marked by actual hermaphroditism,—plain and unequivocal. That any are so has strengthened the rooted vulgar idea that the Uranian and Uraniad must be hermaphrodite. This antiquated notion is strong in America and England. The reader will find in the closer medical studies of the homosexual problem, as well as in other connections, full information as to bodily hermaproditism. It includes male, genitals in a type otherwise female (or vice versa); male and female genitals and hybrid organs in the same individual; atrophied organizations; and so on. An interesting series of observations of this anatomical side of homosexualism appears in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen" for 1902. The present writer examined lately a striking instance, in an Italian city.
The absurd idea of an hermaphroditic body as necessary to Uranianism belongs with an old notion in Catholic canon-laws (and others)—that the hermaphrodite must be made a sort of outlaw, as a human being divinely accursed. One «celebrated hermaphrodite has left a published study of this predicament; a kind of desperate appeal and defense. A notable hermaphrodite of the time of Trajan and Hadrian was the distinguished philosopher Favorinus, the friend of Plutarch and the instructor of Aulus Gellius. Whether the famous Chevalier d'Eon, who appeared before the world during his long and amazingly adventurous life (1728-1810) now as woman, now as man, with perfect success was hermaphroditic, and homosexual or not at all so, has never become perfectly clear. Some recent studies of his career are to the contrary. Indeed, one can-hardly class the plucky and gifted Chevalier among degenerates. He seems more an incorrigible eccentric and "mystifier;" a type in many traits vigorously—agressively—virile, as his friends and enemies soon learned to their dismay. The Abbé François de Choisy (1644-1724) offers, on somewhat similar lines to d'Eon, a temperament far more saliently degenerate and devirilized: but here again nothing classes the type as an hermaphrodite, in any exact sense of the term; and during de Choisy's bisexual career, with all its effeminacies, orgies, profligacies, aventures galantes and so on—now of masculine and now of feminine colouring—there is no question of mental degeneracy. His culture, wit, critical acuteness and general intellectual vigour are attested by his contemporaries, and by his voluminous writings on philosophy, history and religion. He seems to have assumed so much the woman because "to be a woman" delighted him. naturally, and licensed the perversities and fantasies of his curious intersexualism. To Emil Mario Vacano, the famous "Miss Corinna" of the circus-rings of Europe, in the middle of the last century (to whom we have referred in citing from his novel "Humbug") something of the same capital and capacity for sexual mystification were notably developed, in course of Yacano's amazing Wanderjähre.
Relation Between Aesthetic Life and Degeneracy.
We should not forget, although the dictum is opposed by sentimental and popular theories, that the aesthetic life demonstrably does not stand for moral good, nor per se for healthfulness of mind or body to the individual or race. We may say that there is no demonstrable bond between the Good and the Beautiful, as we accept them. A profound psychic paradox faces us here. Pretty theorizings and a world-old lyrism on this topic are out of tune with daily facts. As we review dispassionately the history of nations, or study individuals, we are led to the conviction that in proportion as we find men and women arriving at a certain—or uncertain—degree of higher aesthetic sensibility they tend to become morally, intellectually and temperamentally decadent. Beauty thus stands before the thoughtful mind as not friend but enemy. Certain authorities in the study of homosexualism, including some who are not disposed to tolerances of its philosophic justifications, have gone so far as to consider the similisexual instincts as a distinctive trait of highly intellectual races; the tokens of advanced mentality in the individual. Germany and Italy here are much in evidence—so far as such argument is tenable.
Degenerate Similisexualism in Aristocratic Life, with High Aesthetic Sensitiveness.
In keeping with aesthetic sensitiveness in uranianism, we find that luxury, elegances, refinements, afford salient types of degenerate mankind. We have seen some already, under other headings of this study. The sensual, cruel or merely effeminized Roman patricians; a dozen well-known princes in the Cæsarian lines; the debauched Greeks; the Italians and Frenchmen and Teutons of the Middle Ages; the long chain of Egyptian, Turkish, Persian voluptuaries; a Continental and Anglo-Saxon aristocracy to-day—furnish examples. We will not say that these types are morally or otherwise degenerates absolutely on account of their aesthetic or other cultivation. But the coincidence with it seems close. The passive sodomist in "high life" is notoriously degenerate, intellectually and morally, as has been noted above.
Elagabalus; Nero; Gilles de Rais, Philippe d'Orléans; the Marquis de Sade, etc.
The complex degeneracy of Nero is extreme. How far Nero s moral abasement sprung out of his riddlesome dionid-uranian nature—was product of his original sexual instincts—is not clear. Nero's æstheticism had not enough higher intellectual counterbalances; a factor which has saved many an artist from decadence. Nero's increasing blood-lust, his indifference to murder, his use of the executioner and the assassin, of the royal command to suicide, all to get rid of inconvenient people; his slaughters of his nearest relatives and closest friends,—all these have no obvious, logical relation with Nero as a homosexual type. Enormously developed cruelty in Nero does not appear to have been essential to his sexual enjoyments. His tendency towards it seems merely a Roman liking for cruel sanguinary spectacles; a trait in many types of women, the Spanish, for instance—who adore millinery, lace, music and bull-fights. The beautiful madrilena or French méridionale, who cheers the agile "torero", who shudders with delight at bleeding men and disembowelled horses, is much the same type as the Roman lady criticizing with enthusiasm the gladiator in the arena hacking the arms and head from his adversary. Many men of the southern races which offer bisexual aspects, or are only indistinctly homosexual, are similarly feminine.
In the case of that amazing oriental, one by no means wholly homosexual, the Emperor Elagabalus (or Heliogabalus) we have an Uranian monumental in even juvenile degeneracy. His effeminate beauty of person was so remarkable that he seems to have deserved his adopted name of the Sun-God; a suitable priest to such a deity in his bisexual loveliness. The growth of his delusions and degeneracies was swift, reaching their highest point when he succeeded Macrinus as Emperor, for his short reign of mania and folly. The "marriage" of Elagabalus'to the Moon, his insane expenditures, his sexual debauches as "man and woman", his caprices, fêtes and follies have become history. They lacked almost every element of dignity, elegance or common-sense; being mostly grotesquely-mad efforts to enjoy the impossible in every form. Cruelty however is not a distinguishing trait in Elagabalus, as it was in many predecessors on the Roman Imperial throne. He had rather the weaknesses of a girl, including a girl's aversion to seeing' what is truculently painful.
Prince Eugene of Savoy, had a side to his nature that was indisputably degenerate,—especially from the military-uranian's typic point of view. He was not only known as a pederast, but was given to prostituting himself ( he was a passivist) for money, disguised, like a sort of soldier-Messalina. The letters of Elizabeth-Charlotte, the shrewd Duchess of Orléans, have odd references to these disgraceful proclivities of the bold hero of Oudenarde and Malplaquet. Philippe d'Orléans (1640-1701) the womanish, depraved and homosexual brother of Louis XIV, is a remarkable instance of degeneracy not marked by cruelty, in a man not a poltron and not intellectually deficient.
Gilles de Rais: A Fifteenth Cenr- ury Aesthete. Murderer and Pederast.
A remarkable combination of moral and temperamental degeneracy, intellectuality not being impaired in it to any appreciable degree, occurs in Gilles de Rais. This young Bretagne nobleman was executed, along with certain accomplices, at Nantes, in the year 1440, after an amazing career of erotomania, with the gradual increase of a blood-lust sentiment in it. De Rais was born of a noble and wealthy stock. At an early age he became master of a revenue, for the time enormous. He fought bravely as a patriotic soldier at the side of Jeanne Dare, becoming sufficiently distinguished to be made one of her marshals. Abruptly closing his military career, he retired to his estates, especially to that of Tiffauges, near Nantes. Here Gilles de Rais devoted himself to a life of intense, passionate intellectualism and aesthetics. Collecting a notable library, he also maintained a large retinue of singers, comedians, poets and painters, with whom he passed all his time. Such luxury made deep inroads on his fortune. Accordingly Gilles de Rais undertook alchemy, and anon conjurations and magic, to maintain his splendour of living. These processes soon brought him to the next step—the murder of young children, partly for the use of their blood in diabolical rites, but soon as a regular element of sexual excitement. He had a staff of envoys who kidnapped handsome young lads, and frequently little children. They were brought to certain secret rooms of Tiffauges; where de Rais and his companions in diabolism violated their victims and then cut them to pieces. Often they first slaughtered the unfortunate youths, and then undertook coition in various ways, with the corpses. Hundreds of such murders were consummated before the proofs of their commission were sufficiently established and the timid legal arm was strong enough to act against so powerful a local lord. De Rais was arrested finally, with François Prelati, the famous necromancer—who was his companion and tutor—was duly arraigned and tried, with one or two others implicated; and (deeply penitent, by all accounts) lie suffered the penalty for his hideous crimes in Nantes, in the autumn of 1440. He was only some thirty-six years old. Apart from the growth in him of his passion for pederasty, in connection with death and blood de Rais was a man of singularly sensitive aesthetic nature and culture, as well as of high intellectuality.
Blood-Lust and Similisexualism.
Blood-lust is frequently the inseparable accompaniment of the sexual instinct. If so, to gratify the sexual passion stirs up at once the wish to see suffering, to shed blood, even to murder. We meet this fearful instinct, in many individuals, both heterosexual and homosexual. The sentiment put vice-versa—blood-lust breeding sex-lust—is met often. This fact enters into many assassinations and mysterious murders. Thus acts the passion well-known in sexual parlance as 'sadism,' a word derived from the famous French eroto-maniac, the Marquis de Sade, whose instincts were particularly of the kind. The maniacal instinct to dismember and to disfigure the body of some victim, either before or after sexual use of it, is not at all rare, either in heterosexual or homosexual erotism. The constantly recurring cases of murder with mutilation, the "Jack the Ripper" types of assassination, are almost invariably so explained. It is often associated with the instinct of fiendish cruelty to children, and with their murder, as in the classic (but not at all unique) case of Grilles de Rais. A noteworthy sadistic case occurred some years ago in France—the arrest and execution of a vagrant named Vacher, who had ravished dozens of young country-lads and then killed them, or vice-versa, before he was apprehended. The Paris apache has often been observed to possess the sadistic quality.
The "Dippold Case," in 1903.
The shocking "Dippold Case," before the Baireuth assises in October 1903, was a typical instance of homosexuality and lust of cruelty. In that example they were united in a young man, a private tutor named Dippold, of superiour intellectual qualities and careful education, who made two lads (committed to his care "by negligent parents) lead such lives of martyrdom as only an unnatural monster would do. Beatings, exposure to weather, brutalities of all kinds, with sexual abuse of the two helpless little fellows, left in a lonely country-home, ended in the death of one of the boys—Heinz Koch, aged thirteen. Dippold was arrested for murder, and his sex-relations to the boys were elicited. The story horrified a wide European public. Dippold was sentenced to eight years of severe imprisonment.
Pederastic affairs in boys' schools often take the colour of such brutal crimes. The robbery of newly-made graves, and the outrages on corpses also are due to this same hideous instinct. The topic is somewhat foreign to the purposes of the present study. It can be pursued by the reader in numerous studies of sadism, masochism, and so on, by psychiatric specialists.
The name of the Marquis de Sade (1740-1814), a Parisian and a member of aristocratic society in the latter years of the eighteenth century, and in the first part of the Napoleonic period, has passed into such psychiatric literature for degeneracy connected with erotic monomania. De Sade strongly suggests Grilles de Rais. In his case, maniacal heterosexualism and maniacal homosexualism are more fairly in balance. De Sade was perceptibly a Dionian-Uranian. From a career of early military distinction he passed swiftly to such an existence of debauch, to so prolonged an orgy of erotism, that madness was inevitable. The reader can review for himself the perversities of this man (a graceful, quiet-mannered type even when maniac) with masochistic passions for flagellation, torture, blood and aphrodisiacs, as part of the sexual act. His novels "Justine" and "Julie" have no literary vigour; interesting only by their atmosphere of delirious lust, the marvel is that they ever were put on paper. De Sade's extraordinary career is the subject of a considerable psychiatric literature, and need not be detailed here.
Fetichism, and Other Phases of Degenerate Homosexualism.
Fetichism, or the growth of certain fantastic appetites, in connection with homosexual (as with heterosexual) emotion,. and as its stimulus, is fully reviewed in treatises by Moll, Krafft-Ebing, Ellis, Hirschfeld, and others. Masochistic flagellation, fetichistic sexual excitements awakened by objects not naturally suggestive, the cutting-off of hair, the shoe-fetich, etc., are in this category. But fetichism, like cruelty to children and lust-murder, seems less an attribute of homosexual depravation than of heterosexualism.
Uranianism and Degeneracy in the Aristocracy and Middle Classes.
As the readers of large daily newspapers well know, the world over, one need not revert to cases of degeneracy similisexualism in past civilizations and centuries. The data that contemporary law-courts, police-blotters and so on can offer, including the reserved "features" of divorce suits, furnish liberal studies. Great capitals, such as London, Paris, New York, Berlin, all large cities and many small ones of the world present (more or less to scandal and wonderment) the Uranian of diseased appetites, and of proportionately contemptible, brutal, vitiated and obscene practices. The "Cleveland Street" Scandal in London, and like affairs, in which distinguished professional men, high members of the aristocratic circles and eminent financiers figured as the debauchers of innocent lads, have born witness to undercurrents of English sexualism. In New York, only a few years ago, a similar scandal (in a popular club) cast the city into a quiver of nervous distress. This affair with difficulty was kept from full publicity, by the general flight of many persons involved.
In Modern Anglo- Saxon Aristo- cracy: An English Decadent.
Within a year or so, the bankruptcy of an enormously wealthy young British nobleman and peer drew new attention to his eccentricities. Of a degenerately æsthetic kind, they long had been in popular comment. This young man, the wearer of several high titles, owed (at last accounts) nearly six hundred thousand pounds, although his yearly income had been continously about a hundred thousand pounds! His life as a boy was effeminate enough to justify rumours as to his homosexualism, further bruited through his own love of notoriety. His passion for art, for the theater, for dressing in female clothing, for the most expensive costumes, (including those feminine) his almost unparallelled extravagance as to rare jewels—all made him famous. His health was at no time robust, and curious tales were therewith linked. To the amazement of his acquaintance presently he abruptly married. A young relative, of suitable wealth was his bride. Naturally the marriage was not felicitous; but nobody was prepared to find the bridegroom soon bringing suit for the annullment of the marriage, on the claim that he was physically unable to fulfil his marital duties. A Court accepted the medical verdict to this interesting effect; and the marriage was declared void. Six months later, the divorced young gentleman, demanded a second medical examination, so that he could remarry the same lady. Medical inspection having again justified the noble lord, he became for a second time this young relative's spouse, apparently with her hearty consent and satisfaction. A fanatic on all theatrical entertainments, this young peer organized a traveling and residential theater-troupe, and rambled about England with it; or else he acted in his own magnificent private theater, playing almost exclusively female roles. His jewels were valued at half a million pounds, the rubies, cats-eyes, alexandrites, emeralds and diamonds vying with those of any princess or opera-queen. He was the victim of a huge robbery, by a highly confidential companion, of such jewellery, but recovered most of the stolen ornaments, those also valued at a great sum. When in masculine dress, he was accustomed to change his clothes at least three or four times daily, in each case with appropriate jewellery to the amount of thousands of pounds. Before the latest crash in his affairs, he had paid sixty per cent usury. One of his intimacies, that had nothing if not uranian aspects, was the topic of much London and Paris gossip, awhile ago. Not long afterwards he died.
In beginning this chapter, attention was drawn to the error of supposing that the homosexual is necessarily a degenerate in body or in mind, in any such sense of the term as is so common: and the extremely important relation between homosexuality and taste, talent and genius in aesthetics has been shown. But it is not amiss to note here a curious phase that has often been pointed out as to artistic or literary homosexuals of anglo-saxon, teutonic or other northern—non-latin—races who escape timely from social and legal perils plentiful in their own countries, and so betake themselves to Italy, to Spain, and so on—especially to Italy. Their sexual liberty when there seems remarkably often to have the effect of destroying their intellectual or artistic activity and ambition. They become professional drifters and 'dawdlers', degenerate in will, in purpose, and even intersexual virility. They do nothing, accomplish nothing, while constantly talking about doing and accomplishing; and anon having lapsed gently to idleness complete, the capital of talent seems to evaporate wholly away. Their liberty really gained, its relief undoes them. The relation of these aspects to the American, the English, the German homosexuals who become émigrés to the treacherous South is particular. Latins and Gauls, born in genial airs, seem to make compatible inborn uranianism with activity of talent much more as a normal condition than do immigrants new to the sunshine and philarrenic security of the South.
Masculine Civilian Prosti- tution.
In the eighth chapter of this book was considered military prostitution. Let us now glance at non-military prostitution. The place may be Berlin, Vienna, New York, London, Munich, Rome, Florence, Naples, Palermo, Cairo, Athens—any capital, any large city; for no large city exists in the world where the male prostitute is not now to be met and bought as readily as is the female harlot. Along some boulevard, or in a quiet park-alley, walks the uranian 'patron' as evening draws on. He may be rich, he may be poor, of noble rank or humble, educated or ignorant, robustly male in his aspect or delicate in physique, moral or immoral, religious or irreligious. In spite of anything else, along with anything else, he is an Intersexual. He is perhaps among those innumerable Uranians of the better social world who lead solitary lives in their sexualism, no matter what warm friendships they enjoy. He has thus given up seeking any social complement and ideal sex-companion; whose embraces could complete not only his physical but intellectual individuality. Or it may be that' his similisexualism seeks physical relief always "out of his class". Not a philosopher, he knows that he must needs physically satisfy himself in only "that way". Not an idealist, he prefers vulgarized amours de passage.
"In that way". In no case, with a woman. As he passes (perhaps a handsome, manly figure) the street-walker tries to attract him. But the Uranian does not give a thought to her ogling. She even angers and bores him. Every throb of his intersexual being is pulsating for a male. As social companions, as artistic creations for the eye, many women may have his admiration and intimacy, especially if "good women." For his sexual relief, woman is an irony. Could the female harlot serve him sexually as she serves so many millions of men, easy would be his choice. But occidental Europe in general does not permit brothels of males, nor allow the boy-harlot too openly and scandalously to racoler.
Yet now and then, as the sexually-excited Uranian continues his stroll, he meets a furtive, keen look from a man or a youth who passes. It is the mysterious Anblick of the Uranian fraternity; that psychic-sexual interrogation, that signal and challenge ever where current and understood among homosexuals. It is true that homosexuality of an Uranian is not met in his glance unless he means it to be so met. Many homosexuals sedulously avoid it. Part of the protective "Mask" is the watch against such eloquence of a mere exchange of looks. True also is it that the "Look" in part is explained by the fact that the Uranian eye, especially in the higher type, is almost always singularly luminous, and that its penetrating gaze can be disturbingly direct. But the 'homosexual glance' is not mere fiction.
Before a shop-window, or perhaps at a bench in a park, halts the Uranian. Soon another stroller, loitering in professional alertness, walks toward him—catches his eye expressively and stands or sits near him. The newcomer may be a boy of sixteen or eighteen, or much more an adult good-looking or plain; likely not really well-dressed; and artificial aids improve (?) his physique. He may have a certain fausse élégance—cheap jewellery and a gaudy cravat. A conversation is begun. Little by little, it slips on toward confidentialities—the discomforts of living and of travelling alone, the effects of the evening air, the quiet of the place, the amusements of the town. The talk grows indistinctly erotic as the other man becomes surer that he has here one of the—profession. Presently the Uranian, certain of his ground and well-enough suited with his interlocutor's physical type, proposes that they take a walk together; or go. to some near restaurant. During the promenade, or at the café, there is the necessary bargaining, good-humoredly, and as with a woman-harlot. The two men also are pretty sure to pause at the nearest latrine, by common consent, if the patron be especially disposed to estimate the physical capital of the other. If satisfied with the étalage, he accompanies the vendor to the nearest safe locality—a corner of a deserted thicket in the park—an open field; to an equivocal hotel, to the quarters of his new friend; perhaps to his own lodging:
"Allons, retirons-nous, ne troublons point leur joie."
The client pays the tariff agreed or disputed—five or ten shillings, five or ten marks, two or three florins, ten to twenty francs—local and personal prices differ. Anon he says good-evening to his acquaintance, whom he may or may not care ever to meet again. The incident is closed: leaving the Uranian sexually pacified, precisely as is the Dionian by the functions of a female harlot.
The foregoing is a typical incident. The army of such male prostitutes in large cities is of thousands. Boys of precocious debauchery, either in the pay of mature male procurers and patrons, or "working" by themselves, idle and corrupt youths in their later teens, young men in twenties and thirties, older types (often of repulsive maturity) catamites of all ages, complexions, physiques, grades of cleanliness and decency. As a rule, those who begin with health and robustness of body and pretentions to good-looks become feeble, pallid wrecks. Sexual debilities, the precarious, nerve-shattering life, misery, late hours, weather, careless habits of person, drink—all sap away physical attractiveness. The concurrence of the female harlot is not troublesome. But the civilian prostitute suffers much in his 'business' in those many cities where soldiers and sailors are his rivals. A large proportion of the clientage much prefer a soldier-prostitute; for reasons we have mentioned in a former chapter.
The homosexual—or de facto homosexual—prostitute who if older or younger, solicits publicly in a female costume, is a frequent phase; as we have seen in foregoing instances. Such types haunt the parks, public thoroughfares and so on, after nightfall; or are met in the lowest of café-chantants, balls and bars. But to make a practice of such a travesti requires a style of physique, an age, and a natural effeminacy not so general as is supposed. The trick is not always useful, either; for the imitation may be so perfect that a homosexual client looking for a male pathic is deceived, and pays no heed to the maneuvers and charms of what he supposes to be a woman street-walker. Again, if he recognizes the under-sex, he is perhaps repelled by any masculine type that appears so womanish, and so will have nothing to do with it. He is seeking for virility; a robust, coarse soldier, or even unclean but manly voyon, is vastly more to his taste. An additional reason against such masquerading is that it is an immediate offense against police regulations, and makes the male prostitute liable to arrest, even if, he is not caught in soliciting. Hence it is not favoured by much the largest proportion of prostitutes, whether they can adapt themselves well to it or not.
A general custom in the world of homosexual prostitution, though perhaps more one that is observed in its "smarter" grades, is the changing of the masculine names to its female equivalent, especially when correspondence or conversation concerning the subject is in question; or assuming some female name of independent source; or taking some nick-name—vulgar or aristocratic, delicate or crude—belonging to the feminine category. Thus Henry becomes "Henrietta", Charles signs himself "Charlotte", Paul is known as "Pauline", Jules as Juliette, and so on. Such noms de guerre as "La Belle Hortense", "Cleopatra", "La Marquise" "Die Schöne Salome" and "Petite Fleur" are attached to youths or men, perhaps with moustaches that a trooper would envy, and of blamelessly male sexual qualifications—according to what popularly would seem to decide that matter. The fantasies in these sobriquets are endless, descending to the most obscene picturesqueness, But merely feminized male names are most in favour, perhaps because this practice is so usual among homosexuals distinctly effeminate, but of thoroughly good social station and wholly apart from any venal or proletarian classes. As to the latter, an amusing caricature appeared lately in a Paris humorous journal, in which a severe old valet is projecting his head from out of the door of his master's bedroom, saying to an elegantly dressed young man, on the landing—"The Baron don't receive to day—he's abed!"—to which the youth smilingly replies, "Ah yes—but he expects me. Please just tell him it's Lucy."
