The Intersexes: A History of Similisexualism as a Problem in Social Life/Chapter X
The Uranian and Uraniad as Degenerates, as Criminals and as Social and Legal Victims: Types and Biographies.
of the Word "De-
The similisexual passion is a sex-determinant,—without the stigma of sex-decadence as its necessary consequence. It is a concurrent quality in all sorts and conditions of human beings, good and bad, moral and immoral, superior or inferior, as to physiques and minds. As we have seen, Uranians and Uraniads may be (in a great proportion are) perfectly developed and normal; they often are striking examples of "model" humanity in many traits. The intersexual instinct mixes in temperaments of the more or less perfect or imperfect, of the noble or ignoble. It can appear in types richly endowed with bodily vigour and sexual force, possessed of an aggressive mental, physical and ethical superiority. Or else it can be blended with effeminacy and a shameful un-virility. It can join to a perfect external womanliness and unwomanliness. It characterizes the high and debased. It is an ingredient that often unites to no determinative externals. It is not strictly, psychologically, a definitely "contra-sexual" impulse. It refers to no hard-and-fast logic of individualisais, in innumerable instances. It has no necessary and inevitable relationship to any disease, intellectual aesthetic, ethical or physical types. It is a product and an impulse by itself, the nature-right of distinct, or of indistinct and medial sexes; the semi-tones of the psychic and sexual gamut. Each intersex sounds the melody of its own string, in the mysterious human instrument of which it is arbitrarily made a part. It completes, as an indispensable, Nature's calm cycles. In fact, as to the term "degenerate" one of the very first principles in studying homosexualism is to remember that a similisexual man is not necessarily as a decadent man or woman.
of the Term
The examples of Uranianism joined to such decadence are varied, just as are instances of Uranianism when conjoined with fine moral and intellectual fibre. We can pass from the Uranian who exhibits merely a refined weakness of character, or a 'secondary' physique, to the Uranian that is a prostitute, blackmailer, thief, child-ravisher, murderer; or perhaps a type physically deficient, plainly abnormal and even monstrous.
or Other Sorts.
but not Physically
nor Morally Such.
"Having been known in North Haven, Me., (my birthplace and home for thirty years,) as a female, by the name of Lilian G. Carver, I do hereby publicly declare that I have been masquerading, and for more than ten years against my wishes. Force of habit, filial regard, and dread of the necessary sensation attendant upon such a step have prevented me from doing my duty; which now, as a Christian I undertake to do. My real name is Arthur Leslie Carver. I am a man, and since September this year, (1901) have dressed and have been known as such."
"Lilian's" Carver's degenerative traits were exclusively physical. They were invisible to the layman's notice, as departing much from a plump male type. There was no moral degeneracy whatever in question. The sexual organs were large and perfectly masculine. The sexual tendency was "passive." As Arthur L. Carver, the subject entered business life in Boston, as an employé, and is still in that occupation and city.
Degrees of the
ure: Real Herm-
Nevertheless, a limited, obscure proportion of homosexuals, Uranian and Uraniads, are marked by actual hermaphroditism,—plain and unequivocal. That any are so has strengthened the rooted vulgar idea that the Uranian and Uraniad must be hermaphrodite. This antiquated notion is strong in America and England. The reader will find in the closer medical studies of the homosexual problem, as well as in other connections, full information as to bodily hermaproditism. It includes male, genitals in a type otherwise female (or vice versa); male and female genitals and hybrid organs in the same individual; atrophied organizations; and so on. An interesting series of observations of this anatomical side of homosexualism appears in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen" for 1902. The present writer examined lately a striking instance, in an Italian city.
The absurd idea of an hermaphroditic body as necessary to Uranianism belongs with an old notion in Catholic canon-laws (and others)—that the hermaphrodite must be made a sort of outlaw, as a human being divinely accursed. One «celebrated hermaphrodite has left a published study of this predicament; a kind of desperate appeal and defense. A notable hermaphrodite of the time of Trajan and Hadrian was the distinguished philosopher Favorinus, the friend of Plutarch and the instructor of Aulus Gellius. Whether the famous Chevalier d'Eon, who appeared before the world during his long and amazingly adventurous life (1728-1810) now as woman, now as man, with perfect success was hermaphroditic, and homosexual or not at all so, has never become perfectly clear. Some recent studies of his career are to the contrary. Indeed, one can-hardly class the plucky and gifted Chevalier among degenerates. He seems more an incorrigible eccentric and "mystifier;" a type in many traits vigorously—agressively—virile, as his friends and enemies soon learned to their dismay. The Abbé François de Choisy (1644-1724) offers, on somewhat similar lines to d'Eon, a temperament far more saliently degenerate and devirilized: but here again nothing classes the type as an hermaphrodite, in any exact sense of the term; and during de Choisy's bisexual career, with all its effeminacies, orgies, profligacies, aventures galantes and so on—now of masculine and now of feminine colouring—there is no question of mental degeneracy. His culture, wit, critical acuteness and general intellectual vigour are attested by his contemporaries, and by his voluminous writings on philosophy, history and religion. He seems to have assumed so much the woman because "to be a woman" delighted him. naturally, and licensed the perversities and fantasies of his curious intersexualism. To Emil Mario Vacano, the famous "Miss Corinna" of the circus-rings of Europe, in the middle of the last century (to whom we have referred in citing from his novel "Humbug") something of the same capital and capacity for sexual mystification were notably developed, in course of Yacano's amazing Wanderjähre.