Such is homosexual street-prostitution of usual sort. It differs from female prostitution in that it is not so observable by the uninitiated. Nothing is more common than to hear heterosexuals, all their lives in some noted center of male prostitution, deny, angrily or serenely, that it flourishes in their town. Any much-frequented, street music-hall, ball, theater witness the contrary.
Define Resorts for Male Prosti- tution.
In a large radius of Europe the male prostitute can "labour in his vocation" with impudent frankness. In Madrid, Belgrad, Constantinople, Naples, Florence, Paris, New York, Palermo, Milan, Marseilles, and so on, while homosexual brothels are not encouraged by statutes or police, there are houses for—sometimes exclusively—male rendezvous. The police always deny their existence. But they contrive to exist, sometimes exist a considerable length of time, on a greater or smaller footing. The police, particularly as many policemen are homosexual, know when to know a thing—or not. An amusing example of this fact occured to an Austrian homosexual, a year or so ago. Solemnly assured by a comely young police-official in -Milan that there was no maison de rendezvous for male prostitution in the Lombardian capital (!) about a week later he was offered the policeman in a well-conducted establishment, not ten minutes from the officer's station—the whole personnel and custom being masculine, his former acquaintance always at service of the house! In Paris, such clandestine resorts are many. In Asiatic and African cities, similar houses are plentiful. In Egypt, English military-rule has practically overlooked their existence, and the English patronage in Cairo, Alexandria and Port-Said justifies such myopia. The farther East, the more open and numerous are facilities of male prostitution. Regular 'boy-houses', as they are sometimes styled, are maintained in Farther-India, Japan, China, etc. In the baths at St. Petersburg, (generally speaking, in all large baths in Russia, the male-prostitute has a curious degree of tolerance and opportunity. In Italy, France and Germany, more or less orderly and clean assignation-houses are common. A resident contingent of vendable men and boys enables the proprietor to have a supply that can at any moment be summoned for a patron's choice—all types. But in a large part of Europe the law is fairly vigilant to root out and to punish such rendezvous and their frequenters.
Clubs of Uranians; Private Homosexual Re- sorts Numerous in All Countries.
When effort is made to maintain such establishments in cities where homosexual sorts Numerous intercourse is severly punished—New York, London, Berlin,- Munich, etc.,—the resort is masked in many different ways. If it is to be rather exclusive and aristocratic, it passes as a literary-club, an athletic society, sometimes as a dramatic-society, a chess-club, and so on. No outsider easily suspects what really goes on. Every precaution is taken against allowing unsympathetic visitors to invade it, and to fend-off spies; all manner of devices are used if by some mistake such a wolf in sheep's clothing has managed entrance, or if the law is alert. The precautions are just like those in political secret-societies, when suspicions are to be warded-off, guests regarded with lynx-eyed suspicion, and subterfuges kept well-oiled before danger comes. These, homosexual clubs are of all grades of aristocracy or democracy. They are not always locales for homosexualism between their members; though many such clubs are that. But they give the opportunity for social acquaintances, for personal soundings, for practical similisexualism elsewhere, for international correspondence, oral information between internationals, and the like. Now and then dire scandals come from them, and with more or less social horrifies they suddenly disintegrate. In spite of all pains in concealments, the homosexuality of the members and the procedings in such fraternities have a bad trick of leaking-out. Official and personal jealousies, lax management, incautious admissions to the penetralia, bring gossip. So come quarrels, explosions, and flights, right and left. But new societies of the sort take the places of the old ones, disclosures are forgotten. All goes well with those peaceable organizations—till their turn comes. The suppression of private homosexual clubs, in big capitals, is like the cutting-off the heads of an Hydra—but without searing the severed arteries.
The Uranian of Better Type Averse to Boyish Pederasty.
The boy-prostitute of tender years does not monopolize the homosexual marts of at least Western and Northern Europe. Many Uranians prefer a decidedly mature youth, and will rather embrace and be caressed sexually by a vigorous man from twenty-two to thirty-five, than by a boy in his early teens. A robust-natured Urning is repelled by too-feminine suggestions in boyish types, however graceful and winning. "I might as well expect to find enjoyment with a pretty young woman!" he exclaims. He must have virile contacts, the mature embrace, male magnetism, the sense of physical lust which a man imparts; this even when the innocence of youth does not deter him. If of strong characteristics he is also likely to detest the company of effeminate; flaccid homosexuals; to which types the male prostitute constantly affiliates. Many Uranians suffer sexual torments, live in sexual solitudes, rather than visit any Uranian club, or have to do with male prostitutes. This is particularly an attitude of the virile Uranian, of high-grade idealism. His body is the sufferer by his idealism. He will accept nothing less worthy, less psychically his own complement; he will not tolerate the ugly and degenerate and unclean.
"Why, Then At All—?"
"Why, then," asks the reader, "does any Uranian, of refinement, dignity and superiour station, descend to physical rapports with a street-catamite? Why does he make such acquaintances? Why does he ever enter a miscellaneous, vulgarized homosexual club? Why associate momentarily, not to speak of long-time, with coarse or sordid types?" Explanations are easy. In innumerable cases, the Uranian of higher nature is not so lucky as to have among his friends even one to be loved, physically and psychically; with such a sentiment returned, and with circumstances favouring the intimacy. His ideal, is never thus realized. He must lead his life sexually alone. But his sexual physique demands its relief, craves its pacification. Nerves and brain alike suffer, to torment. He feels often the need of being able to be himself with any other human being sexually at all like himself. As a parallel—the heterosexual man who would gladly keep a mistress of a refined type—socially, physically or psychically—or would joyfully marry the wife worthy respect as well as love, must often content himself with the embraces of female prostitutes or by trivial liaisons. Exactly such is the case with thousands of Uranians. The sexual physique claims appeasement. What dangers are run, personally, socially and legally, by intimacies with low-grade homosexual acquaintances, we will presently see. But when a starving man cannot get appetizing viands, he will eat moulded bread; if he cannot find clean water for his long thirst, he drinks of a brackish, fetid springs. The superiour Uranian, tormented in body, turns to vulgar and utterly unæsthetic elements, buys the street-pederast, surrenders to the obscene; and therewith mixes in the strangest, (often the most dangerous) cross-currents of the democracy of Uranianism.
The proportion of homosexual prostitution in many capitals is notably large. In London, Paris, Berlin, Naples, New York it is an armée de vice. Berlin's male prostitution is calculated at 20 per-cent of the whole prostitution of the city. In 1909, an official Commission in Paris reported a startling percentage of habitual prostitution by minor youths under eighteen years, including a vast proportion of small boys—eleven, twelve and thirteen years old, or even younger. The adult male prostitutes were stated to be thousands; a formidable rivalry to the female battalions. The Eighth Chamber of the Paris Police Tribunal, in the Palais de Justice, deals with dozens of flagrant cases each week, such offenders being the special charge of the tribunal named. According to such students of the topic in France as MM. Berenger, Joly, Prévost, Meunier, Bourdon and Brun, male prostitution, especially by minor youth—younger or older—"is alarmingly increasing in Paris."
Really Contra-Sex- ual Prostitution by Dionian Types.
It is to be observed that not all similisexual prostitutes, including thousands of young men who habitually sell their bodies to all passions of the Uranian patron, are homosexual. Often they are thoroughly dionistic; dislike and even detest, by natural repugnance, such relations; and have strong preferences for sexual intercourse with women. They violate their natures, turn prostitutes, because too idle to work; frequently only to get money to spend on women-harlots. Many younger or older male-prostitutes have other occupations; earning honestly their real daily bread, they are not homosexual by temperament. By prostituting themselves similisexually,—clandestinely—they make considerable additions to their modest wages. However repugnant be the embraces and attouchements of the Uranians, they accept them complaisantly, and even play with verve at homosexual harlotry. But in a large part of Europe, as we shall see, they aim toward the confidential bond with any Uranian, because of the opportunities to blackmail, to rob, to victimize their unlucky homosexual client. This is a potent inducement to the simulated catamite; exactly as it is so terrible a weapon pecuniarily in the case of the prostituting rascal who is really homosexual.
Various Familiar Types and Grades of Homosexual Prostitution.
Every shade and grade of the venal homosexualism occurs, exactly as occurs every shade and grade of feminine whoredom. We find the ill-clad, graceful, dirty lad, of an Italian or Spanish or French city, who sells an hour of his person in a shabby hotel, for a few francs. We encounter the type who is: ready to oblige a client by the most expeditious technique—almost publicly—in some near latrine or deserted by.-place, for a handful of cigarettes. We have the quasi-respectable and middle-class pathic, who fulfills his functions under more formal, decent conditions. We encounter the male-harlot that is well-dressed, well-fed, perhaps still young; and not so compromising in looks, or not so personally dangerous, that he cannot be taken to his respectable client's bachelor-lodgings, or saluted in a café of good grade. In due professional ascent of scale, comes the aristocracy of homosexual love-making—the young man, or lad of attractive manners and good-breeding enough, who is kept by some rich Uranian; or the mature, high grade élégant who "receives" in his own apartments a list of regular clients—a true male cocotte. Frequently the real sources of support, the real vocation or avocation—of this type, is not discerned by many friends outside the secret. In pederastic homosexualism there is met often the boy of fifteen to seventeen, of the beauty that has Sodoma's Saint Sebastian; who is ostensibly even legally adopted and put on a filial or nepotal footing by a well-to.do bachelor Uranian, or by a married one. This sort of "adoption" occurs often, even when Uranians must marry for such practical reasons as money, or for achieving a lawful heir—while thoroughly averse to sexual connection with the wife. We encounter other degrees social or intellectual, as among demoiselles galantes. Such are the handsome actor, the stage-singer, the studio-model, the poet, journalist, student and good-looking clerk; each simply a kept male-mistress, or clandestinely an homme de joie. Wealthy Jews and countless opulent non-semites, are mainstays of such well-conducted he-hetairas. The sexual nature of the intimacy can be kept below the surface of ordinary social notice. Such entretenu youth can readily be seen in the Bois de Boulogne, the Prater, the Pincio, Hyde Park, or Riverside Drive in their own automobiles. Their handsome apartments can be a luxurious rendezvous of dionysian society, as well as of Uranians known or not known as such.
In this regiment of masculine harlotry of course are met all dramas of faithfulness or unfaithfulness, disinterestedness or venality, comedies and tragedies, jealousies, rivalries, ruptures and reconcilements. "Tout comme dies nous!" might the female concurrence exclaim. Women-prostitutes well understand what a rivalry in the profession the masculine concurrent has set up, to lessen receipts and patronage; low street-walker, prosperous woman-prostitute, or high-class kept-woman, she hates her male competitor as a mystery and abnormality, a sexual insult as well as a commercial rival. Both sexes of the underclass nevertheless are met in alliance; tolerating each other, even living together, for common profit. Many of these partnerships—immediately, dangerously criminal—are prolific in incidents where the Uranian is a helpless victim. The police of all large cities know well the disorders and crimes by this armed truce between the two prostitutions.
The Vocabulary and Technique of Male Harlotry.
There is a large technical vocabalary for the different kinds, ages and methods of masculine prostitution, just as for the heterosexual sort. What is more this "dictionary of the trade" has become curiously international; many terms being much the same in all tongues, like the idiom of the sporting-world. However homosexual terminology, its slang included, inclines to follow French vocables. Thus an elderly male prostitute, or homosexual lover, is known as a "tante", especially if he act as the protector and agent for younger and more active catamites than himself. A handsome young man who is available is classed as a "jésus",—long a classic term: while a young boy is "un petit jésus". The German-spealdng countries much employ the general term "Pousserant" for such homosexuals. The present writer will not undertake to transcribe even a small fraction of the enormous lexicon of the slang of homosexualism: for even in an assortment, it would take many pages. The old Roman and Greek argot for every type and pratique was not larger nor more descriptive—which is saying much. In Carlier's valuable study "Les Deux Prostitutions" this topic is presented in its French aspects very fully; as in many dictionaries of slang, of argot français, etc., are French terms the most universal of use. There is a large and cryptically crude English stock.
The Middle Ground of Male Prostitution: Share of the Amateur in It.
Below the high aristocracy-professed of this curious half-world, are the recruits already indicated as still in touch with their legitimate occupations; waiters in restaurants and clubs, petty officials, domestics in private families, robust young mechanics, youthful shopmen on small wages, students, and so on. Valets more or less homosexual or complaisant, for the sake of place and money, are plentiful. From these upper ranks secede some of the most dangerous types of prostitutes for a respectable Uranian's intimacies. In all large cities certain restaurants and cafés are known as places where the homosexual visitor can meet with friendly social circles, or find types to suit his taste. The whole personnel is sometimes made up of homosexual servants, the patrons are almost wholly philarrhenic. Particularly Russian and Turkish baths everywhere are a rendezvous for homosexuals. At least fifty baths, in fifteen or twenty capitals, have established, widely-circulated reputations, as being homosexual meeting-places, among Uranians who live in the cities in question or travel about the world.
One such bath; in a large Central European capital, has achieved international renown, as not only the great local market for homosexual prostitution, but also for its amazingly mixed and democratic clientage; being of its kind rather unique. It is a very large establishment, in one of the best quarters of the city," adjoining the chief public park. It was opened many years ago, with no obvious intention of development into a homosexual rendezvous; but it soon acquired that colour, and has maintained it ever since. The entire service, from the management to the chiropodists, is by homosexuals, be it more or less so. On entrance, the first detail of striking suggestiveness, is the huge piscina full of tepid water. On special days of the week, such as Sundays and holidays, it is also full of a most mixed multitude of homosexuals, all naked (the ironical towel being made into an equation of nothing) and all immersed in the water up to their shoulders,—decorously enough. All are promenading together, in a sort of friendly cotillon; their hands kept under water, not for swiming, but for—mutual investigations, which are to be expected when one enters the pool. They are of course well-taken, unless some heterosexual, a stranger to the ways of the place, creates a scene, by being surprised, coy and insulted. Boys and men, youths and elders, tradesmen's clerks and archdukes, actors and musicians, officers of the army and common soldiers, hundreds of male prostitutes of all grades—these all meet in this amazing mélange. Various steam and hot-air rooms afford other, but less direct, opportunities for cultivating acquaintances. Friends meet known friends; new intimacies are ever in the air. The dressing-rooms, all private, have vague surveillance—by express absence of guardians. Each bather has his cabin; for the afternoon' or evening it is his castle. He can take whom he pleases to it, and he can do what he pleases in it; always provided thereb be no open indecorum, no tapage. There seldom is such. The partitions of many of the rooms are of groundglass, in part, but do not interfere much with freedom of proceedings; besides which most occupants are too busy to attend in curiosity to their neighbours. A prostitute—boy or man—is always to be had for a couple of florins. But if such a youth attempt extortion with any approach to disturbance, the bath-attendants at once are aware of it with surprising quickness, and come to the spot. The indiscreet party is ejected, and is told not to come again—a privilege that most of his profession in the city do not care to lose. So he usually accepts—one cannot say 'pockets'—his couple of florins, or his three crowns, without any "Krawall". The respectable client is always protected thus, by the bath's personnel. The reputation of the house must not be compromised. Scandals connected with it always have been hushed up. The place is a local institution. The local police are of course perfectly well-acquainted with its character, its sexual, offices as a mart and brothel, day by day in each week; and in no city are the laws more explicit against homosexuality, and against any places of its proxenetism. But nothing seems likely to be done to close this temple; first, because it seems an absolutely necessary outlet for the vast homosexual life of the city; second, because it is managed with outward decorum; and especially because its clientage is so much of the best citizens in the place, along with the rabble of the town, that it has a sort of inherent and general protection. There is. not anything else of its class so notorious, and on such a scale, in Continental Europe. For all of its freedom, per the bath-ticket price, the bather pays about two shillings.
In Paris, are at least a dozen baths that are homosexual rendezvous. Five or six are of wide popularity. In London, is a small group well-recognized. New York has several. But these, as most others, cannot be utilized, then and there, for homosexual practices. They are merely establishments for—anatomic inspections; for making appointments to meet elsewhere—some near hotel, for example. Berlin has a considerable list of such baths, with an homosexual personnel of impeccable discretion. In Italy there, are almost none; other rendezvous are efficient substitutes, and in Italy there are few vapour-baths of the kinds and sizes so common in other parts of Europe. The vapour-baths of Constantinople, Smyrna and so on have notoriously homosexual aspects.
Uranian Balls Soirées, and Social Meetings.
Nothing is more curious in metropolitan aspects of homosexuality, when its democracy is studied, than the formal entertainments which in cities of size are organized by, Uranians, patronized by Uranians, are for Uranians only; but given under relatively private conditions. They include balls, soirees, masquerades, marriage-ceremonies and the like. In France, Germany, Italy and Austria, before the license of the Carnival's gayeties had declined as now, the homosexual, balls in Berlin and Vienna were sometimes saturnalia of the Intersex-Masculine. They recur as such occasionally. Eccentric, mischievous, or merely effeminate homosexuals, who delight to dress as women, are sometimes of remarkable beauty when in female costume, and sustain the rôle of a coquettish fille de joie with vast success. Hence such assemblies are, or were, natural occasions for most deceptively feminine aspects. Such balls, attended by all grades of homosexuals, were condoned by the police-authorities, as belonging to the season of masquerades; though too many of them became pandemoniums, by "high-jinks" not at all moral, as the hours advanced, they were not until recently so much suppressed. Aside from these large affairs, in Berlin, Munich, Paris and Vienna, each winter there still are notable dances and social gatherings, in which all the guests are homosexual, with a large part of the younger or older guests in female evening-dress. The aristocratic kept-mistress is escorted by "her" lover, or the less favoured male-harlot comes, errant as to luck, but equally elaborate in travesti. In the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen" appear accounts of such reunions. Dr. von Krafft-Ebing's work "Psychopathia Sexualis" cites a ball that occurred in Berlin, in what Berlin homosexuals sometimes style "the good old days" of such gallimaufries, back in February, 1884. The report of a ball given October, 1889, in the Hotel "König von Portugal" Berlin, is extant as follows (in part) in the Berlin "Morgen-Post".
…" The gentlemen who take the place of ladles are mostly young men, from twenty to twenty-five years old. They poise themselves with feminine, grace on their hips, in walking about; scatter their, coquettish glances right and left; and when fatigued with dancing fan themselves with their lace-handkerchiefs. But an hour, later the company has quite another aspect, because of the advent of its—"ladies" is here written but "gentlemen" is meant,—in ladies costumes, duly accompanied by male escorts in evening-dress. These newcomers conduct themselves exactly as would their really feminine colleagues at a dance—with decorum, style, and the effort at being 'charming." The so-called "Baby" (really a young fellow) halts in embarrassment at the door of the hall, in spite of the encouragement of his escort, an elderly gentleman of distinguished appearance, whom one easily recognizes as an ex-officer of the army … Tripping in with downcast eyes, quite as a young girl going to her first, ball, comes forward the "belle" of the evening, at once surrounded by an assortment of cavaliers who pay "her" the most flattering compliments. Much more self-conscious is yonder elegant, almost queenly, apparition in black silk décolletée, with a Rembrandt hat on "her" curling blond wig. "That is the "Baroness", remarked a gentleman sitting at my table. Under that name, in fact, is styled a well-known young actor of the city, who as—lover—on the stage fascinates all girl-patrons of the theater employing him. In a simple but "Parisian-chic" style are arrayed two other "ladies". They understand also how to keep their admirers at a distance … A Paris-' like coquette, but tall as a grenadier, enters the dance, amid a general acclaim from the guests. This is the so-called "Handsome Emily" (in real life a barber of Berlin named Emil F.) who throws himself, smiling into the arms of a graceful young partner; and so begins a bacchanal galop through the hall …"
The same reporter described how, toward two o'clock in the morning, this remarkable exhibition of uranianism reached its climax, with the advent to the ball of representatives of the real feminine demi-monde, in a high state of curiosity and rivalry. ("Jahrbuch für Sexuelle-Zwischenstufen," for 1900, page 470.)
The preference for dressing like a woman, even to feeling oneself at ease only in woman's dress, has been a perennial trait of effeminate Uranians; sometimes of "Uranians not otherwise effeminate. Heliogabalus, Philippe d'Orléans and Henri III, are aristocratic examples. It is a common artifice of male prostitutes, and of the homosexual who finds fun in adventures in such costume. Here is an English example in prostitution from a contemporary London police-blotter:—
"Much attention was stirred up today we are informed, in the Clerkenwell Criminal Court, over, the examination of a young man who appeared in the dock as an elegantly attired—lady. He wore an irreproachably-fitting black walking-costume of the newest fashion, made to order, a gray feather 'boa', and a coquettish sailor-hat of fine felt. His hands were covered with ladies's gloves in pearl-grey, and he carried a handsome muff. According to his responses to, the Court, the defendant had been until recently a domestic servant in a family of distinction in G— street. Having been discharged he had appeared in Euston Road in this array, and had attracted the notice of the passers-by. A member of the detective-police of the city has been for some time "looking after" the fellow, and on the evening in question the latter approached him and accosted him. To his disagreable surprise, he was promptly arrested for a misdemeanour. He resisted the arrest, in great indignation, declaring to the officer "You wretch! I am a lady!" As the officer did not regard this statement, the complainant gave him a violent blow in. the face; and a fierce battle began at once, in which the "lady" bit the officer's finger! With the assistance of other policemen, he was overpowered and brought, struggling, biting, scratching, and spitting, to the police-station. He was sentenced to three months imprisonment for wearing female attire, and to three months more for resisting arrest."
The following item from a Paris journal, of December 9. 1908, is of the same category; the device being invariable among a certain category of French and German male prostitutes whose physique admits of such a trick:
"During some weeks the police of the flying squadron in charge of the Champs-Elysées quarter have been interested in the odd behaviour of an elegant young street-walker, in costly clothing and ornaments, who has been seen each evening strolling around the approaches to the Grand Palais des Beaux Arts, a quarter where overt racolage is not favoured. The young woman seemed very willing to be conducted by belated men into deserted thickets and alleys. Yesterday morning an officer happened to see her going into a house in the Rue Geoffry-Angevin. On inquiry, they learned, to their surprise, that the "lady" was a young man named Frederic B—, thirty years old, a German by nationality and of effeminate type, who more or less as 'professional' always went about at night in female dress,' and thus satisfied—equivocal passions. He was arrested last night when in a most compromising situation with a 'client', and was locked up with his partner, for scandalous behavious in a public place. Some of the most worst of our dangerous class of criminals are caught disguised in the same way."
The reader will find elsewhere references to this sort of masquerade by the bas-fonds of homosexuality in many cities. There are numerous instances in Berlin and London police-records each year.
Such renegade intersexuals remind one of the reply of a tall, bronzed valet to an American lady, awhile ago in a Cairo hotel, where there were no female servants. "But I rang for a chambermaid," she said in some embarrassment. The young man bowed respectfully and gravely answered, "Madame, I am she."
Here is another example of the "womens'-clothing" passion, in a homosexual of rather superior social grade. A German newspaper offers it:
"Baron Friedrich-Wilhelm de C—, a resident of this city, was arrested at the railway-station yesterday, on a charge of a criminal act, set forth on a requisition from Dresden. Among his "peculiarities", Baron C— is accustomed, when at his home, to wear female clothing almost exclusively. For rich gems, jewellery, perfumes, etc., he has been for a long time a lavish spender of money. His family-connection is an old and very aristocratic one in France, and the Baron himself is a person of superior education and breeding."