Life, with High
Gilles de Rais,
Marquis de Sade,
In the case of that amazing oriental, one by no means wholly homosexual, the Emperor Elagabalus (or Heliogabalus) we have an Uranian monumental in even juvenile degeneracy. His effeminate beauty of person was so remarkable that he seems to have deserved his adopted name of the Sun-God; a suitable priest to such a deity in his bisexual loveliness. The growth of his delusions and degeneracies was swift, reaching their highest point when he succeeded Macrinus as Emperor, for his short reign of mania and folly. The "marriage" of Elagabalus'to the Moon, his insane expenditures, his sexual debauches as "man and woman", his caprices, fêtes and follies have become history. They lacked almost every element of dignity, elegance or common-sense; being mostly grotesquely-mad efforts to enjoy the impossible in every form. Cruelty however is not a distinguishing trait in Elagabalus, as it was in many predecessors on the Roman Imperial throne. He had rather the weaknesses of a girl, including a girl's aversion to seeing' what is truculently painful.
Prince Eugene of Savoy, had a side to his nature that was indisputably degenerate,—especially from the military-uranian's typic point of view. He was not only known as a pederast, but was given to prostituting himself ( he was a passivist) for money, disguised, like a sort of soldier-Messalina. The letters of Elizabeth-Charlotte, the shrewd Duchess of Orléans, have odd references to these disgraceful proclivities of the bold hero of Oudenarde and Malplaquet. Philippe d'Orléans (1640-1701) the womanish, depraved and homosexual brother of Louis XIV, is a remarkable instance of degeneracy not marked by cruelty, in a man not a poltron and not intellectually deficient.
Gilles de Rais:
A Fifteenth Cenr-
Case," in 1903.
Pederastic affairs in boys' schools often take the colour of such brutal crimes. The robbery of newly-made graves, and the outrages on corpses also are due to this same hideous instinct. The topic is somewhat foreign to the purposes of the present study. It can be pursued by the reader in numerous studies of sadism, masochism, and so on, by psychiatric specialists.
In Modern Anglo-
cracy: An English
In beginning this chapter, attention was drawn to the error of supposing that the homosexual is necessarily a degenerate in body or in mind, in any such sense of the term as is so common: and the extremely important relation between homosexuality and taste, talent and genius in aesthetics has been shown. But it is not amiss to note here a curious phase that has often been pointed out as to artistic or literary homosexuals of anglo-saxon, teutonic or other northern—non-latin—races who escape timely from social and legal perils plentiful in their own countries, and so betake themselves to Italy, to Spain, and so on—especially to Italy. Their sexual liberty when there seems remarkably often to have the effect of destroying their intellectual or artistic activity and ambition. They become professional drifters and 'dawdlers', degenerate in will, in purpose, and even intersexual virility. They do nothing, accomplish nothing, while constantly talking about doing and accomplishing; and anon having lapsed gently to idleness complete, the capital of talent seems to evaporate wholly away. Their liberty really gained, its relief undoes them. The relation of these aspects to the American, the English, the German homosexuals who become émigrés to the treacherous South is particular. Latins and Gauls, born in genial airs, seem to make compatible inborn uranianism with activity of talent much more as a normal condition than do immigrants new to the sunshine and philarrenic security of the South.
"In that way". In no case, with a woman. As he passes (perhaps a handsome, manly figure) the street-walker tries to attract him. But the Uranian does not give a thought to her ogling. She even angers and bores him. Every throb of his intersexual being is pulsating for a male. As social companions, as artistic creations for the eye, many women may have his admiration and intimacy, especially if "good women." For his sexual relief, woman is an irony. Could the female harlot serve him sexually as she serves so many millions of men, easy would be his choice. But occidental Europe in general does not permit brothels of males, nor allow the boy-harlot too openly and scandalously to racoler.
Yet now and then, as the sexually-excited Uranian continues his stroll, he meets a furtive, keen look from a man or a youth who passes. It is the mysterious Anblick of the Uranian fraternity; that psychic-sexual interrogation, that signal and challenge ever where current and understood among homosexuals. It is true that homosexuality of an Uranian is not met in his glance unless he means it to be so met. Many homosexuals sedulously avoid it. Part of the protective "Mask" is the watch against such eloquence of a mere exchange of looks. True also is it that the "Look" in part is explained by the fact that the Uranian eye, especially in the higher type, is almost always singularly luminous, and that its penetrating gaze can be disturbingly direct. But the 'homosexual glance' is not mere fiction.
Before a shop-window, or perhaps at a bench in a park, halts the Uranian. Soon another stroller, loitering in professional alertness, walks toward him—catches his eye expressively and stands or sits near him. The newcomer may be a boy of sixteen or eighteen, or much more an adult good-looking or plain; likely not really well-dressed; and artificial aids improve (?) his physique. He may have a certain fausse élégance—cheap jewellery and a gaudy cravat. A conversation is begun. Little by little, it slips on toward confidentialities—the discomforts of living and of travelling alone, the effects of the evening air, the quiet of the place, the amusements of the town. The talk grows indistinctly erotic as the other man becomes surer that he has here one of the—profession. Presently the Uranian, certain of his ground and well-enough suited with his interlocutor's physical type, proposes that they take a walk together; or go. to some near restaurant. During the promenade, or at the café, there is the necessary bargaining, good-humoredly, and as with a woman-harlot. The two men also are pretty sure to pause at the nearest latrine, by common consent, if the patron be especially disposed to estimate the physical capital of the other. If satisfied with the étalage, he accompanies the vendor to the nearest safe locality—a corner of a deserted thicket in the park—an open field; to an equivocal hotel, to the quarters of his new friend; perhaps to his own lodging:
"Allons, retirons-nous, ne troublons point leur joie."
The client pays the tariff agreed or disputed—five or ten shillings, five or ten marks, two or three florins, ten to twenty francs—local and personal prices differ. Anon he says good-evening to his acquaintance, whom he may or may not care ever to meet again. The incident is closed: leaving the Uranian sexually pacified, precisely as is the Dionian by the functions of a female harlot.
The foregoing is a typical incident. The army of such male prostitutes in large cities is of thousands. Boys of precocious debauchery, either in the pay of mature male procurers and patrons, or "working" by themselves, idle and corrupt youths in their later teens, young men in twenties and thirties, older types (often of repulsive maturity) catamites of all ages, complexions, physiques, grades of cleanliness and decency. As a rule, those who begin with health and robustness of body and pretentions to good-looks become feeble, pallid wrecks. Sexual debilities, the precarious, nerve-shattering life, misery, late hours, weather, careless habits of person, drink—all sap away physical attractiveness. The concurrence of the female harlot is not troublesome. But the civilian prostitute suffers much in his 'business' in those many cities where soldiers and sailors are his rivals. A large proportion of the clientage much prefer a soldier-prostitute; for reasons we have mentioned in a former chapter.
The homosexual—or de facto homosexual—prostitute who if older or younger, solicits publicly in a female costume, is a frequent phase; as we have seen in foregoing instances. Such types haunt the parks, public thoroughfares and so on, after nightfall; or are met in the lowest of café-chantants, balls and bars. But to make a practice of such a travesti requires a style of physique, an age, and a natural effeminacy not so general as is supposed. The trick is not always useful, either; for the imitation may be so perfect that a homosexual client looking for a male pathic is deceived, and pays no heed to the maneuvers and charms of what he supposes to be a woman street-walker. Again, if he recognizes the under-sex, he is perhaps repelled by any masculine type that appears so womanish, and so will have nothing to do with it. He is seeking for virility; a robust, coarse soldier, or even unclean but manly voyon, is vastly more to his taste. An additional reason against such masquerading is that it is an immediate offense against police regulations, and makes the male prostitute liable to arrest, even if, he is not caught in soliciting. Hence it is not favoured by much the largest proportion of prostitutes, whether they can adapt themselves well to it or not.
A general custom in the world of homosexual prostitution, though perhaps more one that is observed in its "smarter" grades, is the changing of the masculine names to its female equivalent, especially when correspondence or conversation concerning the subject is in question; or assuming some female name of independent source; or taking some nick-name—vulgar or aristocratic, delicate or crude—belonging to the feminine category. Thus Henry becomes "Henrietta", Charles signs himself "Charlotte", Paul is known as "Pauline", Jules as Juliette, and so on. Such noms de guerre as "La Belle Hortense", "Cleopatra", "La Marquise" "Die Schöne Salome" and "Petite Fleur" are attached to youths or men, perhaps with moustaches that a trooper would envy, and of blamelessly male sexual qualifications—according to what popularly would seem to decide that matter. The these sobriquets are endless, descending to the most obscene picturesqueness, But merely feminized male names are most in favour, perhaps because this practice is so usual among homosexuals distinctly effeminate, but of thoroughly good social station and wholly apart from any venal or proletarian classes. As to the latter, an amusing caricature appeared lately in a Paris humorous journal, in which a severe old valet is projecting his head from out of the door of his master's bedroom, saying to an elegantly dressed young man, on the landing—"The Baron don't receive to day—he's abed!"—to which the youth smilingly replies, "Ah yes—but he expects me. Please just tell him it's Lucy."
Such is homosexual street-prostitution of usual sort. It differs from female prostitution in that it is not so observable by the uninitiated. Nothing is more common than to hear heterosexuals, all their lives in some noted center of male prostitution, deny, angrily or serenely, that it flourishes in their town. Any much-frequented, street music-hall, ball, theater witness the contrary.
for Male Prosti-
in All Countries.
The Uranian of
Averse to Boyish
"Why, Then At
The proportion of homosexual prostitution in many capitals is notably large. In London, Paris, Berlin, Naples, New York it is an armée de vice. Berlin's male prostitution is calculated at 20 per-cent of the whole prostitution of the city. In 1909, an official Commission in Paris reported a startling percentage of habitual prostitution by minor youths under eighteen years, including a vast proportion of small boys—eleven, twelve and thirteen years old, or even younger. The adult male prostitutes were stated to be thousands; a formidable rivalry to the female battalions. The Eighth Chamber of the Paris Police Tribunal, in the Palais de Justice, deals with dozens of flagrant cases each week, such offenders being the special charge of the tribunal named. According to such students of the topic in France as MM. Berenger, Joly, Prévost, Meunier, Bourdon and Brun, male prostitution, especially by minor youth—younger or older—"is alarmingly increasing in Paris."
by Dionian Types.
In this regiment of masculine harlotry of course are met all dramas of faithfulness or unfaithfulness, disinterestedness or venality, comedies and tragedies, jealousies, rivalries, ruptures and reconcilements. "Tout comme dies nous!" might the female concurrence exclaim. Women-prostitutes well understand what a rivalry in the profession the masculine concurrent has set up, to lessen receipts and patronage; low street-walker, prosperous woman-prostitute, or high-class kept-woman, she hates her male competitor as a mystery and abnormality, a sexual insult as well as a commercial rival. Both sexes of the underclass nevertheless are met in alliance; tolerating each other, even living together, for common profit. Many of these partnerships—immediately, dangerously criminal—are prolific in incidents where the Uranian is a helpless victim. The police of all large cities know well the disorders and crimes by this armed truce between the two prostitutions.
of Male Harlotry.