An amusing case, similar to the "Lillian Carver" one cited, occurred not long ago, where a young man disguised himself with perfect success as a young woman; for some six weeks filling a position as book-keeper in a factory in Allenstein, Germany. It originated in a bet. The young gentleman soon was surrounded by male adorers, being of exceptional elegance and beauty in his travesti. The surprise of his employer can be imagined when, on entering the bedroom of "Fräulein Louise" one morning, he found there, only a wonderfully good-looking, rosy youth of faultless masculinity, clad in a top-hat and handsome morning suit, pipe in hand, who smilingly greeted his employer—"Awfully sorry to give you inconvenience, but from to-day I am a man—again!" With which adieu "Fräulein Louise" betook herself to the railway-station, leaving half-a-dozen wounded hearts.
Two curious cases of the passion for women-attire, on the part of adult homosexuals, appear in Augustus of Saxe-Gotha (1772-1822) who lived much of his private life in gowns, laces, and jewels; received guests in them; had himself painted as a woman by portraitists of his capital and by foreign artists (the Duke's feminine beauty quite justifying such records ) and on his death left millions of money in debts—and enormous masses of women's habiliments, women's jewellery and women's wigs. This sovereign, a wit and satirist, was perhaps the first of aristocratic German homosexual authours in belles-lettres; by his novels "The Kyllenion: or A Year in Arcadia" and the "Emilienne Lettres". In his correspondence he wrote that he "never felt so strong, so well, as when he could get rid of all his masculine vestments of a forced virility". Napoleon found him brilliantly clever. Goethe spoke—though without criticism—of the Duke's open effeminacies. To a quite similar type, Adolphe-Friedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg (1753-1794) who also constantly affected feminine gear and ways, reference was made earlier here.
Curious Histor- ical Example of Travesty of Sex: "Jenny Savalette".
In the first volume of the series "Vieilles Maisons, Vieux Papiers" by Georges Lenotre (the eminent chronicler of so many little-known personalities of the French Revolutionary period) occurs a careful study of the pretended "Mademoiselle Jenny Savalette de Langes," who was really of male physique, and who had an eventful and discreditable history at her back before "she" began an extraordinary imposition of feminism, upon a wide circle of distinguished and humble friends; until "her" death (in 1858) at Versailles. "She" received large pensions and was greatly esteemed, during a long career, as the "daughter" of a noted émigré, who had served the Artois family before the Revolution. One odd explanation of such proceedings makes "Mademoiselle Savalette de Langes," a certain "B—," who forced a lady of high title to aid in such a long concealment of sex. The affair is, however, not at all clear to-day, and is not likely to be so. A colouring of homosexualism seems part of it, in view of "Mademoiselle Jenny's" love-affairs with an official of the Assistance Publique; as also_with an officer named Lacipière. "B—" (if such the man was) sustained his rôle with absolute success. Not until his death was his sex disclosed; a revelation that was at first discredited everywhere he had lived.
An American example of such masquerade, a military officer in active service, came several years ago in the person of Commander James R—, of Missouri. In 'hours of ease' he dressed as a lady, and at large expense. His feminine wardrobe was complete and fashionable. The writer of these pages knows an English colonel (a capital soldier, a firm disciplinarian and drill-master withal) who has the same eccentricity, and in most private circumstances can be seen as a majestic—dowager! A peculiarly noteworthy instance of this sartorial weakness, can be read in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen" Vol. II; p. 332; an autobiographic statement written with queer naïveté. In that case the similisexual impulse is not apparent.
Degenerate Tendencies in Youthful Homo- sexuals: Disguis- ing as Girls at Dances, etc.
A young Uranian's adaptability to female dress jg sometimes wonderfully complete. In course or Ulrich's rambling but valuable diagnostics of Uranian types he gives the following autobiographic. account of two such young homosexuals of Vienna. They belonged to thoroughly respectable social life, and were dissociated from venal similisexuality:
"When I was seventeen, I had a friend of twenty, like myself a distinctively feminine Urning. We two used to help my sisters for hours at a time, in making their finery. Since we both had good taste in such toilette-matters, we were welcomed. If the girls' new clothes were very successful in their working-out, we two used to ask to try them on ourselves, which doings were the pleasure of everybody. But I knew better than anybody could suppose how to deport myself in such feminine costumes. I knew how to wear a train with such majesty and grace, and so to wield my umbrella or fan, that often my mother was sorry that I was not a daughter!
"But the desire awoke in my friend and me to show ourselves publicly in woman's dresses and to attract notice of men, as girls. So we decided to make a visit to one of the regular "Universum" dance-evenings; in company with a couple of our lovers; our escorts of course in male attire. We thought out how to manage the trick, and knew how to arrange it so that an old aunt in the family invited our parents and sisters, one Sunday, to drink coffee. We took our sister's maid into our confidence, and she promised to adjust our coiffures for us ……
At last the family-party went off, and we could "get ready" undisturbed. We locked every door, opened every wardrobe. Gowns, underwear, shawls, shoes, garters—we rummaged till we had picked out the very handsomest. Ah, what delight it was to make ourselves so fine! What a pleasure when the very maid herself was perfectly fascinated with our looks! Then we heard the carriage. Our escorts had come to take us. They were simply amazed at our brilliant exteriors, but still more at the ease and elegance with which we wore our costumes. We stepped into that carriage like a regular pair of princesses."
"We arrived at the "Universum' dance. The music sounded out towards our approaching feet. We jumped out like two young roes. We made our progress through the ranks of the ball-guests, on the arms of our cavaliers. ( As a fact, our toilettes were much too fine for any "Universum" ball.) We took our seats. Therewith up came a robust, handsome man to me, and asked me with a questioning look "May I have the pleasure, Fräulein?" Scarcely had one such dancer broken the ice, than two or three others put their names down. We simply revelled in our delight at the success of our scheme. Meantime we had lost both of our escorts! But instead of them, we had two capital partners, who asked us to supper, and as both were handsome fellows, we consented.
"The two of them took us for young demi-mondaines. Our conversations with them gradually became more confidential; and we grew very coquettish, of course, when they asked us to go to a. hotel with them—for the night. We did everything possible to get out of that scrape, but nothing was effective: We had to get into a carriage with them! Almost fainting in terror, we fairly got to the hotel. Now, now, must our secret be unmasked! We were swindlers, and had played our parts with a most thorough intention. When finally, we were really in a room in that hotel, my friend began to cry,—I threw myself on my knees before our new acquaintances. I begged forgiveness for our naughty joke. I confessed that we were not girls, at all! I begged the gentlemen to let us go home. Confounded, the two men looked at each other. Then, at last, they declared, up and down, that—it was all the same thing to them—stay We simply must. And we did so—and we went back to my home the next morning, a where regular "scene" of course was waiting for us!"
The same amazingly enterprising young specimens of Uranian effeminacy in course of their shining careers in Vienna, used to seek diversion in much lower planes of non-Uranistic society. Here is another chapter:
"… After this, we two used to frequent the smartest balls, and that without a man ever recognizing our sex, in our rich costumes … But once on a time there was a Coachman's Ball, in one of the Viennese suburbs. Among the Viennese hack-drivers are good-looking, lively fellows. They like to have a jolly girl at supper with them. Now the laundry-girls also go to those coachmen's balls, absurdly dressed-up, though frequently such girls are real beauties. So we put on four to six rows of underskirts … red-flowered gowns, tight satin bodices to make our waists small, dressed our hair in the correct scalloppy sort of way, tied on screaming orange-yellow head-kerchiefs, painted our faces with rouge and white—and you had in us a pair of laundry-maids handsome enough for an artist's eye! Into the ball we marched, two laundry-girls without escorts! The women present all pulled us to bits with their eyes, angrily. But the men broke out into a general buzz of admiration. They got up on the, tables while wo sat down—just to get a good look at the "two pretty washers". They stared as if we had been wild animals, at a show. The real girls grew angrier and angrier. Then a couple of handsomely dressed younS men came to our table, and began to chaff with us. (Such fellows of better sort often appear in these popular balls as spectators.) This provoked the hackmen. A lively, handsome black-eyed chap drew near. "Well, my yellow-kerchiefed darling!" he said to me, "would you favour me?" So up I got to dance, gave my skirts a shake, and put my hand in his. I noticed that everybody was again getting up on the tables to watch. The band played a polka-mazurka, at that time a dance in which few were practised. My young man and I hardly had danced down that hall once, when a regular storm of applause came,-just as in a theater. So the ice was really broken. The young women ground their teeth, in their jealous anger. But the young fellows just swarmed after us! We were victors!"
"And my friend and I knew how to chaff the men in a way not to be beaten. When, toward midnight, we and our two hackmen began to sing "Jodel" songs, with a zither-accompaniment, in our artificial soprano and alto, there was no end of a jollification. The fellows kissed us to their very heart's content, treated us to refreshments, were delighted if we would sit in their laps. One wished to buy me a splendid shawl … another made me a serious proposal. I do not understand now how we could carry the affair so far, in some details. For instance, as the better sort of the male guests and the hackmen pressed around us, we called out, "Well—who sets up the champagne for us?"—at which the gentlemen and the commoner guests fairly scuffled over us! We were indeed just in our element! And we often repeated this sort of an adventure, and not only we two but many of the "sisters" …
To find a more predisposed instance of sexualism and effeminacy in a Uranian type would be hard, outside of the regiment of venal homosexual prostitution.
Marriages Between Uranians.
Formal uranian marriage-ceremonies are not Uncommon among Uranian lovers. Nor are many such marriages at all foreign to psychology of homosexual passion. Among Uranians is likely to be sought a serious quality in some of their connections. Fortunate enough to possess bodily, as well as psychically, the man they love, the youth that they desire—so comes the wish to make the tie solemn. Such earnestly-meant ceremonies are offset by others for the sake of mere eccentricity, sensation, caricature, costly homage, and notoriety. Intersexual marriages vary in their felicity as do normal marriages. Sometimes they appear to be merely deep friendships between two men, living together in city or country;'but really represent formal homosexual matrimony, ceremonial union, with or without witnesses. Especially are such relations of interest (and frequently most happy, at least for a time) when some young Dionysian-Uranian is the "wife" of an older Uranian, both being refined natures and constant—the latter trait being rare.
The celebration of Uranian marriages, whether lightly or seriously made, are sometimes luxuriously 'smart,' with a considerable company of guests. In Carlier's work "Les Deux Prostitutions" (a book of value to those interested in the underworld of French homosexualism, though written with no reference to a correct scientific theory of homosexualism) will be found some anecdotes of these homosexual uranian weddings. Here is such a matter, a Berlin affair, from a German newspaper, some years ago:
"A young and wealthy American named R— W— was lately arrested here in Berlin. As to the grounds of this arrest the following. In the middle of last December, appeared in a well-known hotel in the Moabit quarter, three gentlemen, who asked the proprietor of the house if he could hire-out his assembly-rooms for a wedding. on the 20th of this month. Receiving an assent, they hired the rooms, and by the 18th had prepared a regular chapel out of the hall, with elegant furniture, a portable altar and numerous expensive floral decorations. But on the evening of the day for the "wedding", when the guests were due, the police informed the horrified proprietor that the "bride" was to be the aforesaid young man, R— W—, masquerading as a young woman. The police however did not prohibit the proceedings, there being then no formal ground for that step. In course of the evening, carriages began to roll up to the rooms; setting down, especially, numerous handsomely dressed "ladies" (who proved later to be all of male sex) in rich feminine costumes, worn with perfect ease and deceptiveness. Other carriages presently brought the "clergyman" who was to perform the ceremony (he is a certain Dr. S—) and the "bridegroom", who is an ex-Uhlan officer named D— L—, and his "bride", the above-mentioned R— W—. The latter was a strikingly handsome young partner indeed, in full white satin toilette, with wreath, veil and bouquet of orange-blossoms. Unluckily the complete progress of the programme—an actual parody of a religious service which would be a criminal offence—could not occur, as the presence of the detectives was gradually known; and so the evening offered merely a dance and a costly supper. These festivities were prolonged till a late hour, whereupon the company of gentlemen and "ladies" and the fair "bride" and her groom dispersed with much gayety, but with entire decorum. Nevertheless it has been found needful to enter special charges against the American originator of the proceedings; who, by the by, looks completely a handsome, manly young fellow in his male attire, and has worn a fine moustache, which he sacrificed to the solemn occasion described."
Possibly the famous marriages of the Emperor Nero with his favourites Sporus and Doryphorus, extravagantly costly solemnities that scandalized Rome, meant not so much a sacrilegious orgie as Nero's vivid idealism and his intersexual enthusiasm. Toward Sporus, Nero appears to have been, the "activist"—the husband; to Doryphorus the Emperor was obviously "passivist", considering himself the wife. The femininized boy, Sporus, loved Nero to his last hour. The late Ludwig II of Bavaria, in the long line of his homosexual escapades, was with difficulty prevented, toward the end of his melancholy career, from solemnizing a marriage with another similisexual. He planned a sumptuous private ceremony, in the seclusion of one of his costly retreats. The certainty of such proceedings being known checked them abruptly.
In the foregoing summary of marriages and Uranianism, of course we are not touching on normal wedlock for homosexual men who are seeking sexual relief, if possible a "cure" for their nature. Another chapter of our study presents that grave subject by itself. Some unfavourable aspects of it have already been indicated.
In reviewing so far homosexual prostitution, uranian decadents, the similisexual as déclassé, we have not yet descended to the many strata of its robust criminality. Just as in the feminine harlotry, we mnst penetrate to darker, profounder levels; to a brutally vicious male similisexuality. We have traversed only those clearer avenues out of which open truly infernal alleys.
Penal Servitude, Jail-life and Homosexualism.
In prisons occurs much similisexual prostitution, difficult as may appear the opportunities. Such intercourse is however relatively facile, especially if two men must be confined in one cell. A warder of an Italian prison, and a high official in a large French prison, alike admitted to the writer that homosexual intercourse between male prisoners is taken for granted, and even accepted as a necessity. Of course external decencies of prison-discipline must not be affronted. In the maritime prison of Cherbourg occurred in August, 1908, a great scandal because of homosexualism rampant among the prisoners and jailers. According to an official conclusion published in the daily papers … "Homosexualism goes on every hour of the day in the prison, not only with the knowledge but full connivance of the guardians, and in a most open manner. Men and boys are to be observed mutually practising pederasty—with scarcely any concealment. All new-comers are subjected to an examination as to their physique and tastes, and young sailors are forcibly violated." One young man named Brisset, from the "Valmy" was. obliged to submit his person to the embraces of a roomful of men, and was also épilé by singeing his sexual parts.
In centers of Convict-life in colonies—New Guiana, Siberia, Algeria and other stations, the same undercurrent is incessant. Criminal psychologists have written of this penal inconsistency. Terrible dramas of sexual love and jealousy are met in the criminal settlements of Bussia and France. In the certain of the British penal colonies, now abolished, the story was similar.
Topographical Distribution of Homosexual Prostitution.
The non-military male-prostitute (still differentiating him from the soldier-prostitute) is as legion in countries of South America, Eastern Asia, Africa, and Central and Southern Europe, whether there exists or not special legislation against man-to-man sexualism. The larger the city, of course the more the profession is overt. An evening walk in the streets near large hotels, a stroll in frequented arcades, parks, plazas, is prodigal in all familiar aspects. St. Petersburg, Moskow, London, Amsterdam, Brussels, Paris, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Stockholm, Hamburg, Berlin, Breslau, Munich, Madrid, Vienna, Lisbon, Budapest, Belgrad, Sofia, Constantinople, Florence, Rome, Naples, Palermo, Milan, Turin, Venice, Geneva, Zurich—are notably such foyers. So are scores of Kurorte; of other summer or winter places of fashionable resort. Dozens of large commercial towns (particularly in Germany and Austria) not national capitals but places of large movement, frequented by foreigners, are in the category. Particularly wherever on the Continent the English and American travellers converge, the prostitute finds it to his account to go. Since the English occupation of Egypt, Cairo and some other tourist-centers have a representation of male prostitutes of all races. In Lisbon, until within a few years, male "houses" were quasi tolerated as a local expedient. In Italy, the German is recognizedly a special patron of boy-prostitutes, at all rendezvous.
Uranianism in the Moral Degenerate as united to the Thief, Bully, De- coy, Murderer, etc.
The league is eternal between female prostitution and worse criminality; including crimes of personal violence. Just so is it a part of male harlotry, though it has not such wide opportunity. It makes up in quality for what it lacks in quantity. It is always, inevitably, in touch with the thief, pickpocket swindler, bully, blackmailer, and murderer, according to chance and individual. The uranian prostitute is often debilitated in body and timorous, compared with the heterosexual. But frequently he wrangles, hectors, blusters, maltreats, murders, if a fit subject be in his power; in his anger or cupidity. A vast proportion of Uranians who patronize masculine prostitutes are not athletic and not stout-hearted. They are aware that they are contravening the laws, in many countries where similisexuals are enormously numerous, with male whoredom a vast social class. Uranian strangers, in a town where they are looking for sexual adventures, are likely to carry considerable sums. Such travellers are often foolish in confidences, unprepared for being victimized. Even if the treacherous catamite be timid, or a weakling, he is likely to have close at hand a robust partner to use immediate violence, as a wind-up to a sexual episode. In Berlin, Paris, Naples, and so on, effeminately attractive he-prostitutes often have their "ponces", their souteneurs, in call; as do she-prostitutes. This muscular aid de-camp is quick to make the most of a "row". The small-boy prostitute, in Germany or France, almost always "works" under the protection of a stout exploiter, who does not baulk at knocking down, or plundering, or killing—or all three. Mysterious crimes, unexplained disappearances, are part of this record. Of such extremes another word, presently. Before it, let us consider that redoubtable phase of debased and criminal-minded homosexualism, known as the "chanteur", the "Preller" the "Erpresser", and by many other terms summed up in the formidable English one—"blackmailer."
The Blackmailer, and Blackmail.
Blackmailer!—the blackmailed!—tyrant and writhing victim! In all sorts of relations where human rashness, passion, folly, weakness, carelessness, sordid mercenariness or vengeance attack the individual, we meet this dark process. But nowhere else does blackmail operate with such terrible alertness as in the uranian world. We have reserved it as the concluding portion of this survey of homosexual decadence and criminality, because of its all-important bearings on the social and legal status of the uranian intersex in so many contemporary civilizations.
Prevision of Blackmailer under Some Extane of Ethics in Uranians.
When the Code-Napoléon was evolved by France, with the Revolutionary instincts strong as to each question of individual rights, the French opposition to including references to homosexuality, if not in outrage against public good morals and innocent youth, was especially because of the dangers of increasing crime by such a paragraph; of causing scandals of uselessly humiliating social sort; of prompting espionage in private life—all recognized evils. The Napoleonic and the Post-Revolutionary legal mind stood, out against it; along with other deterrents. Before the consolidation of the present General Code for Imperial Germany, crimes, menaces and scandals referring to homosexual incidents were met mostly in those parts of Germany where the older law-systems existed. One might almost say that compared with the shocking frequency of blackmailings and murders to-day in the Reich, they "did not exist", until the present "Paragraph 175" became the law of the land. When this same paragraph was discussed, with the unification of German laws, such eminent jurists, working at the Code, as Virchow, Hofmann and Langenbeck most positively opposed such a law as a mischievous, socially pernicious paragraph. The sentiment of distinguished criminalists, of police-judges, of Councils of Public Hygiene and Safety, have since then urged its removal, as in every interest a law desirable to be dropped. But, so far, such opinions, not to mention the general petitionary movements against the paragraph in Germany, have been vain.
Blackmail is of course of the essence of espionage; of vicious leverage against the individual's peace, against his social protection. It is often the most impudent of attacks. For success it requires some cleverness, some moral (or immoral} boldness, and not seldom physical courage; especially if the blackmailer must arrive at not only extortion but at robbery and murder, as finale. It is the constant resource—the sharp Sword of Damocles that the average homosexual prostitute points against his client, wherever the country's laws invite it. No arm is so powerful—so silent, so safe. No female blackmailer, however audacious and cruel, ever has shown herself quite so torturing in shattering nerves, happiness, fortune, courage, social quietude and life as has the methodical, homosexual, blackmailing demon proved himself, time and again, the world round.
Homosexual Blackmail Social Mysteries.
The police-annals of all countries witness these melancholy episodes. Broken careers, shipwrecked lives, disappearances, interrupted marriages, inexplicable money-embarrassments, murders, suicides by hundreds are to be so explained. The incessant examples of "unaccountable affairs" too often mean that some intersexual victim, persecuted by a grasping enemy, threatened with exposure as an Uranian, can hold out no longer. Perhaps early in the attack he has seen no way out. Suicide especially will cheat the blackmailer of his blood-tax, or hide from the world the motive to drive the unfortunate into the tomb. Or else murder will be a deliverance, and flight a hope.
Social Prejudice in Law-Codes as the Great Props of Blackmailing.
In blackmailing homosexuality at present, and Law-Codes the blackmailer, in too many countries, has not only social disgrace as his basis of attack on some victim whose, secret is known to the rascal. To a certain extent this powerful appui is at his service, without regard to actual legislation. He uses then the arm of only social scandal. But very widely in Europe, the blackmailer has now in his power not merely a man that will be thought disgraced, depraved; for in Great Britain and its Colonies, in Germany, in the United States of America, in the Austria-Hungary States, in the Scandinavian Monarchies, in some parts of the Swiss Confederation, and under certain circumstances or pretexts even in France, Italy, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Belgium Holland, Luxemburg and other tolerant lands, the victim—as shown early in this book—is a felon. Subject to more or less severe State-laws, he is amenable to penitentiary and jail, liable sometimes to terms of long imprisonment for even such least, nominal offense. We have indicated (in the Fourth Chapter of this book) details of most of the Statutory Codes as to homosexual offenses. Legislation is blameless in protecting innocent youth from debauchery, in punishing homosexual rape, in opposing public indecencies. But the law under the present ignorant, unscientific, Jewish-Christian basis, is too often a lamentable injury and menace to the best elements of society. The blackmailer has only to make a victim believe that a charge of "unnatural vice" will be his inevitable public infamy; as too often it really is. The homosexual so blackmailed melts like wax, in his terror of disgrace or a prison-cell.
Occasionally the blackmailer has hot been the direct particeps criminis, but, has merely got second-hand possession of facts. Occasionally there has been no felony committed. The ignorant, trembling victim is made to think so. In any case, either by the cynical prostitute himself or by an accomplice, the screw is turned. Much male prostitution is solely for an opening for blackmail. By demands for greater or smaller sums of money, threats, terrorizing letters or visits, week by week, month by month, year by year, can be applied the outrageous art of "bleeding" the victim. Sometimes the extortioner is skilful enough to avoid disclosing in his procedures exactly what was the fact to give him such a hold on the victim. The latter knows it; that is enough. Generally the extortioner has some sort of evidence in hand; a note, personal possessions stolen from the victim; or has ready the assertions of third parties, with true or false witness.
Prevalence of Homosexual Blackmail.
Aspects of such blackmail, whether by some single enemy or a league of rascals, whether successful for a week or a lifetime, are continually functional in social life. Of course they are undercurrents of misery frequently masked, first and last. Many intersexuals thus victimized are Uranians of blameless moral, social and religious life and instincts. They can be royal princes or humble citizens. We realize how general a population of the homosexual world in Europe are such social and legal victims, by incessant episodes that find outlets to publicity.
The Technique of Blackmail.