Ground of Male
Share of the
Amateur in It.
In Paris, are at least a dozen baths that are homosexual rendezvous. Five or six are of wide popularity. In London, is a small group well-recognized. New York has several. But these, as most others, cannot be utilized, then and there, for homosexual practices. They are merely establishments for—anatomic inspections; for making appointments to meet elsewhere—some near hotel, for example. Berlin has a considerable list of such baths, with an homosexual personnel of impeccable discretion. In Italy there, are almost none; other rendezvous are efficient substitutes, and in Italy there are few vapour-baths of the kinds and sizes so common in other parts of Europe. The vapour-baths of Constantinople, Smyrna and so on have notoriously homosexual aspects.
…" The gentlemen who take the place of ladles are mostly young men, from twenty to twenty-five years old. They poise themselves with feminine, grace on their hips, in walking about; scatter their, coquettish glances right and left; and when fatigued with dancing fan themselves with their lace-handkerchiefs. But an hour, later the company has quite another aspect, because of the advent of its—"ladies" is here written but "gentlemen" is meant,—in ladies costumes, duly accompanied by male escorts in evening-dress. These newcomers conduct themselves exactly as would their really feminine colleagues at a dance—with decorum, style, and the effort at being 'charming." The so-called "Baby" (really a young fellow) halts in embarrassment at the door of the hall, in spite of the encouragement of his escort, an elderly gentleman of distinguished appearance, whom one easily recognizes as an ex-officer of the army … Tripping in with downcast eyes, quite as a young girl going to her first, ball, comes forward the "belle" of the evening, at once surrounded by an assortment of cavaliers who pay "her" the most flattering compliments. Much more self-conscious is yonder elegant, almost queenly, apparition in black silk décolletée, with a Rembrandt hat on "her" curling blond wig. "That is the "Baroness", remarked a gentleman sitting at my table. Under that name, in fact, is styled a well-known young actor of the city, who as—lover—on the stage fascinates all girl-patrons of the theater employing him. In a simple but "Parisian-chic" style are arrayed two other "ladies". They understand also how to keep their admirers at a distance … A Paris-' like coquette, but tall as a grenadier, enters the dance, amid a general acclaim from the guests. This is the so-called "Handsome Emily" (in real life a barber of Berlin named Emil F.) who throws himself, smiling into the arms of a graceful young partner; and so begins a bacchanal galop through the hall …"
The same reporter described how, toward two o'clock in the morning, this remarkable exhibition of uranianism reached its climax, with the advent to the ball of representatives of the real feminine demi-monde, in a high state of curiosity and rivalry. ("Jahrbuch für Sexuelle-Zwischenstufen," for 1900, page 470.)
The preference for dressing like a woman, even to feeling oneself at ease only in woman's dress, has been a perennial trait of effeminate Uranians; sometimes of "Uranians not otherwise effeminate. Heliogabalus, Philippe d'Orléans and Henri III, are aristocratic examples. It is a common artifice of male prostitutes, and of the homosexual who finds fun in adventures in such costume. Here is an English example in prostitution from a contemporary London police-blotter:—
The following item from a Paris journal, of December 9. 1908, is of the same category; the device being invariable among a certain category of French and German male prostitutes whose physique admits of such a trick:
"During some weeks the police of the flying squadron in charge of the Champs-Elysées quarter have been interested in the odd behaviour of an elegant young street-walker, in costly clothing and ornaments, who has been seen each evening strolling around the approaches to the Grand Palais des Beaux Arts, a quarter where overt racolage is not favoured. The young woman seemed very willing to be conducted by belated men into deserted thickets and alleys. Yesterday morning an officer happened to see her going into a house in the Rue Geoffry-Angevin. On inquiry, they learned, to their surprise, that the "lady" was a young man named Frederic B—, thirty years old, a German by nationality and of effeminate type, who more or less as 'professional' always went about at night in female dress,' and thus satisfied—equivocal passions. He was arrested last night when in a most compromising situation with a 'client', and was locked up with his partner, for scandalous behavious in a public place. Some of the most worst of our dangerous class of criminals are caught disguised in the same way."
The reader will find elsewhere references to this sort of masquerade by the bas-fonds of homosexuality in many cities. There are numerous instances in Berlin and London police-records each year.
Such renegade intersexuals remind one of the reply of a tall, bronzed valet to an American lady, awhile ago in a Cairo hotel, where there were no female servants. "But I rang for a chambermaid," she said in some embarrassment. The young man bowed respectfully and gravely answered, "Madame, I am she."
"Baron Friedrich-Wilhelm de C—, a resident of this city, was arrested at the railway-station yesterday, on a charge of a criminal act, set forth on a requisition from Dresden. Among his "peculiarities", Baron C— is accustomed, when at his home, to wear female clothing almost exclusively. For rich gems, jewellery, perfumes, etc., he has been for a long time a lavish spender of money. His family-connection is an old and very aristocratic one in France, and the Baron himself is a person of superior education and breeding."