As to the technique of blackmail, its systems are much alike the world over. Differences in legal Codes and in social sentiments of different countries have much to do with it. In North America and in Great Britain any sort of sexual intimacy between men, or between men and youth, is severely punished, and socially is a horror; without much regard to circumstances, age, innocence or un-innocence of either party. Hence the blackmailer has an especially fine field. In France, Holland, Italy, Spain and various other countries; law-questions (as we have seen) dull the blackmailer's sword, unless his victim is ignorant or weak-spirited. But even in Codes that do not recognize mature, voluntary and private homosexuality as a crime, a rascal can bleed and fleece many a trembling lamb. In Germany and Austria-Hungary, the activities of the blackmailer are vigorous and tragic. The Germanic races are especially homosexual; and their General Codes and religious-social feelings are formidable against any homosexualism. Judges and juries must do their legal duty. True, enlightened sentiment in Germany and Austria-Hungary strongly favours dismissing punishment for homosexualism, except under circumstances similar to provisions of adverse Napoleonic Codes. But meantime Germanic Europe is a prolific territory for the blackmailer.
Terminology in blackmailing is so large that it needs a dictionary. In France the blackmailer is called a "chanteur", his methods "chantage"—now international words—and a melancholy tune it is that the victim "sings"! In Italian, the same terms are translated, or called "estorsione", though Italy happily knows little of them very cruelest art. In German-speaking countries blackmail is "Rupferei", "Erpressung" and so on, in common nonprofessional comment.
The Audacity and Success of Black- mailers: Large and Successful Demands Frequent.
In cities like Hamburg, Berlin, Paris, Vienna, sometimes operate regularly organized cliques of rascals; either similisexual prostitutes, or in touch with such. These lay traps for the homosexual, concoct plans for terrifying him, and live by such industry. The demands on the victim are large or small, repeated or not, according to his social station, to his estate, to skill in keeping him in postal-distance or interview-distance; and to success in frightening him into continued yielding. It may seem incredible, but instances are not rare in which bank-accounts of large size, fortunes and estates, have dribbled away by "bleeding" a victim. Thousands of pounds,francs, marks, florins, dollars, have passed into a blackmailer's pockets, when a fly of the right sort is in this spiderweb. The victim sometimes can escape soon, by luck or pluck. But this is not the rule, one fears. Over and over, too, we hear that a secret which destroys a victim's estate or life has been disposed of to some "pal" of the original "Erpresser", and is to be "worked" further; with new devices of villainy.
What Can the Victim Do to Escape?.
What can the average victim do to escape? Despairing, fearing social disgrace and a prison's cell, perhaps already mulcted for more money than he can afford and dreading the next demand—how can he win out? Possibly a single hour, nay, a few minutes of homosexual passion, or even no approach to it at all, will cost his peace of mind, his income, his home, his future! The blackmailer, who seemed so friendly an uranian type, has plundered him; has exiled him, if the unfortunate man is able to fly; or flight has been impossible or a vain expedient. Few Uranians, in the hundred can afford to fly from the legal or social zone of their persecutor. The blackmailed may be married, a father of a family, at the head of a business that is his all; or otherwise not free-footed.
The attacked can (and he should) courageously seek the police-authorities, to reveal the situation. At the price of more or less suspicion on himself, perhaps of his semi-confession, he can have his tormentor arrested and nearly always fully punished. Blackmailing is per se, an offence of which modern Codes take severe notice. That is the best rescue, the safest escape, the only legal method, coûte que coûte! Unluckily the victim has not always the knowledge, the courage, or evidence enough for this heroic stand. So he submits. Sometimes he resolves to kill the blackmailer. He often has done so, and has suffered death for it. But, as last and too-usual resort of the victim in half of Europe (particularly in Germanic Europe and often in America) he "gets out of it all" by—suicide. The motive of his self-murder may transpire; but usually it does not. At least, it escapes general notice. Like Sir Peter Teazle, he must go away leaving his character behind him. But the blackmailer's visits, or letters, cannot often follow him into the tomb.
Instance of Systematic Blackmail.
Some examples of this dastardly art. and of the misery it causes, follow here. They are only a few of such.
The following details, in a long autobiographic narrative from a German victim, are given in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen," for the year 1900, under the signature "Max Kalte"—a pseudonym. It shows the effects of a blackmailer's operations on a man of high education and excellent social position, but of timid temper—betrayed by sexual accident. After describing how he had been obliged to break off an intimacy with a friend of his own class and type, because the latter could not satisfy high psychic ideals, the history continues thus:
"… I was again orphaned. And yet, after all the deceptions which I had passed through, my heart demanded love ever more ardently, wished to be surrendered to some noble-minded human being, who would understand me—my psychical side as well as my intellectual aspirations. But before I found any such person, I had an experience worse than any one. before it. For—I fell into the hands of a blackmailer of a type that I had never known anything about, and who could hardly have been more abominable and dangerous than lie was."
"At a social gathering, in the organization which I have mentioned, one evening when a theatrical performance was given, I met a young assistant in a friseur's shop, with whom I arranged a "meeting" for the following day. I admit that it was not the right sort of thing to do. But what do the heterosexual men do? Do they not often make acquaintances with girls with whom they are willing to keep up very intimate relations without being willing to marry them? My inner self was solitary and lonely, and sought some mere substitute for the sort of love really longed-for … When next day we were together, I recognized by all the outward traits of my new companion that he was not suited for me. He was trivial and lacking in conscience, as was plain from what he himself told me of his former relations, with a tailor whom he had known. We talked of another meeting, but I wrote him and broke the appointment. Thereupon the young man tried to find out my name, condition in life, and place of residence, Which I had not given to him; a thing however he could easily do, by applying to the direction of the social club above mentioned. After that, he came to my rooms, in company with another young man whom he called his brother, but who was not so; and asked me to help him with money, as he had lost his employment. I replied that I could not do so. He answered that he did not intend to be put off in that sort of way: and made a reference to our previous rendezvous. Just at that moment my charwoman came into my room to put it in order, and further dispute was an unpleasing idea to me, so under the pretext that I had to go forth, I left my lodgings; but accompanied by my two companions, with whom I strolled along several streets. I asked the friseur once more what just exactly he wanted; and when I declined again to give him the assistance he desired on any ground of our previous relations, then he declared that if I would not accord him his wishes, he would attack my character socially, and also denounce me to the police as having been guilty of a criminal offence. Therewith I demanded that the companion of the friseur (who up to that minute had not quitted us) should leave us, in as much as I had in any case nothing to do with him and did not know him. He accordingly left us, for awhile—but soon he came back. The friseur then plainly said to me that unless I would give him some money, he would "make a circus" for me, then and there—in the public street. Finally, on my further request, the third party to this dialogue left us again: and then I told the friseur that he had not any right to demand money from me and that his conduct was blackmail. He replied that it might be so or not, that was all one to him: I would be punished as a criminal, if he made revelations, or even if not ( since I insisted that what had passed between us, mutual onanism only, was not criminal) then at least I would be disgraced socially though he could manage to slip out of the affair. So after he had further threatened me thus, I gave him, to get rid of him, five Marks. He said that he must have more, and he followed me along the street, I trying to hurry off, till at last I gave him two Marks more. Then he left me."
"With what emotions I went home, who can guess? It was not the money, but the consciousness of having fallen plump into the hands of a shameless and abandoned creature, and of having had anything to do with him—if only once! Gloomy portents and fears coursed through my mind, and for weeks I went about depressed and dreading to meet my enemy again. And in fact he did not wait two months. The second time, he came with another companion who behaved with unexampled impudence and vulgarity. I shall speak of him as the "Cologner"; for by his accent he was from Cologne. They rang my bell, I opened the door, they fairly squeezed themselves in, with the "Cologner" first. On my asking what they wanted, the friseur answered "Money!" On my replying that I was not in circumstances to give him any, just as I had told him before, then the "Cologner" spoke up: "Oh, that is just all rubbish!" and added a very vulgar accusation. When I repudiated this, earnestly yet calmly, then the friseur remarked that "For all that, it was true!" With this the "Cologner", who from this point monopolized the conversation, declared that it would "be much better for me not to refuse—the friseur wanted to go to Cologne to hunt up a job,—I ought to give him money for the journey—and that then I would not be "bothered" any more. When I continued to refuse, the "Cologner" threatened me with denunciation to the police, through the friseur, and with public disgrace. I returned that they were both guilty of blackmailing, to which the Cologner retorted that while it was true that in case of the denunciation the friseur would be imprisoned, nevertheless the burden of blame would come on me. Would I not therefore better be sensible, and just pay out the money for the journey—twenty-seven-and-a-half Marks?—and that then they would both promise, in writing, to give me no further trouble. The written memorandum was laid readly. Thereupon the "Cologner" demanded fifty Marks, in view of the friseur's living expenses "in the meantime". I consented. With the written promise, which the "Cologner" refused to sign, I paid over the sum mentioned. With that the "Cologner" demanded twenty Marks more, just on his own account! I replied that I owed him nothing; he said that was nonsense, and threatened to make a regular uproar in the house if I would not give him the twenty Marks. So in order to keep such an ugly episode out of the house, I yielded. But as I held my purse in my hand, the "Cologner" said that he "wanted to see how much money there was inside it—he would give me his word of honour not to take anything from it". That I refused, goes unsaid. But he seized it; I held fast. I was now furious; I struggled, with the resolution to make an end of the whole shameful and nerve-shattering business for me. But I hesitated—fear of public disgrace kept me back. The "Cologner" and I had already begun to pull the purse in two between us, and with the second observation from the "Cologner" that he 'would only look inside it', which I did not believe—I let it go. The "Cologner" took out all that was left of larger money—forty Marks. I had been to the bank that day, and had taken out one hundred Marks, for my living expenses, as I keep very little money in my lodgings, living alone as I do. I let the money go. They took themselves off after that. The "Cologner" assured me that that he would never come again, but at the same time he remarked that if I told the police what had happened "something" would "happen" to me!"
"When they were gone, I sank into a chair and burst into tears. Must I have dealings with such base creatures?—I who still felt my heart a-glow with youthful ideals, who felt the breath of that same great love of humanity which Christ so purely and perfectly has embodied? But I collected myself; I hurried in my despair to a confidential heterosexual friend whom I have mentioned, that he might give me sympathy, and calm me. From another quarter, however, that later I decided.to turn to, came the advice to enable me to get rid of the two blackmailers by going to the police and a law-court; or otherwise I would have been simply a permanent victim."
"I took that advice: but not till after two whole months, when the "Cologner", and this time quite by himself, came to my lodgings. Before he opened the door, I had put on the chain. But he put his foot forward so that I could not shut the door after I had recognized him. He also tried to force the door open by throwing himself against it, which he could not succeed in doing as I held myself against it. Three times I ordered him away—he refused, and struck me with his cane as I pushed off his hand—wounding me on the cheek and using the most vulgar language, and uttering fresh threats. As I warned him that I would call the police, he answered that he would rather be arrested than go away. I stepped back from the door quickly, seized a garden-stick, and struck him, through the open door. He sprang back, I shut the door. But he threw himself against it several times, so that I had to press steadily against it to hold it in place. He rang the bell again, demanding entrance, used more abusive language, and finally when he saw that he was not able to succeed in his attack, then he asked for "one Mark",—to go home" … if he did not get that, then he "would charge me before the police with bodily injuries to him." So in order to finish the scene, I threw him the money through the post-slit in the door: and then he really went away." …
After describing his agitation and despair, now meditating suicide as his only relief from above disgrace, the narrator did at last what he ought to have done first. He went to police, disclosed himself as the subject of extortion under threats, and demanded aid. His tormentors were arrested and tried. The "Friseur" received six months imprisonment at hard labour, and the "Cologner" two years. The victim's charge was so managed by the authorities, that he did not incriminate himself. In fact, this accent is manageable in such processes, if the police-justice and jury are intelligent as to the philosophy of homosexualism. Many high germanic authorities, both medical and legal, are so. But this cannot always be depended on. In the foregoing, one must confess that the victim seems very] weak-nerved and feeble-hearted. He should have promptly withstood the impudent friseur. Such rascals are nearly always routed, the moment they meet bold negatives and counter-threats. But many homosexuals are not good at such "bluff."
Other instances of Blackmailing.
Let us review a series of every-day blackmailing histories, drawn from printed reports in various Continental newspapers, especially those of Austria and Germany. The procession is edifying in human suffering. These instances are cited largely from the admirable "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen," so carefully edited by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent consulting psychiater of Berlin:
"A waiter named N— was arrested in Berlin yesterday on account of attempt at blackmail. He beongs to that dangerous class of persons who attach themselves to gentlemen that walk in the Thiergarten, to extort money from such strollers. This particular affair became known to the city-police because of said N—'s conduct in a well-known resort for criminals, where he spoke of having "come into a big legacy" on the night before, A friend of his was "with" an American gentleman in the park named. N— thereupon came to them, declared himself to be a policeman in plain clothes, and threatened to arrest the American gentleman. The American was willing to give over 500 Marks, to get away; but N— and his accomplice were not satisfied, and demanded more. N— wore a badge like that of the criminal police. The victim of the attempt proved to be travelling from Warsaw, and a guest in one of the best hotels in town. N— declared that the stranger had "given him the money," which included Russian and English pieces. He also made the gentleman hand over his ring, etc."
This blackmailer, too, received six months imprisonment. The American accuser was not asked too many pressing questions, luckily for his own case. Again, seriatim:
"By trial before the Criminal Commission, with closed doors, were sentenced yesterday eight young men, on account of an in instance of their habitual blackmailing of strangers in this city, by accusations of offences against the all too-famous law known as "Paragraph 175," of our present Code. The defendants were of various callings, mostly humble ones, and also mostly nominal; for such mischievous rascals can thrive quite too well, by the fear of their victims, to be forced to work for bread. The group included a certain Kubicky, Gebers (a notary's clerk), Gleisberg (a binder) Staupe (a goldbeater)—Hanck, Krall and Paul (waiters in a café) and Schuckhardt, (a cabman). A ninth member of the clique managed to be acquitted for lack of direct evidence. Those named however received sentences ranging from nine months to two years of imprisonment. The matter came to head on the charge of a well-known professor in the University, and of an officer in command of a regiment here. One result only of their proceedings terrified their victim into turning over to them 1000 Marks—at once! Our city is quite too full just now of this class of banditti, who hang about the streets, parks and cafés, well-dressed and friendly, making themselves agreeable to strangers, luring them into "compromising situations" and then—turning on the thumbscrew."
"The case of Captain D. v. Tz—, who is accused of an unnatural offense, under Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code, in company with a certain young barber of the town, was tried yesterday in a private session of the Criminal Court. The only witness against Captain Tz— was the plaintiff, sixteen years of age, who asserted that the defendant had twice misconducted himself with him when alone in the Captain's rooms, where he came to shave him. The Criminal Court acquitted the Captain. The story told seemed to the judges too strongly as a made-up narrative, carefully learned by heart, and in too close likeness to the filed complaint of the young barber. There appeared to be grounds for supposing that the complaint wps all a scheme of blackmail, aided by some outside parties, using the young man as a catspaw."
"A raid on blackmailing gentry of this city was made last night, in the Thiergarten (Berlin) alleys and copses, near the railway-station, on the part of the local police of Charlottenburg. Repeatedly has it been stated lately that unknown persons attack masculine visitors to the gardens with accusations of immoral offences of a special sort, and have done so by pretending themselves to be secret-police on duty, who will let the victims off—if money be forthcoming! In once instance lately, a large sum was handed over. Three individuals were captured on this kind of charge They were the brothers G— of Charlottenburg, and they are now in the hands of the authorities."
"As we reported yesterday, two non-commissioned officers of the—Cuirassier Guards, named Ebert and Rother, have been put under arrest on account of what seems to be a disgraceful case of conspiracy toward blackmail; both being also, it is thought, concerned in a previous case of the same sort. The facts as to the present charge are these. The accused, on April 14, made their appearance in the apartments of a very distinguished gentleman of this city, a member; of the higher aristocracy, and after charging him with an unnatural offence according to the text of Paragraph 175, they demanded several hundred marks as hush-money. The victim, much terrified, yielded to the demand; but having less than the sum exacted at hand, he asked the two rascals to wait till he could obtain it from a friend. In his absence, the two accused parties drank his liqueurs, became very noisy and violent, smashed mirrors, glass and porcelain in his dining-room, cut pictures out of the frames, and otherwise played the ruffian. Their victim returned and gave them the sum agreed on. A week later they wrote him, demanding a larger amount, and saying that if it were not forthcoming he would receive "another call" which "would not leave a chair on its legs." The intervention of the police being asked, the matter is now in the hands of the military court concerned."
These audacious rascals were imprisoned and degraded from their military service. Their case is interesting (and admonitory) to stratophilic homosexuals, as an example of blackmailing by soldiers. Within a few years, this sort of trouble, once uncommon, for civilians has perceptibly increased in frequency.
Here is an example of how can be utilized a bit of family-history; or its counterfeit:
"A bold attempt at extortion of money by blackmail was made lately against Herr G— a merchant, over in K— strasse. A young man came into his shop and handed over a letter, the contents of of which made Herr G— not a little angry. The writer (who feigned himself 'N. N.') informed Herr G— that his father-in-law had committed a certain sort of criminal act. Unless Herr G— would send at once 300 Marks, then the writer of the letter would immediately communicate the affair to a newspaper, with the full name of the gentleman, and all details needed to bring the affair to publicity. But Herr G— did not fall into so clumsy a plot. As 'N. N.' was to wait near by, in the street, for a reply to the letter, Herr G— accompanied the bearer of this precious communication out to K— strasse, to meet 'N. N.'. The latter was not to be found. But tho next day the same sort of demand was made in sharper language. This time, Herr G— succeeded in meeting his enemy, and also in having the fellow, a certain Emil W—, taken into custody as a blackmailer. Emil W— is in fact a well-known "operator" of this sort. He was given six months imprisonment, with two years loss of civil rights."
The examples so far selected are taken especially from Germany, because they multiply there and are carefully reported. In England and America there are plenty of current cases, more or less of the same stamp. But in England and America the publication of legal or other proceedings that bear on so-called "unnatural offences" is not encouraged by the press, nor often detailed as in Continental Europe. The squeamishness of the Anglo-Saxon mind as to speaking of homosexuality, the British ignorance of how homosexualism should be regarded and is regarded in other countries, considerably suppress such matter from print; or disguise its nature.
Blackmail Often of Audacity rather than Substance: Perils of Urinals: Instances.
The vulgar blackmailer is not always choice in trying to got hold of compromising facts. Sometimes standing in a public urinal, on an entirely innocent errand, some unlucky visitor is seized by a strong hand—just where he is most open to attack. A rough voice hisses—"Twenty francs, or I call the police!—charge you with indecent conduct in a public latrine! Put the money in my other hand!" The intruder often will have 'adjusted'—or disarranged,—his own apparel in such a way as to suggest that an attack on his person really has been made. The terror-struck stranger pays the tax and flies, glad to escape. This impudent trick is mot especially in France, Italy and Spain, because it implies an action criminal under publicity. In Germanic and English cities it is yet more dangerous. Common, too, is the advent of a feigned policeman, to take the two parties into arrest unless a round bribe be paid over. Foreign loiterers, especially if homosexuals, should avoid public urinals and retired parts of public gardens, when the hour is favourable to this highway-blackmail. (The motto must not be "Siste viator!") Exactly this sort of attack, made on a gentleman in Paris—where it is far from rare—is described in a Paris newspaper, as the writer ends this page. In Germany and Austria-Hungary it is much in vogue among the dregs of male prostitutes and pseudo-prostitutes. In one of Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld's many and valuable local studies, "Berlins Drittes Geschlecht", he cites such a case, in a letter from a provincial official; an elderly man, not in the least homosexual. He was followed in the street one evening, by a young prostitute, demanding money. The inexperienced stranger did the most unwise thing; he turned presently into an urinal, thinking that his whining persecutor would respect privacy, and would quit him. Instead the rascal followed him into the retreat, and stood in the door. When the official was about to come out, the blackmailer—with his dress disordered—stood in front of him, and said If you do not give me sixteen Marks at once, I will have you arested, and get you into prison, for an outrage to public morals in this place with me! So be quick! Out with the money!" The terrified stranger managed to hurry to a cab, in the middle of an increasing street-scandal; fortunately before a policeman appeared to make inquiries. By throwing a piece of gold at the rogue, and by having the coachman start oft at a gallop he succeed in getting away. A similar example was communicated some weeks ago to the present writer. In Rome, in the spring of 1907, a young Englishman, who was homosexual, coming home one evening to his hotel from a music-hall, stopped in a latrine, off the Corso. He was at once followed by a young boy-prostitute, who at once began pestering and disgusting the Englishman by exhibiting himself. Finding that there would not result any tangible consequences, the young rascal accused the Englishman of violating public decency—and with a minor. He would not be shaken off. He ran after the carriage, sprang into it, and only at the door of the traveller's hotel leaped down, and ran away, not daring to face the concierge. The Englishman (who could not speak a word of Italian) was greatly disturbed at the prospect of a scandal. Fortunately there was none.
Another specimen of this kind of vulgar night-assault is as follows. The instance is reported in the Vienna "Neue Freie Presse", for June 14, 1901. It was much talked of in the capital at the time, as can be supposed.
"The secretary of a distinguished person here—the latter being an Archduke—on the night of May 15th, after a late supper, happened to stroll along the edge of the Rathhaus Park. He had been taking considerable beer at the Spatenbrau and in the Café Scheidl. Ho is a man in the thirties. He had wanted a little fresh air, and had been also taking a turn in a cab. At the place named, he alighted and walked along, till he reached a certain urinal. He entered it, and found two young men there, the defendants Karl Horak and Karl Mildner, The statement of the gentleman was this: "When I was leaving the latrine mentioned, one of the two defendants came to me and asked for some money. I would not give him any. Then he accused me of an offense. I said that that was not the fact. He repeated his demands, with the remark that if I would not give him money, then I "could not get away from there so easily." I wished to put an end to the situation; so I put my hand in my pocket and gave him a couple of Kronen.—"You'll have to give us more than that, or we dont let you off! We want a "Tenner"—then we will let you go." I wanted to stop such a scene, so I took out my purse. He seized it out of my hand, (it had some thirty florins in it) and ran off. I wished to pursue him, when the second fellow came up and demanded my watch. Just to get rid of him, I gave it him. I had to borrow money of a café-waiter to get home." …
But this was not the end. Decidedly serious consequences that brought victim and blackmailers in court, were to ensue. These developed as follows:
"In the purse, or card-case, was the visiting-card of the victim, with his name and address, also the coat-of-arms of his royal employer, a photograph of the children of the latter, and other personalia. The two blackmailers actually dared to come to the palace the next day, and asked to speak with the secretary. They were admitted, and demanded two hundred florins hush-money. If they got it, no further "fuss;" if not—a great deal. The noble secretary wisely had them arrested, though he had every reason to dislike any public notice of the adventure. The young men were well-dressed, had a certain degree of education, and one of them was decidedly good-looking. Both were quite of the regular Vienna male prostitute sort—and investigations showed that Horak already had a similar charge of blackmailing, referring to the same locality, against him. The Secretary mentioned that when they threatened him with public proceedings for an offense, he had said "But you will be punished too, if I am;" to which young Horak had coolly replied "That's so! But you will be ruined, and we haven't anything much to lose". Each offender was given eighteen months imprisonment, at hard labour."
The Court conducted the complainant's case carefully. He was not incriminated.