An amusing case, similar to the "Lillian Carver" one cited, occurred not long ago, where a young man disguised himself with perfect success as a young woman; for some six weeks filling a position as book-keeper in a factory in Allenstein, Germany. It originated in a bet. The young gentleman soon was surrounded by male adorers, being of exceptional elegance and beauty in his travesti. The surprise of his employer can be imagined when, on entering the bedroom of "Fräulein Louise" one morning, he found there, only a wonderfully good-looking, rosy youth of faultless masculinity, clad in a top-hat and handsome morning suit, pipe in hand, who smilingly greeted his employer—"Awfully sorry to give you inconvenience, but from to-day I am a man—again!" With which adieu "Fräulein Louise" betook herself to the railway-station, leaving half-a-dozen wounded hearts.
Two curious cases of the passion for women-attire, on the part of adult homosexuals, appear in Augustus of Saxe-Gotha (1772-1822) who lived much of his private life in gowns, laces, and jewels; received guests in them; had himself painted as a woman by portraitists of his capital and by foreign artists (the Duke's feminine beauty quite justifying such records ) and on his death left millions of money in debts—and enormous masses of women's habiliments, women's jewellery and women's wigs. This sovereign, a wit and satirist, was perhaps the first of aristocratic German homosexual authours in belles-lettres; by his novels "The Kyllenion: or A Year in Arcadia" and the "Emilienne Lettres". In his correspondence he wrote that he "never felt so strong, so well, as when he could get rid of all his masculine vestments of a forced virility". Napoleon found him brilliantly clever. Goethe spoke—though without criticism—of the Duke's open effeminacies. To a quite similar type, Adolphe-Friedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg (1753-1794) who also constantly affected feminine gear and ways, reference was made earlier here.
ical Example of
Travesty of Sex:
An American example of such masquerade, a military officer in active service, came several years ago in the person of Commander James R—, of Missouri. In 'hours of ease' he dressed as a lady, and at large expense. His feminine wardrobe was complete and fashionable. The writer of these pages knows an English colonel (a capital soldier, a firm disciplinarian and drill-master withal) who has the same eccentricity, and in most private circumstances can be seen as a majestic—dowager! A peculiarly noteworthy instance of this sartorial weakness, can be read in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen" Vol. II; p. 332; an autobiographic statement written with queer naïveté. In that case the similisexual impulse is not apparent.
ing as Girls at
"When I was seventeen, I had a friend of twenty, like myself a distinctively feminine Urning. We two used to help my sisters for hours at a time, in making their finery. Since we both had good taste in such toilette-matters, we were welcomed. If the girls' new clothes were very successful in their working-out, we two used to ask to try them on ourselves, which doings were the pleasure of everybody. But I knew better than anybody could suppose how to deport myself in such feminine costumes. I knew how to wear a train with such majesty and grace, and so to wield my umbrella or fan, that often my mother was sorry that I was not a daughter!
"But the desire awoke in my friend and me to show ourselves publicly in woman's dresses and to attract notice of men, as girls. So we decided to make a visit to one of the regular "Universum" dance-evenings; in company with a couple of our lovers; our escorts of course in male attire. We thought out how to manage the trick, and knew how to arrange it so that an old aunt in the family invited our parents and sisters, one Sunday, to drink coffee. We took our sister's maid into our confidence, and she promised to adjust our coiffures for us ……
At last the family-party went off, and we could "get ready" undisturbed. We locked every door, opened every wardrobe. Gowns, underwear, shawls, shoes, garters—we rummaged till we had picked out the very handsomest. Ah, what delight it was to make ourselves so fine! What a pleasure when the very maid herself was perfectly fascinated with our looks! Then we heard the carriage. Our escorts had come to take us. They were simply amazed at our brilliant exteriors, but still more at the ease and elegance with which we wore our costumes. We stepped into that carriage like a regular pair of princesses."
"We arrived at the "Universum' dance. The music sounded out towards our approaching feet. We jumped out like two young roes. We made our progress through the ranks of the ball-guests, on the arms of our cavaliers. ( As a fact, our toilettes were much too fine for any "Universum" ball.) We took our seats. Therewith up came a robust, handsome man to me, and asked me with a questioning look "May I have the pleasure, Fräulein?" Scarcely had one such dancer broken the ice, than two or three others put their names down. We simply revelled in our delight at the success of our scheme. Meantime we had lost both of our escorts! But instead of them, we had two capital partners, who asked us to supper, and as both were handsome fellows, we consented.
"The two of them took us for young demi-mondaines. Our conversations with them gradually became more confidential; and we grew very coquettish, of course, when they asked us to go to a. hotel with them—for the night. We did everything possible to get out of that scrape, but nothing was effective: We had to get into a carriage with them! Almost fainting in terror, we fairly got to the hotel. Now, now, must our secret be unmasked! We were swindlers, and had played our parts with a most thorough intention. When finally, we were really in a room in that hotel, my friend began to cry,—I threw myself on my knees before our new acquaintances. I begged forgiveness for our naughty joke. I confessed that we were not girls, at all! I begged the gentlemen to let us go home. Confounded, the two men looked at each other. Then, at last, they declared, up and down, that—it was all the same thing to them—stay We simply must. And we did so—and we went back to my home the next morning, a where regular "scene" of course was waiting for us!"