In Italy, as in France or Germany, the conditions of publicity are useful to such crude blackmailers. About two years ago, an American officer of the army, while in Naples,happened into the vespasienne close by the San Carlo Opera. That latrine is notorious for the number of men, more or less homosexual, who turn into it, not so much for urination as for those exhibitions which make it locally quite unique. Two young reprobates were also there. After liberally exposing their persons to what seemed to be his interest '(an interest not admitted by the foreigner) they followed him, and threatened him with blackmail because of improper behaviour "in a public place"! One of the two declared himself a minor; a statement that would have made him a circus-marvel—had it been true. The foreigner had much trouble to get rid of them, not knowing that a resistance on his part would probably put them to flight. Finally, the stranger, in round language, declared he would call an officer patrolling near. They fled.
Groundless Blackmailing, Arrests, etc.
The reader probably has made up bis mind that in some cases foregoing (as he may make it up in regard to some that will follow) there was more or less ground for a charge against the unlucky victim; even if the blackmailer deserves no less our execration. We can well admit that when a blackmailer tries such a game, usually there is a basis of fact for it. But this does not alter the aspect of the need of suppressing the oppressor. Furthermore, the blackmailer is not rare who has not a shred of reason for his'attack, especially in large cities. Some years ago, a distinguished musical artist, the violinist B—, was arrested and imprisoned in Brunswick, on the charge of having violated a young tailor's apprentice. The affair made a great scandal. But on examination, it proved to be made out of, not whole cloth from the shop of the young tailor's employer but—entirely from a romance in print; with some sexual and other changes. Awhile ago, two tourists were arrested by a blackmailer's impudence, and were confined in a Berlin prison nearly a fortnight, until the fact was clear that the rascal had invented the case, with clumsy impudence.
Be it observed here—with regret—as to Germany that during the earlier years of the existence of the Paragraph 175, of the German Code, there was much blackmailing by arresting, etc., from the city-police, as trumpers-up of charges, for the sake of seeming to be vigilant, or for money. This was one of the reasons why the late Herr Meerscheidt-Hüllesem, of the Berlin Police, so strongly urged the removal of the Paragraph mentioned. He found it encouraged crime and roguery in men of his squads, not all of whom were proof against such despicable but infectious temptation.
To blackmail is instinctive in those parts of Europe where the law is severe, where the homosexual, (especially of means) is widely met, and where the avocation of prostitution is a side-industry among young fellows of humble life. They form such associations with cynical designs of fleecing all clients unlucky enough to give them the least leverage. Here is a Vienna affair; along with two Munich incidents:
"The butcher's assistant, Maximilian Strauss, a very good-looking young fellow, was brought to the bar to-day, on a charge of, blackmail. Lately Strauss sent to Herr-Theodore Reichmann, the eminent baritone of our Opera, a most impertinent letter, accusing the distinguished singer of a certain offence coming under Paragraph 129 of our Statue Book, and threatening Herr Reichmann with publicity if a considerable sum of hush-money was not to be forthcoming. The letter was not signed, but Herr Reichmann knew whence it came, and at once put the matter into the hands of the police. In spite of the defence from Dr. Chersch, the young blackmailer was sentenced to four months, with hard labour. Such cases are constantly increasing in our city."
"Georg P—, calling himself a baker by trade, lately became a dangerous sort of character for the artist, Herr X—, of our city, for whom said Georg P— had posed as a studio-model. Systematic attempt at blackmail resulted. The said P— appeared one day at the painter's residence in company with a certain Ludwig A— and Albert A—, bakers, and Albert M— a pork-shop clerk, and conducted themselves so impudently that the painter gave them, first, twenty Marks and then fifty, as hush-money. That however was not sufficient for presently the artist, received the usual threatening letter, demanding 100 Marks, stating that otherwise the accusation would be made in a police-court. It is worth noting that the three companions in rascality did not accuse themselves of being partakers in the offence, but spoke of a fourth person, who was in a hospital, on account of the "physical injury" he had "suffered" from the relations with the artist (!). The painter paid over the 100 Marks more, but as the demand for a like.sum was repeated, he did what he should have done in the first place—went to the police with the correspondence."
These blackmailers were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment that ranged between two years and one-and a-half years, at hard labour. The complainant suffered no legal inconvenience. The second Munich item runs:
"On account of an offence against the public morality, as well as an attempt at blackmail, the case involving Johann Erhard, of Bayreuth, 23 years old, and also Albert Schneider, of Nürnberg, 20 years old, was brought before the Court. According to the complaint, Herr August F— thirty-seven years old, a merchant of Wertheim, was involved, the said F— being charged with conducting himself improperly, under Paragraph 175 of the Code, with young Erhard, in the Hofbräuhaus, one evening: also taking Erhard to his lodging, to pass the night—for similar practices. Erhard confided these matters to his friend Schneider, and prompted Schneider to write Herr F— a threatening letter, demanding GO Marks if there was to be no more "trouble" about the story. The merchant sought aid from the police. But neither he nor Erhard appeared in Court. The proceedings turned on Schneider, and the evidence determined his share. He Was sentenced to five months."
Notable Examples of Systematic Blackmail; the "The "Bürkl-Wölfl Case."
Inattentive have little idea to what heights of success blackmailing mounts; of how rapacious and successful are blackmailers who systematize their terrorizing. What large sums are "bled away" by them are shown somewhat in such instances as the famous case of an official of the Kehrmann Bank, Berlin; and a similar recent one—of a distinguished European professor. Both of these were heavily mulcted. But in January, 1908, there came before the Assises of Munich, a case known as the "Bürkl-Wölfl Case" which is almost unparallelled in the records of its class. It is also interesting as -an example of what may be called blackmail by second-hand mechanicism—a frequent device. In outline it is as follows. As far back as 1886, an attorney of Munich named August Bürkl, had an intimacy of equivocal colouring with a youth named Götz—beginning when Götz was about fifteen or sixteen years old. Bürkl denied this explicitly—of course—on his oath, during his testimony, and it was tactfully kept from incriminating him. It lasted some years. Bürkl (unmarried) was very rich and very timid. He dreaded any sort of scandal, because of his profession, his social station, and his great affection for his aged, mother and his other family-connections. Young Götz easily blackmailed Burkl out of many small sums, during several years. Then Götz died. But unfortunately the intimacy had been known, or strongly suspected, by a barber named Wölfl. After Götz was dead, Wölfl and his wife began the most elaborate, audacious and prolonged series of extortions which can be conceived, against the unlucky and frightened Bürkl. First, Wölfl claimed to have letters from Bürkl to the dead boy, Götz. He claimed that a whole set of his—Wölfl's—acquaintances "knew all about" what had passed between Bürkl and young Götz, and meant to make trouble. These parties Wölfl kindly undertook to "keep quiet", to "buy off," and so on—at the plundered Burkl's-expense. Such persons were fictions—the "Mrs. Harris" sort of creations of Wölfl and wife. The parties were said to live in America and elsewhere; to be on the point of coming to Munich to prosecute Bürkl. Their letters were concocted by Wölfl and his wife, and the timorous Bürkl never saw any post-marked envelopes for these precious communications. The Wölfls grew rich. Their uneducated wastefulness was talked of, in their quarter of Munich. Their wealth was all at the cost of the miserable Bürkl! Automobiles, jewels and tine clothes, bank-interests, prodigal and foolish squanderings, transatlantic journeys,—all entered into the mystery of the parvenu Wölfl ménage. The sums demanded and received from Bürkl ranged upward and upward; from first a few dozen Marks, to hundreds—and to thousands and tens of thousands. Josephine Sarvi, a pseud'o-betrothed for the dead Götz, was presented. She also received a large sum, as hush-money for "what Götz had told her"—a complete fiction. At last the despairing Bürkl who—in spite of his large wealth—saw ruin facing him if the matter did not end, with a belated courage put it before the court. The two Wölfl were arrested and tried. (See, the "Münchener Nachrichten" and other journals, for January 23, et seq., 1908.) The amount that the blackmailers had "got out of" of Bürkl approximated the almost incredible sum of five hundred and forty-five thousand Marks; all between the time when young Götz died (1893) and the date of the weak-hearted Bürkl's final recourse to law-protection. Wölfl and his wife were sentenced (after preposterously impudent efforts to maintain a defense) to the maximum penalties for such doings, under German law—long terms of imprisonment at hard-labour, and to fines as heavy as could he set—though trivial in comparison with what sums the pair had extorted from Bürkl. The latter was not incriminated homosexually before the law, by his case.
In like category, may be mentioned the Schultz Case, in Hamburg, in January, 1909; the "Gensler Case" before the Elbing Criminal Court, in the same month of 1909; and several other cases, (in which greater or lesser sums were systematically obtained by the accused) brought to trial in Germany in 1907, 1908, 1909. They were typical. A few pages later here, will be found notes of a recent French blackmailing case, as of an Italian one, each involving a large extortion from the victim.
The Parisian male prostitutes, of attractive externals, such as haunt the boulevards, are nowadays extremely dangerous as blackmailers on social and criminal leverages, according to circumstances. These French-speaking pests invade in their annual overflow the smart summer-resorts and Riviera centers, according to season. Rich guests of hotels there often suffer from them.
As another example of systematic extortion, in which affair we again meet with soldiers as blackmailers, here is an instance that occurred in Oldenburg, as cited from a local journal:
"A notable blackmailing affair, which has victimized several persons a good while, has at last been brought before our criminal Court. The matter in question as to its operations has "bled" the victim for as high a sum as 28,000 Marks, and has been carried along against a well-to-do citizen in private life here, viz. Herr von Seggern, on the charge of unnatural offences (Parag. 175, RSB). Two of the seven blackmailers (chimney-sweeps in Oldenburg) were the first arrested; but the main conspirator against Herr von S—, also a chimney-sweep, unluckily was not easy to catch. He was prudent enough to go over to England, and sent thence his threatening letters to his victim, demanding the money; or else wrote his comrades, directing the 'campaign' against Herr von S— through these agents. The active participants extorted sums that varied between 700 Marks and 40. The sentences ranged from one year and six months, to six months. Two soldiers have been found to be of this same conspiracy, and have been tried in the Military Court, and sentenced to degradation from service. Since the proceedings began, the absent leader in the affair, Kirchhoff, has comitted suicide, to avoid extradition."
The blackmailer is often right, in spite of all the law's judiciousness, when he warns his writhing victim that even if he, the blackmailer, will be punished as an offender—or co-offender—so will the victim be punished. The law cannot always distinguish. Sometimes it will not do so—whether failing intolerantly or stupidly. The famous Hasse Case, in 1905 is an example. In December, 1905, Herr Hasse, a high-standing jurist of Breslau—in fact, the president of one of the most important of the Breslau tribunals—one day in Berlin, shot at and wounded a young blackmailer who long had mulcted Herr Hasse of money through their having had homosexual relationships. The sums extorted reached to the thousands. The unlucky Herr Hasse went to the nearest police-court, laid down his revolver, surrendered himself, and was duly tried for attempt at murder. He had wounded the blackmailer only slightly. The affair made a great local sensation. Hasse was highly respected. But in this case, when the matter was raised of a reason for the shooting, the court regarded both the blackmailer (a youth named Lechel) and blackmailed as duly to be punished for homosexuality. Hasse, as well as Lechel, was sentenced to several months of prison. Such an outcome raised a violent outcry against judges and law. But the sexual case was clear as to both parties; and it was not handled so as to favour the unlucky Herr Hasse.
In the current year, a bold German blackmailer named Otto Schlanger made attempts against no lower grade of victims than Prince Heinrich of Prussia (the son of the late Prince Albrecht); and by means of letters demanded five-hundred Marks, under threats to inform the Emperor of sexual facts in the life of Prince Heinrich that would gravely compromise him in the ramified and interminable Eulenburg, Hohenau and Lynar scandals. This blackmailer,also threatened Prince Joachim-Albrecht of Prussia with, exposure as an habitual homosexual. The affair was brought to trial, and Schlanger was given a sentence of two years penal servitude.
The notable "W— and Jirgl Case", occurring in Munich, in the latter years of the nineties just past, presented on its surface an outcome that was perhaps too severe for the blackmailer; not a common aspect. The plaintiff had recourse, most unwillingly, to the law; dreading a scandal. He was of the aristocracy, and a member of the royal household. The defendant was a young man named Jirgl, who was trying to extort money. The facts were that Herr von W— had met the young man in the Pinakothek; had fallen in love with him; and presently Jirgl (who was exceptionally good-looking) though he was a pious youth and a theological student, had become the "mistress" of the rich admirer. They lived together, travelled together, and so on. But Jirgl's health and beauty declined. He grew ill. His protector tired of him, and cast him aside. Jirgl for revenge, and in full appreciation of his hold, blackmailed the deserter. The aristocrat won his case. The ruined Jirgl was sentenced to eighteen months of imprisonment. The high-born complainant was not incriminated legally (the latter adjective is important) in the case, being considered guiltless of technically homosexual rapports with his deserted ephebus. This decision was loudly commented on as personally biased, and influenced by Court intrigues against impartiality of justice. W—had undoubtedly been guilty not only of pederasty but of seduction, and of ruining a youth's whole life.
Fear as the Chief Reliance of Blackmailers.
Manifestly the blackmailer relies primarily upon fear on the part of the victim. To terrorize is the first necessity. A man otherwise brave too often cannot cow such an assailant by bold demeanour or. by calm ridicule. He fears more than the attack the "talk" over the remedy! True is it that a good kicking from one's doors is generally enough to send a common type of Erpresser flying, for good. But [Iranians are too often not muscular nor valorous. The victim's ignorance of the legal dispositions for his aid is general in the countries where he needs most such aid. Physical strength, moral resolution, legal knowledge, are defences not too universally practised in any troublesome affairs. The victim is likely to be unaware that he has the good-will of law and police-court, rather than has the rascal. Unless he be examined by pedants of morality, the victim has enough chances to avoid direct compromises by his own recital: at least that is now a tendency, in many countries. But the social whispers that will inevitably fly about hold the victim back. People will comment; they will believe more or less, will be scandalized, even if the Uranian predicament be all a tissue of persecution. Hence the struggle against some vampire, or pack of vampires, can go on for years! Immediate recourse to legal help, to betake oneself to the nearest police-court—to call the nearest police-officer, to face down the blackmailer with rudest or calmest contempt and with counter-threats and action—these are not only the first defenses but often perfectly efficient ones.
Here is an example of English blackmail; cited from the London press:
"Behind closed doors yesterday in the Court last named, before Sir James Smith, was tried the blackmailing case against William Belton, nominally an agent for a patent-medicine, but of no present occupation; the suit brought by Mr. Albert H— of Birmingham. Mr. H- charged that one evening, six months ago (April), while walking in a secluded part of Hyde Park the defendant accosted him, and walked some distance with him chatting. He finally asked the complainant for some pecuniary help, which the complainant gave him—a mere trifle at the time. The defendant managed however to ascertain the name, residence and position in society of the defendant. He presently wrote plaintiff threatening letters, and also twice visited him, against the will of the complainant, at his London lodgings; demanding money, and continuing to threaten the defendant with loss of character and with a felonious charge. He declared that the offence in question had occurred on the evening mentioned. Mr. H— wholly denied the charge, but was however timorous enough to give the defendant considerable sum as hush-money, to avoid any chances of public defamation. The defendant has continued his demands and his visits, and has greatly annoyed and terrified Mr. H— by Ids threats and exactions. He has received from Mr. H— not less than sixty pounds, on one occasion, on another thirty, on another fifty, and so on. The whole amount that Mr. H— has paid over, in a mistaken course toward such scandalous extortion, amounts to four hundred and eleven pounds; and the complainant's estate is seriously injured as well as his peace of mind much impaired. The defendant told a circumstantial story, which the Court concluded was manufactured out of few real incidents. The defendant was sentenced to one year's imprisonment; taking his sentence with a burst of obscenity against the complainant."
In such instance, the victim seems to have succeeded in keeping clear of incriminating himself sexually, while proving the blackmail; an important, troublesome—often impossible—aspect of such a case in England, where the plaintiff in the blackmailing suit may be visited by the law for homosexual offenses. In libel-suits, divorce-suits and the like, this point is grave. It was, as we have seen earlier in this book, the ruin of Oscar Wilde.
Discomforts and Risks of Legal Resistance: Legal Tendency to Help the Victim.
"Evidently," remarks the thoughtful reader, "to be courageous against the blackmailer is obviously the first policy! But one also sees that the victim may get himself into great trouble; coming out of the court a blacker kettle than seems the pot, or fully as black! In cases like one of the foregoing, "The sword of justice cuts the hand that grasps it!"
Blackmailing cases do take that turn. The victim can suffer shameful imprisonment, as well as can his.enemy. But the sound principle of legal resort is not invalidated by this fact. The tendency now, in many Continental courts is tactfully to "manage" the victim's case so that he does not incriminate himself. What is yet more significant, in the French, the German, the Austro-Hungarian and other Courts of law, in some Continental countries where most homosexualism acts still are a felony and an obloquy, there has come within a few years an important detail of procedure and sentiment. If the person necessarily incriminating himself in the complaint against his blackmailer, when arrested and on trial on homosexual charges, can prove medically psychiatrically, that he is homosexual by inborn, ineradicable nature, then his case is often materially made light or even dismissed. This is especially helpful when a respectable homosexual has to combat a charge against him begun not by extortion but made in the "interests of public morality". Of course there should not be offenses to public-decorum, nor rape, nor corruption of minors impairing the force of this defence. It it be accepted, the homosexual is turned over to a specialistic physician, who decides (in course of some weeks), whether his "patient" is to be reported to the Court as homosexual by incurably natural propensities or not. Sometimes this examination obliges the defendant to pass months in prison, till the doctor be ready to pronounce on his "nature". But if his status be so settled, he finally is absolved from felony, and is free.
Inborn Homo- sexualism as Defense.
In such cases, sometimes previous psychomedical data are already at hand. The term of examination usually in subtracted from the term of imprisonment under sentence, for a homosexual patient. This attitude of law of course is not shown to homosexual blackmailers; but simply to those respectable homosexuals under arrest for sexual misconduct. Sometimes comes no further penalty. But in Germanic territories, be it noted that when a homosexual offender of good moral character, has been pronounced naturally, "incurably" homosexual, and is discharged (having his detention for examination as his only punishment) it is decidedly advisable that he leave the place where his case has occurred; as soon as possible should arrange to live out of Germany or Austria. He will—naturally—nearly always do. this, but sometimes it is inconvenient enough. He is
lucky to escape with only exile. A few years ago, as a similisexual he would not have "got off" so lightly. Continental law had not then endured, even vaguely and unwillingly as now, the idea that something quite other than vice underlies much homosexualism; that the uranian Intersex has excuses, has demands, even has rights, however.abnormal they have seemed. Medicopsychic research herein.has affected the jurisprudence of Continental Europe importantly; though much is yet to do.
An Improved Legal Sentiment Especial to Germany and Austria; not in Great Britain or America.
The reader may observe that while in Europe (even apart the tolerance of Latin races) scientific excuse for homosexualism is making way, old standards hold in English and North American law-courts. Ignorance and indeed vehement hostility against any excuses for homosexualism obtain in England and the United States. Outside of the most reflective and learned class of lawyers, nothing is heeded of recent Continental theories as to similisexuality by medical-legal specialists even of first rank. Indeed little is known of them. They are yet much outside of Anglo-Saxon medico-psychologic jurisprudence.
Public Proceed- ings Against Blackmailers as Mischievous, however Necessary.
The unlucky fact been observed that legal proceedings necessary for the rescue of some victim of blackmail on homosexual grounds (even cases in which blackmailers are punished) seem to do more harm than good toward obstructing the vile 'business.' They suggest to the mob the ease with which timid victims can be bled, and they teach the technique of blackmail. It has been well said that "one blackmail-suit creates a dozen blackmailers." Rascals are willing to take their chances. Immediately in consequence of this fact, as well as in view of the agonizing histories of victims, and of the inducements to robbery and murder, has come—with questions of moral aspects of homosexualism—the movement in Germany and Austria-Hungary toward the abolition of any penalty for private and adult similisexual relations, if voluntary. To tolerate "decent homosexualism" as in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Belgium, parts of Switzerland and so on, puts the blackmailer out of combat to a great and wholly beneficent extent.
Blackmailing not Unknown in France, Italy, etc., though Exceptional: Instances.
In France, Italy, Belgium, Spain and so on, where is no legislation punishing homosexualism (except when coercion or offences to public decency, or innocent minors are considered) the crude, vulgar blackmailer can frighten a stranger by pointing out that to commit sexual acts in a latrine or in a park, or an inn's more public premises, however retired and deserted, makes the victim a statutory offender. We have seen above how he sometimes will dog the traveller to his hotel, threatening his disclosures to the nearest policeman. Where the Latin blackmailer has not the leverage of law or of public decorum, he will threaten public social opinion; especially if the stranger be English or American. The victim's name will be printed—will be telegraphed to his native town. In all such cases, the victim's stout personal resistance, or threats of calling up the nearest policeman, will nearly always get rid promptly of the blackmailer. A favourite trick of this blackmailer is an accusation to the victim of pederasty with an "innocent" minor youth. This is not always easy to rout off-hand.
In France and Italy, be it noted, if on a charge of debauching a minor the minor can be proved an habitual offender, the case breaks up. To scandals, whether with or without blackmailing aspects (usually with such) in in countries where the liberal Code-Napoléon is the basis of legislation as to similisexuality, many criminal cases are based oh the perversion of minor youth. To these processes belong the famous and tragic Krupp Affair (already referred-to here), along with the "Allers Case," which it rather eclised, in Capri and Germany, in 1902. Its actual legal territory was Italian. The "Krupp Case", in which the victim was accused of pederastic offences with innocent minor lads, ultimately resolved itself, in essential aspects, to a carefully-planned scheme for extortion; the matter of "innocence" being more than vague when the youth typically concerned came into question. In the concurrent "Allers Case", the plan of concerted blackmail was discernible. The distinguished Munich painter was warned by one of his young models—it is said, by the son of the Capriote who brought the attack into form; and the artist fled Capri, in time to escape arrest. He was sentenced (as an absent defendant) in the Naples court, to imprisonment and a fine.
The same leverage against homosexuals has lately shown itself in the affair, in Home, of the well-known photographer P—, charged with habitual proxenetism and corruption of minors; a case involving a large number of persons of high station and of all nationalities, professions and social distinctions. This affair was not brought to trial until many months after the arrest of P— and the assistants in his studio; which arrest, by the by, was made when a noted German concert-singer was discovered in the photographer's premises, in compromising circumstances as to his relations with a youthful civus romanus. The unlucky photographer was shut up in durance all the long delay between his arrest and his trial; it was said, because the Italian authorities wished to give to as many, persons as possible their time to escape from Rome and appearances in court. A large and extremely compromising correspondence, between P—and clients all over the world, was seized. The photographer had long specialized nude male "studies", and did a large business in such portraits of tipi midi e ben membruti, as do several Italian photographers, including a near relative of P—, resident in Taormina. The painter was sentenced to some eight months of imprisonment and to a large fine. The affair was as much as possible kept out of the local journals, to which satisfaction, for all concerned, a general "strike" of the. printers of the daily newspapers in Rome most opportunely contributed. At last accounts, P— had been duly enlarged from prison, and had resumed in Rome all his specialities of business. Another noted Roman photographer of modelli nudi, G— was arrested and punished for "injury to public morality" at about the same date, on account of too-audacious "studies" in photography for general sale—even in Rome.