The same amazingly enterprising young specimens of Uranian effeminacy in course of their shining careers in Vienna, used to seek diversion in much lower planes of non-Uranistic society. Here is another chapter:
"… After this, we two used to frequent the smartest balls, and that without a man ever recognizing our sex, in our rich costumes … But once on a time there was a Coachman's Ball, in one of the Viennese suburbs. Among the Viennese hack-drivers are good-looking, lively fellows. They like to have a jolly girl at supper with them. Now the laundry-girls also go to those coachmen's balls, absurdly dressed-up, though frequently such girls are real beauties. So we put on four to six rows of underskirts … red-flowered gowns, tight satin bodices to make our waists small, dressed our hair in the correct scalloppy sort of way, tied on screaming orange-yellow head-kerchiefs, painted our faces with rouge and white—and you had in us a pair of laundry-maids handsome enough for an artist's eye! Into the ball we marched, two laundry-girls without escorts! The women present all pulled us to bits with their eyes, angrily. But the men broke out into a general buzz of admiration. They got up on the, tables while wo sat down—just to get a good look at the "two pretty washers". They stared as if we had been wild animals, at a show. The real girls grew angrier and angrier. Then a couple of handsomely dressed younS men came to our table, and began to chaff with us. (Such fellows of better sort often appear in these popular balls as spectators.) This provoked the hackmen. A lively, handsome black-eyed chap drew near. "Well, my yellow-kerchiefed darling!" he said to me, "would you favour me?" So up I got to dance, gave my skirts a shake, and put my hand in his. I noticed that everybody was again getting up on the tables to watch. The band played a polka-mazurka, at that time a dance in which few were practised. My young man and I hardly had danced down that hall once, when a regular storm of applause came,-just as in a theater. So the ice was really broken. The young women ground their teeth, in their jealous anger. But the young fellows just swarmed after us! We were victors!"
"And my friend and I knew how to chaff the men in a way not to be beaten. When, toward midnight, we and our two hackmen began to sing "Jodel" songs, with a zither-accompaniment, in our artificial soprano and alto, there was no end of a jollification. The fellows kissed us to their very heart's content, treated us to refreshments, were delighted if we would sit in their laps. One wished to buy me a splendid shawl … another made me a serious proposal. I do not understand now how we could carry the affair so far, in some details. For instance, as the better sort of the male guests and the hackmen pressed around us, we called out, "Well—who sets up the champagne for us?"—at which the gentlemen and the commoner guests fairly scuffled over us! We were indeed just in our element! And we often repeated this sort of an adventure, and not only we two but many of the "sisters" …
To find a more predisposed instance of sexualism and effeminacy in a Uranian type would be hard, outside of the regiment of venal homosexual prostitution.
The celebration of Uranian marriages, whether lightly or seriously made, are sometimes luxuriously 'smart,' with a considerable company of guests. In Carlier's work "Les Deux Prostitutions" (a book of value to those interested in the underworld of French homosexualism, though written with no reference to a correct scientific theory of homosexualism) will be found some anecdotes of these homosexual uranian weddings. Here is such a matter, a Berlin affair, from a German newspaper, some years ago:
"A young and wealthy American named R— W— was lately arrested here in Berlin. As to the grounds of this arrest the following. In the middle of last December, appeared in a well-known hotel in the Moabit quarter, three gentlemen, who asked the proprietor of the house if he could hire-out his assembly-rooms for a wedding. on the 20th of this month. Receiving an assent, they hired the rooms, and by the 18th had prepared a regular chapel out of the hall, with elegant furniture, a portable altar and numerous expensive floral decorations. But on the evening of the day for the "wedding", when the guests were due, the police informed the horrified proprietor that the "bride" was to be the aforesaid young man, R— W—, masquerading as a young woman. The police however did not prohibit the proceedings, there being then no formal ground for that step. In course of the evening, carriages began to roll up to the rooms; setting down, especially, numerous handsomely dressed "ladies" (who proved later to be all of male sex) in rich feminine costumes, worn with perfect ease and deceptiveness. Other carriages presently brought the "clergyman" who was to perform the ceremony (he is a certain Dr. S—) and the "bridegroom", who is an ex-Uhlan officer named D— L—, and his "bride", the above-mentioned R— W—. The latter was a strikingly handsome young partner indeed, in full white satin toilette, with wreath, veil and bouquet of orange-blossoms. Unluckily the complete progress of the programme—an actual parody of a religious service which would be a criminal offence—could not occur, as the presence of the detectives was gradually known; and so the evening offered merely a dance and a costly supper. These festivities were prolonged till a late hour, whereupon the company of gentlemen and "ladies" and the fair "bride" and her groom dispersed with much gayety, but with entire decorum. Nevertheless it has been found needful to enter special charges against the American originator of the proceedings; who, by the by, looks completely a handsome, manly young fellow in his male attire, and has worn a fine moustache, which he sacrificed to the solemn occasion described."
Possibly the famous marriages of the Emperor Nero with his favourites Sporus and Doryphorus, extravagantly costly solemnities that scandalized Rome, meant not so much a sacrilegious orgie as Nero's vivid idealism and his intersexual enthusiasm. Toward Sporus, Nero appears to have been, the "activist"—the husband; to Doryphorus the Emperor was obviously "passivist", considering himself the wife. The femininized boy, Sporus, loved Nero to his last hour. The late Ludwig II of Bavaria, in the long line of his homosexual escapades, was with difficulty prevented, toward the end of his melancholy career, from solemnizing a marriage with another similisexual. He planned a sumptuous private ceremony, in the seclusion of one of his costly retreats. The certainty of such proceedings being known checked them abruptly.
In the foregoing summary of marriages and Uranianism, of course we are not touching on normal wedlock for homosexual men who are seeking sexual relief, if possible a "cure" for their nature. Another chapter of our study presents that grave subject by itself. Some unfavourable aspects of it have already been indicated.