French Law Discreet; French Instances: the Leverage of Scandal Only.
As blackmail in France—but not as to England, Germany, America, etc.—the law is so adjusted that the question of the relations of the blackmailed to the blackmailer are not of obligation to be defined clearly in the trial of a blackmailer, no matter how clear; nor later need they recur, obbligato. They are often not part of the evidence. This simplifies and protects. But social disgrace of course may be resultant. In 1896, occurred in Paris the curious case of the pretended police-agent Sourdville, who played the comedy of accepting, as if against his duty, a bribe to let some unlucky stranger go—free of scandal. This rascal however went on to thievery by the aid of chloroform; and was trapped and sentenced.
A recent remarkable case of blackmail came into the Ninth Correctional Chamber, in Paris, in the first, week of February, 1908. A gymnastics-professor of Dijon, named G—, a highly respectable and esteemed man, met on the boulevards in Paris a young maleprostitute named Eugene-Georges Peyrin, twenty years old. G— made the acquaintance; Peyrin accompanied him to his hotel, though without entering—on that occasion. An appointment was made for next day. But even on this opportunity Peyrin asked for money, and received twenty francs. After the theater, next evening, about midnight, Peyrin designated an hotel where "male-guests" were particularly received—one of the many such bouges in Paris. Once in the room together, Peyrin allowed himself to be embraced and kissed and generally attouché, for a few moments—in smiling consent. Then he said "—Come, let us undress!" G— complied with haste, stripped, and sat on the bed. As soon as Peyrin s.aw G— quite naked (Peyrin having not taken off more than his coat and waistcoat) he turned on G— menacingly. He seized the unfortunate man by the. throat. "Now we'll change our tune!" he exclaimed, "—I want money, a lot of money! He demanded three thousand francs; or else "he would make a scandal." This would ruin the Dijon victim socially and professionally. So G— then and there gave up to Peyrin, his watch and all the money he had about him—a thousand francs—and signed a promissory note for two thousand! These amounts were supplemented by others, sent presently by postal-orders. The Dijon victim thus paid over sums of one thousand, six thousand, three thousand francs, and so on. He knew that he had done nothing whatever criminal under the French law—Peyrin had no real 'hold'. But the scandal was not to be faced. In this way, G—paid out to Peyrin not less than twenty-one thousand francs; until he decided, half-bankrupt, that he must turn to the law for aid. The defense of the villainous young Parisian shark was that all the money "had been given him" by G—, as merely friendly expressions of regard, as compensation for their sexual relations, and so on. The tribunal could sentence Peyrin only to two years of prison and five-hundred francs fine. G—, at last free of such bloodsucking, left for Dijon by the first train on the conclusion of the trial. One exclaims, "Requiescat in pace!"
Some years ago an English gentleman (a completely homosexual type) of high family, distinguished in literature, happened on an Italian instance of blackmailing "bluff". In Rome, walking one afternoon in the Villa Doria, he chanced on a handsome well-mannered young male prostitute, who mentioned himself as employed in the Villa. This was not the fact, as he had been discharged some months earlier. After half-an-hour's strolling about in the garden (which at the time had no other promenaders) the Englishman suggested that "—si diverterebbe un momentino," if the other was inclined. They turned into the shrubbery, and remained for a few minutes. (Onan. mut). Soon after, the stranger and his "friend" left the gardens; the Italian insisting on accompanying the Englishman toward his hotel. The Englishman had given his companion five lire—a liberal amount for such informal "services rendered". The Italian demanded, more, and threatened a scandal in the street. The Englishman much dreaded that turn of the situation. However he vigorously ridiculed the young rascal's charge. The circumstances had not been "public,"—to say nothing of the impossibility of the prostitute's proving a case in a court. "But the Villa is a public place, any part of it!"—insisted the other, who knew the text of Italian law better than his victim. "Pay me fifty lire, or I will also accuse you of having attempted me—forced me—though I resisted"—and so on. The Englishman, now very nervous (as several passers were in earshot and a sicnrezza not far) took advantage of a tram coming by him. He escaped to it, though his adversary sent a volley of abuse after him that made the passengers look at him. But the end was not there. In course of a week, he received a threatening visit from the young man, who had found out his name and address. The Englishman unwillingly went to a legal friend and stated enough of the facts to receive advice. He learned that although the.Villa gardens, like many others were indeed "public" places, just as is some lonely impasse, or a spot in the Campagna—nevertheless the fact of his having met his tormentor in the Villa on a day when, as was the fact, the same was not open to the public (as on other days) would be a sufficient defence, in any well-disposed court. The other charge was absurd. Fortified with this advice, he met his adversary scornfully on his second call, and so put him out of countenance, that the scamp went away silenced. The Englishman never had a word from him again, though he often saw him.
Hotels and Legislation.
In Milan, Rome, Florence, Naples, Paris, Brussels, Geneva, many hotels of low grade, but clean enough, are used for homosexual appointments; or for ending-up the adventure of an evening. Any rented hotel-room is a legally "a private place". If no open scandal occur in it, the guests in it have a right to do what they please, so long as they are by themselves. Nevertheless, Italian courts have questioned if a hotel is ever a really "private" place. Clearly in other premises of it than the particular room hired what goes on is "under public circumstances." The prostitute sometimes uses this idea in blackmail against a stranger with whom he has gone to some hotel; he even changes the room. A knowledge of such devices and of law-codes would save homosexual men anxiety and many a skirmish: as would also would be useful the remembrance that the Italian law, like the French, in trying a blackmailer and in punishing him, does not concern itself much with questions of the relations that the parties have had. The matter to be decided is the blackmailing. The victim is not a criminal in consequence of his conduct—relatively construed.
Blackmail Carried Beyond Actual Jurisdiction.
Impudent "terrorizing" by leverage of social opinion, can be continued when wide of the place where the incidents basing it may have occurred. Here is an example. A few years ago, a young Hew York banker of homosexual tastes, when in Venice entered into relations with a young Venetian. For some weeks such intimacy subsisted; the Italian being a passivist. The American then continued his journey. The parting was perfectly friendly; and, by the by, no great pecuniary douceurs passed between them, the young ephebus not demanding them. The American went to Sorrento—which pleasant resort sometimes offers much venal homosexualism, like Amalfi and Capri. His Venetian friend was kind enough to give him a line of introduction to another pleasant-mannered prostitute in Sorrento. The American utilized this acquaintance also. After this, he returned to New York. Within a few weeks, he received a visit from a third (unknown) Italian, residing in Hew York. He made a demand on the banker for a "loan" of fifty dollars. This favour was urged, indicating that the banker's social well-being lay in compliance; as otherwise his relationships with Vasco G— in Venice, and with Nazzareno S— in Sorrento, would become a topic of letters to the banker's friends, to his club, etc. The blackmailer in fact possessed indiscreet notes. The offences had been committed in Italy; there was no ground whatever for his being criminally held in America. But the social scandal was enough to chill the banker's blood! He promptly paid the sum demanded. A long history of victimizing followed. For nearly two years, the unfortunate man was mulcted, without being addressed in a single letter; but by visits, made in spite of all precautions. In vain did he try to purchase the incriminating letters—only four. The sum turned over to the impudent agent of his ex-amorini was to the total of thousands. At last with a request for one hundred and fifty dollars, from the representative of Vasco and Nazzareno, the banker trapped his enemy into a letter of clear blackmail. He went to the police, and stated his case as best he could. The rogue in New York was sent to prison, and the affair was kept out of publicity, even in America. This rescue of the banker was easier; for the enterprising rascal in New York had a charge of graver sort hanging about him that might have extradited him to Italy. Hence as soon as released, he disappeared.
Two recent Italian examples of audacious blackmail, through the leverage of mere social terrorizing, are as follows. In the end of March, 1909, before Section XIII of the Naples police-court, came the case of the distinguished General F— (retired) against a whole clique of young Neapolitan pederasts—Gennaro Eossi, Francesco Sarzano, Dominicis, Capezzuti and others—who had been in homosexual relations with the unlucky gentleman. They thereupon had formed a regular league of blackmail against him; threatening to publish about the city his sexual habits. The band of rascals was linked to the Camorra of Naples, and this gave them additional courage. During many years, General F— paid thousands of lire to his persecutors, who had compromising letters and so on, as their weapons of extortion. The victim at length decided to face the scandal. The blackmailers were sentenced to terms of imprisonment varying between six years and three months. One of them was acquitted for want of proof. In the same month, in Milan, a very well-known, man in society, the Marchese di S—, a naval lieutenant, was walking along the Corso Vittorio Emmanuele at high noon, when a young man of dubious aspect, (whom the Marchese S— declared to be absolutely unknown to him) slipped up to his side and asked for money; at the same time alluding to homosexual satisfactions. The Marchese S— turned away angrily, but his interlocutor at once became explicit and declared that if the Marchese S— would not then and there give him fifty lire he would "tell all Milan" of the intimate relations between himself and the Marchese. The Marchese S—, as his answer, caught hold of the rascal, and called tire police. The blackmailer pulled himself loose and ran away, but was arrested. He declared that he "had taken the Marchese S— for another gentleman"; but he was condignly punished.
High-Class Blackmailers: an American Affair.
Quite aside from chevaliers d'industrie, of low degree, or audacious rogues with no social platform to be considered, numerous blackmailing scandals have occurred where the blackmailer has belonged to families and stations of high grade. To such schemes to pay their bills, or rather to add to incomes of precarious source, have descended ruined barons, counts in difficulties, adventurous princes, decadent elder or younger sons and professional men of rapacious and unscrupulous types. The history of the "submerged social tenth" is abundant in such affairs. A few years ago, came before the international public a case in which a rich industrial was the victim of two individuals of distinguished social grade—titled—who had squeezed a sum running into the hundreds of thousands out their prey before they were checked; with the particularity that their victim did not know until its end that they were the real instigators of the extortion. In a provincial capital of Austria-Hungary some years ago, came much talk by a suit and a vehement counter-suit, for slander, brought respectively by two young men. One of them was of a distinguished northern family, temporarily in the city; the other was a rich young Viennese. The charge complicated mutual blackmail with mutual homosexualism. The case was such a tangle of social developments that it was finally dropped—by common consent. It was generally believed that money-difficulties of K—, one of the complainants, and his rather dramatic attempt to extort, were the original causes of the issue, especially as the other of the pair, young E—, was conclusively homosexual. This case had most bizarre lights and shadows. In fact, the old saying that almost everything in the world has at least three planes, is noted in the aristocratic blackmailers' census. Faire chanter is a lyrical temptation far from confined to Vulgar humanity.
Transatlantic blackmailing affairs are not often before the public. But they occur, passim. In America, always a practical country, occurred in the latter nineties a very curious example of a blackmailing plot, where every person concerned was of smart social position; men of culture, wealth and youth. A family living in one of the largest cities was conspicuous for fortune—a great fortune—for finance, and for religious affiliations, the line being Keltic-American. One of the brothers was noted as homosexual, had been publicly so charged. A younger one was even more famous for his effeminate beauty, his elegance, and skill as a dancer and actor in private theatricals. Humour had long united his name with several boyish "intimates" of fashionable life, art, letters, and the stage; also with an eminent clergyman of his own creed—a handsome wordly celibate, of brilliant individuality. Two clubs to which young Mr. B— belonged were almost -notoriously sprinkled with an uranian membership, of the local jeunesse dorée. One winter, chance threw Mr. A— into acquaintance with a fellow-townsman considerably his junior, also homosexual, extremely and rich, the heir to a vast fortune also. The two young men were at once violently sympathetic—became inseparable. The relationship took its warmest course. Unluckily, it was remarked by a third party, and then by a fourth—Messrs. C— and D—. These two, although they appeared to have plenty of money at their disposal, really were deeply embarrased and anxious. Over the head of C— hung an impending financial crash. D— also had got himself into deep water. He was being indirectly bled of cash by an acquintance of humble rank, who was not likely to be discreet if not kept in good humour by "loans"—continually asked. One night, chance happened to disclose to C— and D—unmistakeably the nature of the relationship between Messrs. A— and B—. Thy decided, in a burst of mutual roguery and confidence, to try to profit by it. They accordingly went to work to collect something like evidence, to use as a leverage—somehow. They secured what would pass very well for such; at least what would greatly disconcert their victims, who were much more hares than lions. Next, they ventured on a bold coup. They won. over to a particular usefulness, a new ally, X—. Fairly organized, they now proceeded to threaten B— (who was the most conspicuously rich target) with anonymous letters, and so on; mentioning circumstances that B— would much dislike to have published, not to mention A—. A large sum was to be ready and surrendered, under certain circumstances—presently; or trouble would be swift for both A— and B— together. But just at the crisis, the newest partner in the game, X— became frightened. He decided to retreat. He went to the ecclesiastical friend of A—, gave him the proofs, and betrayed his accomplices. Even then it was necessary, if a social scandal were to be avoided, to use very delicate agencies for breaking-up the scheme. The high hierarchy of the church was called into help. A— and B— were both rescued, from an affair that neither of them fully had divined, and that never was fully explained to them. The actors in the drama who were its main-springs, hastily left the city. The intimacy between A— and B— was however presently completely broken, as an inevitable and prudent consequence. Later both these friends married. The entire affair was one of quite unusual social complexion, audacity and skill. It was known to some outsiders only on the death of One of the persons officially concerned in its devolution.
The Uranian World and Murder.
But we must invade deeper the Inferno of homosexual perils and crimes. We have seen that the blackguard of Uranianism may be an able-bodied villain, disposed to assault his prey—physically. When a homosexual hints in such society that he carries valuables or cash, let him look to them; not to say to his life! Along with forcible or other robbery, can come murder. Or such murder may be matter not of burglary or robbery, but of really homosexual passions—revenge, jealousy and other motives. Such assassins are not always of base station. We have previously touched on murders by companions of princes and noblemen, high officials, and churchmen and professional men. But we are dealing for the moment, with especially the darkest paths of the homosexual labyrinth.
The reader will meet plenty of examples of "Uranian murders" in such German publications as the "Jahrbuch" mentioned; in the curious monthly bulletin of homosexual data taken from the current newspaper-press, and entitled "Mittheilungen des Bundes für Männliche Kultur," published by B. Zack, at Treptow (Berlin); and in dozens of studies dealing with homosexualism; as also in daily papers and criminal reports. In Ulrich's book "Memnon" are a classic few—now of long-ago—such as the murder of Lindemann by König; the attempt to drown a victim (already robbed) in Geneva; a series of desperate brutalities, including murder or its attempt, by the celebrated "Zürich Clique" of homosexuals and of other bad characters generally, in 1895; who lured persons of wealth into similisexual intimacies, gained access to their victims' houses, plundered them, and so on. Metropolitan police-annals abound in assassinations that are homosexual in colour. Strangers often imprudently go to the very lairs of just such assassins; have valuables on their persons; and never are seen alive again. Berlin, Vienna, London, New York, Cairo, Naples—all such large cities show this dangerous phase of the Uranian's quests and acquaintances. Here are a few such, from newspaper police-items:
"In Potsdam occurred a few days ago the mysterious murder of one Albert Schmidt, an elderly resident living for some time past in K— strasse. Schmidt was unmarried and given to peculiarly "intimate relations" with young soldiers. He had a very roomy apartment, and each week he was host to such special guests, often on short acquaintance. About a year ago Schmidt was brought into one of the criminal courts on a charge of an offence under Paragr. 175 of the Statute-Book, and the charge being-proved he was sentenced to six months imprisonment. Unluckily this affair did not 'cure' him of his eccentric habits. He was constantly to be met of an evening, in the parks or streets near the Barracks especially, "taking-up" with young soldiers, as mentioned. After four days of being missed by his immediate neighbours, he was found dead last Monday, on the floor of his sitting room, wholly undressed, and in a pool of his own blood. His skull was broken, and he had also been strangled. Evidently a hard, if curiously quiet, struggle had taken place, between Schmidt and his assailant, during an evening together. As Schmidt's purse containing 85 Marks in gold and silver, (and also his watch and valuables) were not stolen, the exact origin of the quarrel with his murderer is not clear. Several individuals, however, are suspected, including a certain young man described as wearing a light-coloured brown suit, lately much seen with Schmidt; also a soldier known to be a "friend" of the murdered man. Not long ago, Schmidt was severly chastised in the Park here one night, by three young infantry-soldiers one of whom he offended by his improper proposals. Possibly his murder completes some vengeance, with a terrible effect. Schmidt leaves a considerable estate."
In Naples, in March, 1901, occurred this characteristic affair. I cite the newspaper-account:
"A mysterious and frightful criminal occurrence has come to light, discovered last evening. About one o'clock in the morning, four officers of our police-service, Riccio, Cuomo, Stanco and Galati were informed that cries for help had been coming from the house Number 81, Via Nuova di Capodimonte, close by the Ponte di Sanità, On trying to gain access, no one admitted the policemen, and all was still. They broke open the door of the apartment in question, on the fifth floor, the residence of a certain young medical doctor named Filippo Raffaeli M—, formerly a student at our University, but lately admitted to practice, and located in the rooms mentioned. As the officers finally entered, they heard renewed groans from the darkness beyond, and at the same time were nearly knocked down by some unknown party who tried to pass them, and reach the stair, but who was captured. A direful spectacle presented itself to the officers, on lighting up the room. On the bed lay young Doctor M— perfectly naked, and bathed in his own blood, his throat cut, and faintly moaning in his last agony. He was carried to the hospital in the Via Pellegrini, but expired shortly, unable to murmur more than a few syllables … The other individual in the room, fortunately unable to escape, is beyond doubt the murderer of the ill-fated young physician. The circumstances are partly as follows. Dr. M— belonged to a family in easy circumstances, in Gravina, (Puglia). He was 28 years old, single, and highly talented. Lately he took into his confidential intimacy and nominal service a young Neapolitan named Vincenzo Morelli, a thorough vagabond, though not bad looking; a relative (it is said) of the concierge of the house where the Doctor was living. The young rascal had free access to the Doctor's apartments, and often slept there with his patron, it seems. Lately M— had noticed that the young man—about twenty years old—had stolen small sums from him, but nothing important came of the matter till lately when some fifty lire were missing unmistakeably through the protègé's operations. There have been several altercations since, and Dr. M— told Morelli that he would discharge him from his not very clear 'services'. It may be mentioned that a year ago the youth was arrested in consequence of public prostitution, and has Jived by such a device for part of his life. The fact that Dr. M— tolerated some equivocal associates has been unfavourable commented on, in the past. The commission of the crime by young Morelli seems to have been that partly in cupidity and partly in a fit of passionate hatred to his benefactor, he took advantage of the sleep of Dr. M—, or of other circumstances, to cut his patron's throat with fatal address, by a common razor. He slipped into the room in his stocking-feet, ready to escape after putting his victim to death and pocketing has valuables; evidently a plan long premeditated. He tells a story not in consonance however with this plain account, as indicated by the facts in the case."
In Vienna, a murder came to light, awhile ago (the victim being a citizen of respectable business connections) presenting typically uranian circumstances. The account here is abbreviated from the press:
"The mysterious murder of Herr H. K— lately noted in our columns, appears explained, although the, assassin of the merchant is still unknown positively and in at large. For two or three months, Herr K— whose habits of life and acquaintances have pointed him out as given to the class of offences referred to in Paragr. 129, of the Criminal St. B., has been especially intimate with two or three young men, all of them members of a certain well-known clique, and associated with the patrons of the notorious X— Bath establishment. One of them, not a great while ago, figured as defendant in a blackmailing case here The room of Herr H. K— was on the ground-floor, and opened directly on the street mentioned; and several times lately the police or neighbour have suspected that persons—visitors to Herr K— went in or out from the lodging at curious hours, the guests being always male. The motive of the crime appears to have been robbery, and the escape of the murderer by the window (which we have mentioned in reporting the affair a week ago) was easy enough. As the body of Herr K—: was not discovered until nearly a fortnight after he must have been knocked down, when nude, in or near his bed, as narrated—owing to the little notice fastened to his door "Gone to Brünn—will return on the 20th"—by this time the whole group of individuals suspected seems to have fled the city, to avoid examination. The arrests are not yet in sight. On Sunday—" etc. etc.
Or a brutal assault stops just at murder's threshold. As here:
"Yesterday night, Professor L— the well-known language teacher, was the victim of an impudent attempt at robbery and murder, which luckily stopped at theft, though with no light one. Professor L— was walking homeward from Moabit, at about two o'clock in the morning, when two well-dressed young men, strangers to him, accosted him near the Parliament House; and with them he entered into a conversation. Suddenly he was knocked down by them, and robbed of fifty Marks and his gold watch. As he could not save himself from falling, he fell directly down into the Spree from the sidewalk, and had the water been higher he might have drowned. Fortunately, the water was low, and Professor L— did not roll farther than the foot of the stone stairs leading down. He was found in a pitable condition and was taken home by the night-police. His injuries proved to be slight. The authors of the outrage were not identified. They belong to the worst class of social criminals.
Political Murders and Hoinosexuality.
In numerous examples of important political assassinations, we find that the murderer is Uranian, the blood-lust instinct perhaps being part of the perversity of his cruelty. Thus Santo, who stabbed the Empress Elizabeth of Austria, a few years ago, and Bresci the murderer of King Umberto of Italy, were similisexual men. The instinct as in mere coincidence to many special crimes—e. g. Manyek, the atrocious butcher of his whole family in Vienna, in 1901, also numerous wholesale English and French affairs—may be worth remarking, even if homosexual life and passion had have nothing to do with the obvious facts.
That murders are not rare in connection with soldierhomosexualism, military prostitution, etc., was mentioned in an earlier chapter. A special example of the soldier as murderer under homosexual circumstances—already included in our references when speaking of military life and uranianism—was the shocking "Studio Affair" in London, in 1906, where a young homosexual painter, A— W— who invited only soldiers to frequent him, was discovered in his apartments, naked and dead, one morning, with his head smashed by a hammer. The evidence at the inquest was so likely to raise an appalling garrison-scandal that the affair was suppressed as quickly as possible. The murderer (out of question a soldier) was not traced. It is said that a royal command cut short the search.
A noteworthy murderous attack, in combination with a suicide—the whole affair homosexual—occurred in the vicinity of New York City, early in November, 1907. It was the subject of not only discreet legal scrutiny (not to much purpose) but also of wide local comment, on account of the high social station of the family of the younger of the two actors. The nationalities involved were rather more French in blood on the one side and Scandinavian on the other than strictly American; but the family is one identified as of America for at least three or four generations. It was a presumptively case of pederastic intrigue, ending in a bloody drama. In the luxurious summer home of the Z— family, at X—, a fashionable suburb of the metropolis, had subsisted for many months an intimacy between the young son of the house, who was a lad of about seventeen, and a valued butler named B—. To this B—, in fact, the youth (a very handsome boy) was much entrusted. during the absence of the family; and in hunting-excursions, travelling etc., B— was always with him. B—was apparently in the' habit of stealing down to the boy's bedroom—quite detached, in a large villa—seeking clandestine relationships at night. The youth transferred his interest, it would seem, to a new and younger man-servant. B—, who was also alcoholic, thereupon became furiously jealous; and finally grew insanely so. One morning he got out of bed—long before daylight (probably as so often before)—threw on his bath-gown, and slipped down to the lad's room. What took place there has never been fully told. Shots were heard, awakening the sleeping household. Another servant burst open the locked door of the bedroom. On the bed—from which he had sprung up, nude—crouched the boy, with a bullet-wound in bis head, tрat just missed taking his life and which kept him unconscious for weeks. On the floor lay the man B—, naked; dead by his own hand. At the inquest, some considerable time later, the youth (as might be expected) declared that he knew absolutely nothing of what had occurred; that B—had shot him in his sleep, and that no reason could be guessed at for the affair, except that the butler was drunk or crazy. The attack was undoubtedly one of maniacal jealousy, with intent to kill.