In reviewing so far homosexual prostitution, uranian decadents, the similisexual as déclassé, we have not yet descended to the many strata of its robust criminality. Just as in the feminine harlotry, wepenetrate to darker, profounder levels; to a brutally vicious male similisexuality. We have traversed only those clearer avenues out of which open infernal alleys.
In centers of Convict-life in colonies—New Guiana, Siberia, Algeria and other stations, the same undercurrent is incessant. Criminal psychologists have written of this penal inconsistency. Terrible dramas of sexual love and jealousy are met in the criminal settlements of Bussia and France. In the certain of the British penal colonies, now abolished, the story was similar.
Uranianism in the
as united to the
Thief, Bully, De-
of Ethics in
Blackmail is of course of the essence of espionage; of vicious leverage against the individual's peace, against his social protection. It is often the most impudent of attacks. For success it requires some cleverness, some moral (or immoral} boldness, and not seldom physical courage; especially if the blackmailer must arrive at not only extortion but at robbery and murder, as finale. It is the constant resource—the sharp Sword of Damocles that the average homosexual prostitute points against his client, wherever the country's laws invite it. No arm is so powerful—so silent, so safe. No female blackmailer, however audacious and cruel, ever has shown herself quite so torturing in shattering nerves, happiness, fortune, courage, social quietude and life as has the methodical, homosexual, blackmailing demon proved himself, time and again, the world round.
as the Great
Occasionally the blackmailer has hot been the direct particeps criminis, but, has merely got second-hand possession of facts. Occasionally there has been no felony committed. The ignorant, trembling victim is made to think so. In any case, either by the cynical prostitute himself or by an accomplice, the screw is turned. Much male prostitution is solely for an opening for blackmail. By demands for greater or smaller sums of money, threats, terrorizing letters or visits, week by week, month by month, year by year, can be applied the outrageous art of "bleeding" the victim. Sometimes the extortioner is skilful enough to avoid disclosing in his procedures exactly what was the fact to give him such a hold on the victim. The latter knows it; that is enough. Generally the extortioner has some sort of evidence in hand; a note, personal possessions stolen from the victim; or has ready the assertions of third parties, with true or false witness.
Terminology in blackmailing is so large that it needs a dictionary. In France the blackmailer is called a "chanteur", his methods "chantage"—now international words—and a melancholy tune it is that the victim "sings"! In Italian, the same terms are translated, or called "estorsione", though Italy happily knows little of them very cruelest art. In German-speaking countries blackmail is "Rupferei", "Erpressung" and so on, in common nonprofessional comment.
The Audacity and
Success of Black-
What Can the
Victim Do to
The attacked can (and he should) courageously seek the police-authorities, to reveal the situation. At the price of more or less suspicion on himself, perhaps of his semi-confession, he can have his tormentor arrested and nearly always fully punished. Blackmailing is per se, an offence of which modern Codes take severe notice. That is the best rescue, the safest escape, the only legal method, coûte que coûte! Unluckily the victim has not always the knowledge, the courage, or evidence enough for this heroic stand. So he submits. Sometimes he resolves to kill the blackmailer. He often has done so, and has suffered death for it. But, as last and too-usual resort of the victim in half of Europe (particularly in Germanic Europe and often in America) he "gets out of it all" by—suicide. The motive of his self-murder may transpire; but usually it does not. At least, it escapes general notice. Like Sir Peter Teazle, he must go away leaving his character behind him. But the blackmailer's visits, or letters, cannot often follow him into the tomb.
The following details, in a long autobiographic narrative from a German victim, are given in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen," for the year 1900, under the signature "Max Kalte"—a pseudonym. It shows the effects of a blackmailer's operations on a man of high education and excellent social position, but of timid temper—betrayed by sexual accident. After describing how he had been obliged to break off an intimacy with a friend of his own class and type, because the latter could not satisfy high psychic ideals, the history continues thus:
"… I was again orphaned. And yet, after all the deceptions which I had passed through, my heart demanded love ever more ardently, wished to be surrendered to some noble-minded human being, who would understand me—my psychical side as well as my intellectual aspirations. But before I found any such person, I had an experience worse than any one. before it. For—I fell into the hands of a blackmailer of a type that I had never known anything about, and who could hardly have been more abominable and dangerous than lie was."