In July 1908, occurred in Berlin a murder of distinctively homosexual accent, which made much talk. A certain Julius E—, proprietor of a café-restaurant was found strangled in his elegant rooms in Genthinerstrasse 26, the sash-cord of a window wound tight about his neck. Robbery had been the motive. E—was a notorious homosexual; during years on the secret lists of the Berlin police, and in sexual relations with many doubtful characters, including some young soldier-prostitutes of bad report. The murderer was not identified.
In 1907, 1908 and 1909, were conspicuous in the assizes of Germany several murder-cases more or less directly associated with homosexual relations between the assassins and the victims—with blackmailing, robbery and so on as also part of the story; such as the "Brühl-Forest Murder" (Guben) the murder of the insurance-agent Franke by his acquaintance Senger; the "Maagh Murder" on a railway-train—by an architect, etc., etc.
Probable Instance of Dionian Revenge on an Uranian.
Some such tragedies leave no doubt of their connection, even if not confessed or "proved." in 1900, an affair of vengeful asssassination shocked the community of a Southern town in the United States. An English artist, X—, visiting the place, to paint, had maintained a long and close intimacy with a young lad of excellent family, as his model. Gradually came gossip among the masculine population. One morning, occurred a sharp altercation between the painter and the lad. The topic'was not divulged in the course of the tragic sequel. But it was mentioned that an older brother of the angry youth elicited some facts that satisfied him. At any rate, next morning, while the artist was in bed and asleep in the house of his host,' not far away, the older brother of the boy suddenly drove to the door and asked to speak with the artist—at once. He suited the action to the word; ran up the staircase, dashed open the painter's door, and with an exclamation that was explicit, shot him dead. He was promptly arrested at Y— and held for trial. The motives of his crime were explained sufficiently, under reserves of a court-room. He was acquitted of the felony.
Other Recent Instances of Uranianism and Murder.
The years 1907, 1908 and 1909 were marked by notable criminal affairs before French juges d'instruction, or the assizes, in which homosexualism was a clear factor. Several murder-trials were strongly of such colour. In the group was the "Jobard Murder", in which the criminal, a young man, killed the youth with whom he had been sexually intimate, and also killed the lad's father in an accession of jealousy and of-fear of interruption to the intrigue, and in mania. More remarkable was the famous "Affaire Remy" at Paris, occurring in June, 1908, and before the courts, in January and June 1909. In this mysterious crime was questioned the relation to the murder of a retired banker named Remy, on the part of an elderly butler Renard, and a young valet named Courtois. Renard had been sexually intimate with one Léon E—, a young nephew of the murdered man; as also with the valet Courtois, and with others. He seemed to be a typical 'married homosexual,' in fact. He was found guilty, as was the valet Courtois, and both received heavy sentences, though not capital ones. The butler Renard nevertheless made a firm defence; claiming to he the victim of a tissue of vindictive falsehoods, by Courtois; and many arguments against his conviction were maintainable. He had a most excellent record, as a man and a servant, being already past middle life and made an excellent personal impression in the court-room. In fact, at this writing, the "Renard Case" is yet under appeal, and the two verdicts given may be set aside. All Paris crowded to this trial—a cause célèbre of the year. In the notable "Albinet-Leray Affair" occurring in 1908 in the Paris Criminal Assizes, in which were tried the audacious executants of a train-robbery—"The Affair of Train 16"—a group of homosexual associates and suggestions were in evidence. Albinet, the main agent of the robbery, was uranian; and his conviction was partly on the evidence of homosexuals, one of them, a certain Duros, of evil note. In the end of March, 1909, came before examination of a magistrate the murder of a Parisian lawyer and littérateur, Louis Farquharson-Fleurot, of about fifty-one years of age, found assassinated in his rooms in an apartment-house at No. 8, Rue du Mont-Thabor. Fleurot, though of excellent family and superiour education, had been in bad odour as member of the bar, but not actually dismissed from the roll, and was making a considerable income by shady litigations of all sorts. He was openly and notoriously homosexual; philosyrphetic even to bringing the worst class of street-pederasts to his lodgings. He had been obliged several times to move through complaints of his landlords or of fellow-tenants. He had "adopted" one young catamite, René B—, as his son or nephew, and had kept him handsomely, till a quarrel occurred. Fleurot once or twice had had ugly misadventures—robberies and assaults—due to the sort of male prostitutes he cultivated. He had last been seen alive when he was accompanying to his rooms, at four in the morning, a young voyou of about twenty years, "in a brown suit and a black derby-hat," This individual could not be traced; and till now the murder is unpunished. Again in April,1909, was assassinated at Versailles, a certain Madame Barbery, who during many years had kept in the town a regular and widely-known rendezvous for homosexual guests; especially for convenience of clients who affected young soldier-prostitutes of the garrison at Versailles, or for civilists who brought Parisian catamites out to the apartment in the Rue Maurepas. She had a son in the army in Algeria, himself actively homosexual. He sent to his mother numerous regimental and other acquaintances going to Paris on leave, thus adding to her clientage an element increasingly louche, mixed and dangerous. Robbery was the cause of the woman's murder. This matter has not been cleared up as yet.
The, Uranian Victim and 'Geloso', etc., as Assassin.
The fear of a scandal is often accompanied by the final courage to kill the blackmailer. Homicide—often long and carefully premeditated murder—is a kind peculiarly in key with an aristocratic and high-class desperation; with crime that is the effort of the uranian to be free of persecution. Blackmailed or otherwise menaced by scandal, his means and hopes exhausted, he takes the law in his hands. Strange "mysteries" of blood, or murderous crimes not involved in mystery, occur where some overwrought man has reached the point of "turning," with pistol or knife or poison in hand. One greatly discussed crime in France, many years ago, still is a model of this species. Another bloody family-tragedy in England, a very few years ago, was due to the fact that the homosexual criminal was in almost insane despair.
A most complicated affair came in New York City, some half-a-dozen years back, in a smart club. It involved two poisonings, with fatal results. It was a drama of homosexual jealousy, and of revengeful self-protection. The recent attempt at assassination of a German of rank by another individual of much higher station, with a terrible risk, had much the like origin. The Italian term "geloso" refers to occasional assassinations in a race which has homosexuality more or less of its tissue, and which is always keen upon homosexual relations with rich foreigners who become residents. But such strangers easily grow tired of connections useful only to the vicious protègé. A tragedy easily results.
Uranianism and Suicide: the "Open Door Out."
Not only from terror and despair under a criminal s persecution, but also m stress of sexual ignorances, we find that uranianism has a long yearly chronicle of murders that are—self-murders. Tormented to madness by his enemy, or even when merely overcome by every-day life, too weary of his riddle and burden, the victim takes the Dark Road to—liberty? He cannot endure any longer! Death is better. The mystery of his impulses, their bondage by social and legislative conditions, tyranny of a villain, the pressure of passion or of dread—enough of it all! He does not fear to meet a God—God hath made him as he is. He fears only humanity. With his secret he will go into the Unknown—if possible taking such secret thither.
So extends an enormous and melancholy volume of suicides, in lands where no liberal sentiments, knowledge or humane Codes aid the philarrhene. In Latin-America and Latin-Europe and so on, the proportion of self-destructions from homosexual causes is extremely small, almost nil—a strong contrast. It is true that the annual tale of suicides from other causes is long. Money-difficulties, domestic unhappiness of normal natures, heterosexual love-affairs, insanity, dread of other than such shames as sexual ones, griefs—all are in the common catalogue. But dread of exposure as a homosexual is a terribly potent factor. Such motives are assiduously "hushed-up." But the sexual truth is often not buried with the victim.
Before the writer of these pages there lay, not long ago, a blotted letter. Here is a transcription of part of it:
"… I cannot stand it any longer. I am what I am, and I can't change myself, and nothing can. So I am not going to try to keep up the fight any more. Sooner or later the thing would leak out about me, just as it did about poor W. S. [This referred to a homosexual scandal in the same city that had ended in the social ostracism of the person indicated.] I could never face such a disgrace and it would surely kill my father …… I have had two narrow escapes already that you know of … I am that way, and there is nothing to help me … It is no use to talk to me about "God and religion." "God" could not make a man so and then let him suffer as I have, trying to crush it out of me, never to any use … I know perfectly well now that to marry any girl ever made would not change that in me … it would only make things worse … You must not mind if people talk about what I've decided to do, if only they don't say that it is because I was [—] But I don't think it will be much suspected …… You have not suspected it, at least I am almost sure you have not. Now you know everything …… They will say I am crazy but I never was clearer-headed. For anybody in my situation there is only one thing to do, that is to end it before matters are worse. Do not let G— know, I don't think he has ever guessed anything …"
The young professional man who wrote the foregoing letter poisoned himself a few years ago, in consequence of deep sexual bewilderment as an Uranian, and because of dread of an exposure of his homosexualism, through some possible misadventure in the future. He had been of strongly religious temper; his sexual struggles had left him almost bitterly atheistic. No word of scientific, humane interpretation of his intersexual nature had met his eyes or ears—but instead everything had darkened his views of himself and of his sex-impulses, to the final step—suicide.
A Black List.
One readily collects such suggestive items in the newspapers as the following—typified by extracts:
"—He was found dead in his bed, last evening, with a bullet in his heart. But the cause of his suicide is utterly unexplainable."——"—He was found hanging, dead, to a tree in the Park this morning. The identity of the suicide who appeared to be in professional life was not established."——"The hotel-proprietor, on opening the door, discovered Mr. X— dead on the sofa, with a bottle of laudanum empty beside him. A few lines stated that private worries had ruined his life. The friends of the unhappy man cannot find the least reason for his being so depressed."——"—The deceased young man had been in apparently excellent spirits on the preceding evening. Nothing yet is traced in his affairs to explain his act."——"In the note left his brother, the dead man threw no light one his rash act, merely stating that for many years he had been burdened with life, and was tired of it. The deceased had occasionally appeared out of sorts, but not often."——"—The friend to whom the dead young man wrote the letter declines to mention its contents; he states that the deceased had long suffered from an incurable nervous disorder. But this has not ever been known to his relatives, who cannot understand the allusion."
Such are the frequent phrases of suicides not accompanied by obvious facts. Too often, not money, not disease, not woman, anxieties, disappointments nor any other reasons are at the root of the action, so much as sheer weariness of a lonely, restless or conscience-burdened homosexual life. Or perhaps dread of a blackmailer's persecution due to some imprudence; or fear of unpardonable social scandal.
Conventional Veiling of Causes of Suicides.
Indeed the pallid conventionality of terms in reporting suicides must often have struck readers of such dolorous items. In certain countries, especially teutonic ones, there has come into usage a stock of phrases that deceive nobody who appreciates the wide prevalence of homosexualism; for these phrases have now set, if recondite, meanings; "chronic disease"—"incurable malady"—"severe nervous weakness"; and above all (a conventionalism almost ludicrous)—"on account of headache" or "troubled with severe nervous headaches." One often reads between the lines of these trivial references the sombre uranian tragedy.
Thus we can group, in melancholy sequence, the following necrologic items from the papers:
Instance: Suicide to Escape Legal Process: Berlin.
"The business-acquaintances and family or other friends of the merchant S— of this city, were shocked to hear of his having committed suicide yesterday night, at his apartments, by taking hydrocyanic acid. He left all his business-affairs in order, by various memoranda, and the suicide was most carefully carried-out. The reason is known to be the threat against the deceased man of legal proceedings in connection with a recent scandal, under the provisions of Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code, owing to certain developments lately attracting public notice again to the affair. Herr S— leaves a large fortune. He was unmarried."
Instance: (London) to escape Blackmail.
"The suicide of Mr. D— R—, a guest in the Hotel W— of this city, of which some account was given in yesterday's papers, appears to be explained beyond any doubt, by the letter left by the deceased to a family-friend in this city. "—I have been for two years at the mercy of a rascal, without honour or pity, who has driven me now to my death. God help me! I cannot struggle any more, and my means to keep him at bay are gone. I prefer death to disgrace." The painful affair has aroused much sympathy and surprise in the native city of the deceased, where however no such private anxieties were suspected. He was not married, but lived with his parents and sisters, in entirely comfortable circumstances."
"The well-known lawyer here, Dr. Johann B—, committed suicide yesterday by a revolver-shot, in his lodgings. Dr. B— was not married, and being in excellent circumstances had lately given up, quite prematurely compared with other men, some part of his large practice. Nothing whatever is wrong, as far as searching examinations already attest, with his affairs, and he was the last man to expect to be influenced by sentimental relations with the other sex. He has left only a note to a friend saying—"God be with you all! The reason of my suicide I shall carry along with me." Incurable neurasthenic trouble has been mentioned as the reason."
"The affair of the suicide of Captain K—, which occurred at T— two days ago is not yet explainable. The letter which Captain K— left, bidding farewell to his comrades and to what had been till recently a promising career, is not enough to make the reason we lately printed (the failure of the dead officer to receive a farther advancement in rank immediately) the cause of his act …… Within a few weeks he had been melancholy, in fact quite unlike his former self. It is mentioned that a severe nervous weakness only lately disclosed, and of a kind not easily to be cured, involved the young officer in painful anxieties … The suicide was deliberately planned."
"As the one o'clock express train from Wien arrived here last night, a young man who was a passenger entered a toilette-closet of one of the carriages, and there shot himself. In dying condition, he was brought to the nearest city-hospital, but he died at eight this morning. He was identified as Richard S— who has been missing for some days from the Finance Department here. He has lately seemed in good health, and there being no question as to money-affairs or relations of a sentimental sort, the act is a mystery to the public and his friends."
Instance: Escape Law.
To Far hack, the Year 1867, occurred a French suicide to avoid the publicity of being branded as a homosexual socially and the charge of 'public' indecorum. A popular actor of that time, Deschamps, a homosexual, was travelling one night on a railway, along with a young cuirassier named Horneck. Deschamps became sexually excited by the attractive person of the young man, and made some direct overtures to him. The latter not only repulsed them but declared that at the next halt of the train he would call an officer, and would have the actor taken into custody as "having committed an offense" in a public place—which was technically sound law. Deschamps implored mercy, but the soldier was inflexible. Deschamps opened the door of the carriage to leap out into the darkness; the train was in full speed; the angry cuirassier held him back, determined to punish his proposal, and both men in the struggle were thrown out on the track, where an approaching train at train at once struck them. Deschamps was immediately killed. Horneck lived long enough to explain the affair, and then succumbed to his injuries.
We have already, in Chapt. VIII, mentioned the suicide of Major-General Hector Macdonald, of the British Army, in Paris, in 1903.
Some years ago, the pastor of a large German parish, a man of conspicuous worth, piety, esteem and usefulness, on consulting the local physician for an ailment of importance, was obliged to confess that he was homosexual. He had never violated his physical chastity. His Uranian sentiment, though indomitable and terribly clear to him, was kept within psychic limits. But the medical man mentioned the confession. The pastor was ruined socially and professionally. He killed himself, in despair.
In London, in 1906-1907, were to be particularized two suicides; in New York City in 1908 one notable suicide; in St. Petersburg (about a year ago) another suicide—all clearly indicated by the dead men to be from similisexual causes.
A brilliant Continental capital has lately added to the record an aristocratic suicide at least open to suspicion under its veiled reference—though of this particular tragedy conflicting explanations have been current:
"Over the melancholy death of the Hon. H— G— of the … Legation here, which occurred through the young diplomat's suicide a few days ago, nothing further can be stated. The funeral took place at three o' clock yesterday afternoon at the M— Cemetery. Most of the diplomatic corps were represented or present … At the grave, was made a brief and suitable address and a prayer … In course of the pastor's remarks he said: "We do not come here this afternoon to sit in judgement on the act of our young brother; but as friends to show our grief for him. We all Stand or fall in life by the grace of God." As to the still unexplained cause of the sudden act … the only person who can throw any light on it,… is understood to decline to utter a word on the topic, and says that he will not under any future circumstances break the confidence reposed in him; except to state distinctly that no money-troubles, no affair connected with the other sex, and no illness brought the tragedy. The reason will probably therefore remain ever obscure, perhaps wisely so. The deceased was a reserved, quiet, well-mannered young man, living a very orderly life in handsome apartments, cared little for social gatherings, and was chiefly in company with a very few friends of his own sex, of various nationalities."
Uranian Loves and Suicides: Instances.
Uranian suicides occur that do not refer to persecutions, nor to dread or criminal and social aspects of some indiscretion. Passional romances mix themselves in the catalogue. Rosalind declared flippantly that "men have died and worms have eaten them, but not for love." Uranian friends—lovers—often prove the irony of the phrase. About ten years ago, an English Uranian, not known to be homosexual except to a very small fraction of his large social circle, committed suicide, while travelling abroad. It was a deliberate suicide, but so adroitly carried out that his near relations, like nineteen-twentieths of his friends, probably never for an instant have thought that the tragedy was not an accident. He left no such notion in the minds of the few persons who were in his morbid secret—some of them, in fact, during weeks had dreaded just such a climax. He had fallen violently in love with a man (much his junior) a type from which no possible return of such a passion, or even toleration of it could be expected. At the end of the second year of the acquaintance, the youth concerned had practically quite broken off the social intimacy, clearly because of perceiving the older man's sexual emotions. The ill-starred Urning struggled to forget, but in vain; and at the end of a certain week of peculiarly intense suffering and nervous disruption (as shown by his diary) he planned and consummated his own shocking death. An American psychiater gave to the writer a somewhat similarly tragic history, which ended in the suicide of an-artist, advanced in life, simply because he had nor been able to overcome his love for another homosexual. The latter had treated the other man's passion with indifference then coquetry, then cruel mockery and finally with an almost brutal contempt—making sport of his admirer's unattractive looks, his age and his individuality in general; and reading his letters to a third homosexual who made the situation common gossip in similisexual cliques. In the city of New York, several years ago, the suicide of a well-known and successful business-man, conducting a fashionable establishment, with various European, branches, referred positively to his relationships with young man, between whom and himself there had come about a formally adoptive connection. The matter was hushed up assiduously. Its details were umnistakeably homosexual—and intensely passional.
Here is an example of a double suicide, because of the mere passion of a coming separation:
"In Werden, three days ago, occurred a painful "double-suicide." Two young men of the town, of humble life but thoroughly respectable and apparently in comfortable stations as employés in the city mentioned, have been somewhat noted in the place for their closely affectionate friendship. The elder was a certain Albert W—, the younger H— G—, and both were in good health. Recently young Albert W— received a proposal to betake himself to a distant city, to remain indefinitely. Since this matter came up, the two friends have been increasingly unhappy. Last Sunday, after a long walk together, in which they met with several of their acquaintances and rather to the surprise of these remarked that they had seen their way to leaving the place together, they returned to the modest room of young W—, being already dressed in their best clothes; and—as it would seem—when clasped tight in each other's arms, lying on the neat bed, fired simultaneously two fatal shots, each with a revolver. They had already inserted a notice in a newspaper taking a farewell of their friends. The real, motive for the tragedy is not clear."
The mutual suicides, in the artillery-barracks at Laibach, in February, 1909, of two young under-officers, Adolf Waldeck and his friend Kogei, had a strong accent of homosexualism. Such affairs are far from rare in military or civilian life.
Or suicide may be complicated with homicide—murder—because of philarrenic love and jealousy. Here are two instances:
"In the N— gasse, last evening, Herr Rudolf Wieser, hotelier, was shot and killed instantly by his best friend, one Loren/ Rotzer. The murder immediately thereafter turned the same pistol on himself, and was immediately dead also. Both bodies were found in the room of little hotel where the crime had occurred. A letter left behind by Rotzer, "for whoever might open it," stated that Wieser (who was the owner of the hotel) had made him, Rotzer "unspeakably miserable" because their relationship of a certain kind not necessary to specify here, had been "broken off", to the ruin of the writer; and the letter concluded with an appeal for forgiveness and kindly judgment. The young man also left a melancholy letter to his mother."
"A mysterious affair, which still awaits explanation, has put the residents of the Kleinseite District into much excitement. Opposite the A— Barracks, was established the shop of Johann Rak, a man of 35 years of age, unmarried. Yesterday morning the shop was not opened as usual, and a certain Joseph Rak,—not a relative, though of the same name as the owner—a clerk to Johann Rak, was not to be found. Hours passed, and the place remained closed; and neither of the two Raks was visible. Both of them lived in rooms in the building, and these rooms also were noticed as shut. On looking through a window, young Joseph Rak was seen lying on his bed, dressed. The door, was forced, and the clerk was discovered to be dead. Two half-filled glasses of soda-water were on the table by the bed, along with some confectionery. The bed of the merchant, Johann Rak, was undisturbed. The physician summoned found no traces of violence on the person of the young clerk, but there is no doubt now that he was poisoned. The body of his employer, the older Rak, was discovered in the cellar of the shop, hanging to a. hook. He had committed suicide, with careful deliberation, during the night. It had been pretty generally said in the neighbourhood that the relations between the two Raks were of a criminal sort (under Paragraph 129 of the Statutes). The physical examination during the autopsy of each body afforded grounds for conclusively accepting this idea. What precipitated the murder and suicide is not clear: but it is thought that the elder Rak poisoned the young clerk and then comitted suicide. Still—this is open to some question."
Insanity as a Consequence of Persecution, etc.
The story of insanity has much, to do with the victimizing of Uranians, with their dread of the blackmailer, of the.State's Attorney, of the policeman, of the detection by society of their natures. The nerve-breaking results of forced chastity on the part of Uranians also is a terrible argument for their rescue from present-day legal and social martyrdom. The suppression of natural, wholesome, harmless desires, the terror of punishment, drives many of the finest-natured Uranians to mania. In a later chapter will be found some considerations of good or evil for the Uranian in marriage, that are not aloof from his tendency, to end violently his predicament, Frequently a married homosexual takes his own life just to break a contract that he cannot support; or to avoid entering into marital obligations—as we shall observe.
Other factors that classify homosexual suicides will be noticed in the same succeeding chapter.
Mysterious Disappearances, Monastic Retre- ats, Philantropic Self-Sacrifices, etc.
So much for the Uranian as a suicide. But there are other withdrawals from battles with social prejudices, from the daily fight, from the grave mishaps more or less tragic to the philarrene. The ranks of the secular priesthood of the Catholic Church, the cells of monks, the severest Orders, incessantly enclose homosexual fugitives; those refugees who wish to forget; to vanish otherwise than in the 'foreign legions' of armies, or lower social descents. They have fled the world to avoid their daily homosexual temptations, to stifle or to root out their emotions as uranians. Let us be glad that for types of Uranians adapted to such a step it often has proved peace; an atrophy of homosexualism just as for heterosexualism. Contemplative, imaginative moral natures can succeed in such an effort. But too often we must believe that it has no good result; that on the contrary it brings more unbroken introspection; more suppressed passion, than before it. Again, the ecclesiastic who is casuistic, whose standards lower in cloister-life or as a parochial career goes on, may easily lapse deeper into the very "sin" that he quitted the outer world to avoid. An interesting suggestion of this is found in the novelist Husyman's story "En Route", with the episode of the hero's midnight observation of the monks assembled for spiritual exercises- against fleshly obsessions.
The Uranian as Altruist.
Many an Uranian, however, does bettor than to fly to any cell or altar. He throws himself into busy charities, earnest organizations, religious or secular duties where he must work hard—sometimes spend himself to death—for humanity; for the poor, the sick, the solitary, the friendless, the ignorant. If in even such noble activity he does not pass beyond temptation, he is likely to find moral and physical peace sooner than in any monastery. He sometimes resorts to certain "home" army-services; not to swell the ranks as debauché, ruffian or weakling, but as a clean-living soldier, with his secret shut within him.
Happiest of all, surely, are those Uranians, ever numerous, who have no wish nor need to fly society—or themselves. Knowing what they are, understanding the natural, the moral strength of their position as homosexuals; sure of right on their side, even if it be never accorded to them in the lands where they must live; fortunate in either due self-control or private freedom—day by day, they go on through their lives, self-respecting and respected, in relative peace.
An Old Summary: Human Nature Cannot Be Eradicated.
Let us quit this part of a realm of melancholy; this demesne of human agony, of distraught souls, of infamy, of vice, of martyrdoms, of false social and legal positions—all so largely as pects of the Uranian when indeed decadent, criminal or victim. He is a human being, first of all. No social station, no philosophy, no statutes, no dangers, will hold his sexual physique in check when the passionate appetite is awake. Happy or unhappy, evil or good, he is a human fact. Intersex is intersex. King, prince, pope, cardinal, duke, statesman, tradesman, soldier, sailor, man of letters, of science, of art, of religion, workman in field or factory, nature has given to him his sexual organs and those tastes that command their use. They must be pacified, or mischief and misery result. One might as well require the Uranian to be stone, as not to yield; even if a life of cruel and unjust expiation is to be met, or death faced—as the price.
Present Legal Advances toward Uranian Protection and Privileges in Europe.
It is in view of aspects of this practical kind, that countries whose Legislation has not till now shown due interest philosophically in the mystery of homosexuality, or humane willingness to study it legally in new lights, agitate considerable changes of paragraphs in their criminal Codes; advances on Napoleonic models or even beyond them. Such movement has received in Germany and Austria favourable popular attention. A long array of eminent physicians, psychiatric-observers high jurists, criminologists, and the general intelligent public are all alert. The recognition of the homosexual instincts as a thing to be regulated, as a troublous instinct not naturally more disgraceful than heterosexualism, has gained—vastly. Pressure on popular sentiment and legal thought has been particularly the work of Dr. Richard von Krafft-Ebing of Vienna (lately deceased); of Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld of Berlin, conspicuous as an indefatigable and self-sacrificing scientist for humanity; of Dr. A. Aletrino, of the University of Amsterdam; of Dr. Havelock Ellis and of Edward Carpenter in England; of Dr. Albert Moll, of Berlin; of many other psychiaters' of the first rank, and of world-wide authority—although their theories of homosexualism and their ideas of its social accountability and of aspects of legal tolerance may differ. A tentative to legal reform became organized in Germany in the latter decade of the nineteenth century. It has steadily grown. Cooperation in it is in no sense particular to the homosexual, i. e. marking its participants as necesarily homosexuals; a valued proportion of the men united in the movement are heterosexual. They act simply on conviction that humanity and knowledge demand changes in forms of Statutory Law; demand sounder public notions of the case of the homosexual as a profound, urgent, appealing problem in Nature and philosophic humanism.
By the suppression in Germany of one single paragraph of the Criminal Code (often referred to here as "Paragraph 175") at some general revision of the Statute-Book, the most formidable aid to the blackmailer,—that worst barrier to the worthy and respectable Uranian's peace—will be removed, and yet no social harm will be wrought. Other changes may follow, as legal and public sentiment are clarified on the whole psychic-physic aspects of similisexualism. But the removal of express statutory clauses affecting natural, decent and private homosexualism will be a humane and legitimate gain.
The German "Comittee", at Berlin.
The formation in Germany of a large General Committee to such ends followed, about the middle of the last nineties. From Berlin, Leipzig, Munich, Breslau and Vienna a vigorous propaganda began—in present force. An Austrian-Hungarian movement exists; less organized and aggressive than the German one, making no clearly vigorous advance toward striking-out even the particular "Paragraph 129," in the Austrian Code, that corresponds with Germany's "Paragraph 175." (In the Hungarian Statute-Book it is represented by another law even more severe and definite).
The Petitions to the German Parliament: Herr Bebel's Plea in 1894.
In 1897—as in 1902 and 1904—in the German Parliament, a great Petition signed by many hundred names of high distinction in German medico-psychichiatries and jurisprudence, science, letters and arts, with other professions, was formally presented; asking the repeal of "Paragraph 175." A careful speech was made by Representative Bebel; and lively debate ensued. In referring to the Petition, Herr Bebel said: "The number of these persons (homosexuals) is so. great, and it joins itself so vigorously to all classes of society, from the lowest to the highest, that if here in Berlin our police did their full duty, according to law, the Government would be forced to build two new penal establishments, merely on account of offences against "Paragraph 175." This is no exaggeration. The business however goes further. We must consider whether this Paragraph does not extend to women, as well as to men, when women commit the same sort of offence. What is right in case of one sex, is right in case of the other.. I tell you again, gentlemen, that if the Berlin police did their duty, why, there would come up such a scandal as never has been known in the world; a scandal in comparison with which the Panama Scandal, the Dreyfus Scandal, the Lutzow-Lectert Scandal, the Taus-Normann Scandal, all would seem mere child's play."
The reference is just'on the speaker's part, to the fact that by the Paragraph ought to be punished female similisexualism. The law does not base any argument that women should be allowed legally to gratify uraniad appetites. Uraniads are continually known to offend so, are discovered so doing, but without any legal penalty affecting them. This is of course, an old statutory inconsistency.
The Petition was rejected in 1897. It was received in part with decided favour, in part with the expected very resolute opposition—and abuse. In 1898, it was brought foward, even more vigorously, with more supporters. But its fate was not any better, though there is hope that a near Code Revision will remove the specific Paragraph. The Clerical Party is not friendly to any such change. More or less active and dignified attempts to similar ends iii Austria and in Hungary, aided by Protestants or Catholics, have not been to practical purport; chiefly in view of similar clerical opposition. Imperial favour is not shown to the movement.
There is some reason to argue that even as a dignified leverage to publicity in the German Parliament the association of the movement with any political party is not useful. Many persons thoroughly favouring humane and intelligent laws, will not aid in the conscientious and brilliant activities of the Committee, until it has another political atmosphere, or none. They claim that such a national movement should have absolutely no political conjunctions. The hostility of the German Emperor as to the Social Democratic element in politics is so emphasized that alliance with that faction (which includes some of the most progressive, patriotic and intellectual men in German politics) embitters the Kaiser against more liberal legislation. But it has been well said that so humane and observant a monarch as the present emperor cannot hold absolute and personal objections to the removal of a law that does his subjects no good; a law that is the cause of infinite disgraces and harm to to them.
Thus much space in this study has been given to Germany's even hesitant advance toward recognizing some human and natural rights of the homosexual, and toward freeing him from unintelligent persecution, undeserved shame and agony, because, the attitude of distinctively Anglo-Saxon social civilizations is so clearly in contrast. Hardly a shadow of any legal change in those legislations—severest of all—is manifest. Public sentiments and public ignorances in England, in her dependent States and Colonies, as in the United States of America, are against any leniences. Lawmakers will not tolerate the thought of even a legal silence as to phases of homosexualism that do not offend public morality, nor deprave innocent youth, nor exhibit other aspects always meriting legal provision. That there is any scientific view of the problem is largely unknown in Great Britain and in America. In those large dominions, with their multitudes of homosexuals, the Uranian seems likely to remain a social and a legal victim for an indefinite time to come.
The Uraniad as Degenerate, Criminal and Victim.
To the Uraniad Intersex, the law to-day has almost nothing to say. Statutes are tacit, as in ages past. Respectable, discreet Uraniads are not in any really unhappy case before the world. Feminosexual relationships may be known or suspected, right and left, in all societies, in all countries. But they seldom excite open comment now-a-days, any more than of old. If a whispered and smiling contempt is shown, it does not usually much injure the social prestige of the objects. While certain crimes quite naturally are in uraniadistic ambients, the blackmailer, robber or assassin are only exceptionally met. Uraniad amours thrive and prosper, with no specters of police-courts to trouble them. Boudoirs, baths and brothels are a rendezvous, day by day; immune of penalties. Such matters as bestiality, proxenetism and other special offences are punishable; but within the pale of assenting privacy, the adult Uraniad is a free agent to do what she pleases—when, where and how her sexual passion suggests, be it nobly or indeed degenerately.
Should Not Statu- tory Laws Deal with Uraniads?
Here an injustice in the existing laws of all States, European, American, or what others, is plain. They tolerate-by implication—feminosexuality, while so severe against masculine relations. The Uraniad's instinct is as "unnatural," is as "immoral" and as "vicious" as is the Uranian's instinct. Inconsistence, partiality and legal injustice are obvious. Logically the Uraniad is obnoxious to prosecution and to social contempt: but her loves are tacitly licensed. Even uraniad prostitution is at liberty to exercise its activities under clandestine conditions.
Example of the "Unequal Law:" Berlin, 1909.
The propriety of "an equal law as Berlin, 1909. to masculine and feminine intersexual practices and scandals, if there is to be any legislation at all concerning the matter, was strikingly illustrated very lately (April 1909) in Berlin, by a legal affair—already noted. A Berlin woman's-club, of smart class, had become notoriously one for feminosexuals. It even advertised for recruits; and admittance to it was by passwords—some of them most suggestive. A Berlin paper attacked this society of—sapphists. (One of the members had been divorced because of her intimacies in the club.) The club sued the newspaper for slander. It lost its case wholly, so convincing was the evidence that the members were lesbians—nearly all of them—and that their handsome locale was a regular rendezvous. Had a similar result occurred as to a club of male intersexuals, there would have been arrests right and left, as the suit ended. But as there is no law punishing feminine intercourse, the court held that the members of the club were neither legally damaged, nor to be pursued criminally. Hence the ladies turned to their own way, rejoicing in their assured freedom—if not in any other outcome of their suit.
Dangerous Work- ings of Uraniad- ism on Woman's Nervous status.
But if the Uraniad is not nearly so much a social or legal victim as the uranian, she can suffer a natural penalty for her intersexual existence. Uraniad appetites, and the feminosexual "type," are likely to be interlinked with morbidity of psychos, with undesirable physical conditions—negative or positive—and even with organic disease. The gratification of uraniad love reacts in many instances, by obviously mischievous influences, on the Uraniad's nervous system. The uranian passion in adults, or in robust, fairly healthful youth, is not nervously harmful, per se. On the contrary, it is largely salutary; particularly, if decent, tranquil, regular in expression and idealized by circumstances. The opposite effects frequently can result by feminosexualism. Too often, by it the feminine psychos goes to pieces. The Uraniad significantly helps to fill insane asylums and sanitariums.
In an Appendix to this study will occur a comment on aspects of the Uraniad when victim of her sexual-sentimental impulses; as contrasted with uranianism.
Geographical Dis- tribution of the Criminal Uramad.
In geographical distribution, the essentially criminal classes of Uraniads, showing moral divagations by theft, by violent behaviour (even to murderous attacks) and by prostitution with women, are most common in the latin lands. There is, of course, a large army of the feminine intersex concentrated in Germany, in Austria-Hungary, in Great Britain, and about the Orient in general. But Italy, Spain and France, among European countries of uraniadism, specialize also her criminal types that overtly obtrude on law. France is distinctively a country of venal feminine siinilisexualism; exactly as it also a country where heterosexual prostitution is so generic. In Paris, every form of the lesbian instinct is met in prostitution. ( Nevertheless, one important student of the topic estimates that in the army of prostitutes in Berlin, twenty-five per-cent are given also to uraniad intercourse, for or without a price. ( Vienna is often referred to as an "uraniad capital;" where the feminosexual prostitute constantly is to be met in the streets, baths, cafés, and such resorts known for her patronage. As with the Uranian, the vapour-bath—on "ladies' days"—in Paris, Berlin, Vienna, London, and so on, are frequented by the "Sisterhood-Brotherhood" of uraniad prostitution; as by the non-venal contingent.
The Uraniad prostitute in all grades of activity is exceedingly numerous. She is frequently located in the regular brothels of women for male clientage. Often she is a heterosexual harlot, as well—rarely is she only uraniad in nature and venal life. If her real sexual tastes are for female types, soon she has a regular clientage of them. She is also encountered, younger or older, beautiful or by no means such, as the kept-mistress to a feminosexual of wealth. Such ties are especially close and passionate. Fierce dramas arise thence, in brothels, baths, masked rendezvous, and even in private homes.
In Brothels: Uraniadism and Female Inmates.
The ordinary prostitute is frequently goon sated with the sexualism of men. She loses all desire, all pleasure in her trade. Exceptions apart, anon she feels indifference, horror or disgust for all her clientèle. Her vehicle of pleasure then becomes another Uraniad. Frequently this is a relatively young girl. In almost all large brothels, there is at least one youthful, rather refined, gentle inmate, the sexual plaything of the sisterhood, complaisant to their satisfactions. Or in contrast, some highly masculine Uraniad, her body and disposition rough and man-like, is preferred for the same offices. There is much feminine pederasty as to young gilds—even children—among respectable or depraved Uraniads, just as in the masculine world of intersex; though not of as classic background.
Uraniads and Blackmailing.
The Uraniad, even if degenerate or vicious, is not as a class initiative in crimes of deliberation, or of audaciously "intellectual" kind. But the Uraniad now and then is met as aggressively a blackmailer. Sometimes some timid fellow-Uraniad, sometimes an Uranian, sometimes an wholly heterosexual party is attacked; into whose secrets she has been introduced. This sort of enterprise she usually conducts by letters. The feminosexual woman of high society is herself thus victimized, when her habits are suspected or her tastes noted. In all cities, such affairs occur, in higher or lower life. A great scandal of the sort came in France, several years ago. Another such affair once darkened the life of a reigning sovereign for awhile, almost with publicity. A recent example of the Uraniad as a victim of attempt at blackmail occurred in an aristocratic circle in an Austrian city. The former intimate friend and employée of a woman of rank and wealth, widowed but still youthful and beautiful, threatened to publish a romantic novel, giving a scandalous history of her victim's real "psychic" life; involving especially certain relations with a female friend of equally prominent social notoriety. The matter came to a question of whether the victim would pay the authour a handsome sum to suppress the book; or if she would refuse. The affair was brought before the criminal authorities, and the blackmailer—but not the book—was suppressed.
Violent Crimes: Uraniads of Degraded Lives.
In the lower levels of uraniadism, the thief, the highwayman in petticoats, even the female apache is encountered. A small group of such amazonian prostitutes, all of the cult of Sappho, quite tolerably "terrorized" a whole street in one of the eccentric quarters of Paris, not long ago. They knocked down men and women at night; they plundered, stabbed, used revolvers, undertook burglaries, and committed homicidal attacks of serious consequences.
In the lower levels of uraniadism, outbreaks of jealousy or of revenge elicit such assaults and murders. In the demi-mondaine atmosphere these affairs come to notice. A few days before these lines are written, a Parisian prostitute, not at all "amazonian" or unfeminine in any external, stabbed another of her class in the brothel where they lived, dangerously wounding her victim. Interrogated by the police-judge, she answered with angry pride—"I wanted to kill her. I was not going to allow her to belong to any other girl! She was mine—I found her a traitress to our love!" The would-be murderess added intimate details of a physical and psychological clarity. A few months ago a similar crime had the same sexual motive. A boulevard cocotte of much beauty and elegance of dress, walked up to a "rival" in the street, and threw the classic vitriol into her face, disfiguring it forever. "She was my wife", was the excuse to the police. "I won't have her running around all the time with other women." A prostitute put a knife into the back of another of the same profession … "She said she was tired of men for good and all. I found she lied to me … I loved her … She had a man with her this morning … She was better than any man—she could make love a lot better." As a rule, however, the uraniad does not object to the "relations" of her intersexual partner when they are with men. It is only in proportion to their, occurring with "other women," with other Intersexuals of the feminine type, that the fire of jealousy rises.
A muscular and courageous Uraniad as a criminal on quite masculine lines of activity, and undoubtedly of countersexual i. e. intersexual type, came before the Paris police in April, 1909. A young man—or apparently such—was arrested in the Rue du Faubourg SaintMartin as a souteneur, while watching and aiding a young woman to pick up her clientage, as a prostitute. The prisoner was tall, robust, virile in manner, deep-voiced, had a (natural) light:brown moustache, wore a neat dark suit, and actively resisted arrest. At the station-house, "he" proved to be of more feminine gender; by name one Anna Guelin, aged twenty-eight, formerly a a singer in cafés-chantants. In physique and sexual organs "he" was feminine, but with sundry developments toward masculinity. During eight years Anna Guelin had lived by consorting with female prostitutes. She was able to maintain sexual relations with them, had been their 'protector' in various skirmishes, and when not able to obtain an income as their "poteau" had turned to bi-sexual prostitution.
Sometimes the scandal as to an uraniad liaison, between types not criminal but degenerated, breaks forth on the most emphatic plane of publicity: as in the recent affair between the wife (a brilliant woman of lighter letters, internationally popular) of a well-known Parisian littérateur and another and titled uraniad; whose debuts in a theatrical piece provoked a stormy demonstration, that compelled their retirement from the piece.
The criminality of the Uraniad, her vicious deviations, indeed-are in key with the general aspects, of the feminine intersex; and, for that matter with women when considered in the aggregate. Uraniads suggest a lower moral nature than the uranian; and that only femininely social and physical disabilities really keep them in check from evil-doing on much the same scale as their more masculine rivals.
Uraniad Murder. Instance.
Occasionally the Uraniad of higher social grade commits a murderous assault, or even is a murderess, through jealousy, revenge, and so on; or through less "racial" causes. In 1892, in the United States of America, took place such a tragedy between a pair of respectable young Uraniads. Jealousy was the motive. A certain Alice M—, had been from her youth a masculine type in all essentials except physical viraginity. She had grown fiercely jealous of her closest friend, Freda W—; both girls being of about the same age, nineteen years. The bond was sexual. Alice M— quarrelled with Freda W—on account of what seemed Freda's growing disposition to "desert"—i. e. to accept masculine attentions. In furious jealousy, Alice M— cut Freda's throat, in broad daylight on a public street; a hideous tragedy, shocking all the town. In the trial, the feminosexual relationship between the girls was plainly brought to light. Alice M— declared in court that she had "married" Freda W—; that the compact was solemn, "for body and soul;" and that they had been planning to leave the town together "to pass their lives so," when Freda—had "broken faith with me." The trial resulted in the acquittal of Alice M— from murder, as being not of sound mind. She was committed to an insane asylum. Nothing indicated her as insane, by correct psychiatric judgment. She was perfectly normal in mind and body, was educated', and though neurotic in type was perfectly reasonable. She was merely uraniad in intersex.
Instance: Adèle Spitzeder.
A good example occurred many years ago, in Adèle Spitzeder, the talented, audacious founder of the sometime famous "Daschauer Bank", and the heroine of its ruin. Adèle Spitzeder did not suggest masculinity in her physique nor her attire, but she was passionately feminosexual—a thorough Uraniad; and intrigued sexually with all sorts of women and sister-Uraniads. One well-known actress was a regular mistress of the "Bankerin". She drank, smoked, gambled and so on ad libitum, in privacy. The letters from her, read in court at her trial, were eloquent of her sexual affairs, and of her complete moral degeneracy, as also of her masculine head for business. After she had served; her prison-term, Adèle Spitzeder organized an ambulant woman-orchestra (most of its members feminosexuals) which travelled in Europe and America with success. Her later, history is a blank.
Instance: Mascu- line Travesty and Moral Degeneracy: Vienna.
In March, 1908, was disclosed in Vienna, by arrest and a police-court trial, a notable instance of the moral degeneracy of an Uraniad, united with vigorous bodily masculinity, much impudence, remarkable talent for shamming and a notable shrewdness in whatever related to victimizing superiour dupes. A certain "Prince Egon" X—, apparently a man in the early thirties, of brilliant social address and attractive physique, had been on the edge of smart commercial society in the city for some time; presenting himself as engaged in a law-suit against his family, for the recovery of his rights in a large estate. "Prince Egon" borrowed important sums for his affairs, from various friendly parties; led a life discreetly luxurious; and finally won the heart of a young lady of excellent family—the engagement being announced, with full consent of the parents. Suddenly "Prince Egon" was taken into custody as Margaret Erb, a woman of manlike physique and perfectly manlike manners, forty-six years old. She had been an international swindler for a long time past; had been incarcerated as a patient in an insane-asylum; and was sought for by criminal and medical experts. The travesty had been so perfect that the young woman to whom "Prince Egon" had become engaged, adored her fiancé, and for some time refused to believe that "he" was not a man.
Instance: Pervert- ed Uranianism. Moral Deficiencies.
In Berlin, not long ago, came a criminal trial against an Uraniad typically ol the degenerate moral type, but of no common mind. This was the notable Frau K—; arrested as being a professional bawd in feminosexualism—sapphic. "Kupplerei" with minors—with personal sadism, masochism, fetichism, and a long category of perversities, including the use of her premises as a resort for all sexual clientages. Shocking scenes were described. She had been the associate in letters and science of many eminent scientific writers on sociology, criminology and psychiatric medicine, etc., not only in Germany but also in America and in Italy, including Cesare Lombroso. She was remarkably efficient in certain fields of literature and science. She was punished as was merited, and her career ended.
Note: The authour desires again to express (as in the Preface) his regret that so considerable a part of the examples and incidents in this chapter are by no means recent (however serviceable as of sorts and kinds permanently typical) and that a larger number of recent ones at his hand could not be inserted under one or another class considered—owing to the arrangements for putting the book to press, after a long delay. In 1905, 1906 and 1907 occurred many appropriate instances of intersexuals as degenerates, as criminals or as social and legal victims for which place could not be made now in these pages. The Continental daily press, and specifically the little bulletin "Mittheilungen des Bundes für Männliche Kultur" (B. Zack; Treptow; Berlin) and many current psychiatric publications, all will' remedy the deficiency. To readers who cannot utilize studies in German, French, Italian, etc., Dr., Henry Havelock Ellis's large and detailed researches into the topic of sexual inversion will be of profound interest; even where the reader may not be fully in accord with the opinion of so authoritative an observer.
↑The writer take this opportunity to note the loss of some lines in the first paragraph of the eighth chapter of this study (p. 231) by which error, not observed till too late for correction, there is a confusion in referring to Philippe d'Orléans senior and the Regent.
↑Since writing the foregoing paragraph, this bath has been subject to a surveillance that, according to information at hand, has perceptibly changed its aspects as a practical rendezvous.
↑A special attestation of this curious aspect occurred in a very recent libel suit—mentioned on a later page—in Berlin, originating in a scandal in a women's club.
↑Since the Eulenburg Trials and concurrent scandals in Germany, in 1907-8, there is noticeable in that State a serious popular reaction against even the intelligent scientific discussion of the Uranian and of uranianism; a sort of social recrudescence of sentiment against all the uranian problem; a phase regrettable on grounds of legislative justice, humanity and science, and which, it may be hoped, will not continue. Of scientific acceptance there has been no retogression, nor could there be. It is little to the Credit of Great Britain and American that of them not even so much as "action with reaction" can be said to have occurred yet.