"At a social gathering, in the organization which I have mentioned, one evening when a theatrical performance was given, I met a young assistant in a friseur's shop, with whom I arranged a "meeting" for the following day. I admit that it was not the right sort of thing to do. But what do the heterosexual men do? Do they not often make acquaintances with girls with whom they are willing to keep up very intimate relations without being willing to marry them? My inner self was solitary and lonely, and sought some mere substitute for the sort of love really longed-for … When next day we were together, I recognized by all the outward traits of my new companion that he was not suited for me. He was trivial and lacking in conscience, as was plain from what he himself told me of his former relations, with a tailor whom he had known. We talked of another meeting, but I wrote him and broke the appointment. Thereupon the young man tried to find out my name, condition in life, and place of residence, Which I had not given to him; a thing however he could easily do, by applying to the direction of the social club above mentioned. After that, he came to my rooms, in company with another young man whom he called his brother, but who was not so; and asked me to help him with money, as he had lost his employment. I replied that I could not do so. He answered that he did not intend to be put off in that sort of way: and made a reference to our previous rendezvous. Just at that moment my charwoman came into my room to put it in order, and further dispute was an unpleasing idea to me, so under the pretext that I had to go forth, I left my lodgings; but accompanied by my two companions, with whom I strolled along several streets. I asked the friseur once more what just exactly he wanted; and when I declined again to give him the assistance he desired on any ground of our previous relations, then he declared that if I would not accord him his wishes, he would attack my character socially, and also denounce me to the police as having been guilty of a criminal offence. Therewith I demanded that the companion of the friseur (who up to that minute had not quitted us) should leave us, in as much as I had in any case nothing to do with him and did not know him. He accordingly left us, for awhile—but soon he came back. The friseur then plainly said to me that unless I would give him some money, he would "make a circus" for me, then and there—in the public street. Finally, on my further request, the third party to this dialogue left us again: and then I told the friseur that he had not any right to demand money from me and that his conduct was blackmail. He replied that it might be so or not, that was all one to him: I would be punished as a criminal, if he made revelations, or even if not ( since I insisted that what had passed between us, mutual onanism only, was not criminal) then at least I would be disgraced socially though he could manage to slip out of the affair. So after he had further threatened me thus, I gave him, to get rid of him, five Marks. He said that he must have more, and he followed me along the street, I trying to hurry off, till at last I gave him two Marks more. Then he left me."
"With what emotions I went home, who can guess? It was not the money, but the consciousness of having fallen plump into the hands of a shameless and abandoned creature, and of having had anything to do with him—if only once! Gloomy portents and fears coursed through my mind, and for weeks I went about depressed and dreading to meet my enemy again. And in fact he did not wait two months. The second time, he came with another companion who behaved with unexampled impudence and vulgarity. I shall speak of him as the "Cologner"; for by his accent he was from Cologne. They rang my bell, I opened the door, they fairly squeezed themselves in, with the "Cologner" first. On my asking what they wanted, the friseur answered "Money!" On my replying that I was not in circumstances to give him any, just as I had told him before, then the "Cologner" spoke up: "Oh, that is just all rubbish!" and added a very vulgar accusation. When I repudiated this, earnestly yet calmly, then the friseur remarked that "For all that, it was true!" With this the "Cologner", who from this point monopolized the conversation, declared that it would "be much better for me not to refuse—the friseur wanted to go to Cologne to hunt up a job,—I ought to give him money for the journey—and that then I would not be "bothered" any more. When I continued to refuse, the "Cologner" threatened me with denunciation to the police, through the friseur, and with public disgrace. I returned that they were both guilty of blackmailing, to which the Cologner retorted that while it was true that in case of the denunciation the friseur would be imprisoned, nevertheless the burden of blame would come on me. Would I not therefore better be sensible, and just pay out the money for the journey—twenty-seven-and-a-half Marks?—and that then they would both promise, in writing, to give me no further trouble. The written memorandum was laid readly. Thereupon the "Cologner" demanded fifty Marks, in view of the friseur's living expenses "in the meantime". I consented. With the written promise, which the "Cologner" refused to sign, I paid over the sum mentioned. With that the "Cologner" demanded twenty Marks more, just on his own account! I replied that I owed him nothing; he said that was nonsense, and threatened to make a regular uproar in the house if I would not give him the twenty Marks. So in order to keep such an ugly episode out of the house, I yielded. But as I held my purse in my hand, the "Cologner" said that he "wanted to see how much money there was inside it—he would give me his word of honour not to take anything from it". That I refused, goes unsaid. But he seized it; I held fast. I was now furious; I struggled, with the resolution to make an end of the whole shameful and nerve-shattering business for me. But I hesitated—fear of public disgrace kept me back. The "Cologner" and I had already begun to pull the purse in two between us, and with the second observation from the "Cologner" that he 'would only look inside it', which I did not believe—I let it go. The "Cologner" took out all that was left of larger money—forty Marks. I had been to the bank that day, and had taken out one hundred Marks, for my living expenses, as I keep very little money in my lodgings, living alone as I do. I let the money go. They took themselves off after that. The "Cologner" assured me that that he would never come again, but at the same time he remarked that if I told the police what had happened "something" would "happen" to me!"
"When they were gone, I sank into a chair and burst into tears. Must I have dealings with such base creatures?—I who still felt my heart a-glow with youthful ideals, who felt the breath of that same great love of humanity which Christ so purely and perfectly has embodied? But I collected myself; I hurried in my despair to a confidential heterosexual friend whom I have mentioned, that he might give me sympathy, and calm me. From another quarter, however, that later I decided.to turn to, came the advice to enable me to get rid of the two blackmailers by going to the police and a law-court; or otherwise I would have been simply a permanent victim."
"I took that advice: but not till after two whole months, when the "Cologner", and this time quite by himself, came to my lodgings. Before he opened the door, I had put on the chain. But he put his foot forward so that I could not shut the door after I had recognized him. He also tried to force the door open by throwing himself against it, which he could not succeed in doing as I held myself against it. Three times I ordered him away—he refused, and struck me with his cane as I pushed off his hand—wounding me on the cheek and using the most vulgar language, and uttering fresh threats. As I warned him that I would call the police, he answered that he would rather be arrested than go away. I stepped back from the door quickly, seized a garden-stick, and struck him, through the open door. He sprang back, I shut the door. But he threw himself against it several times, so that I had to press steadily against it to hold it in place. He rang the bell again, demanding entrance, used more abusive language, and finally when he saw that he was not able to succeed in his attack, then he asked for "one Mark",—to go home" … if he did not get that, then he "would charge me before the police with bodily injuries to him." So in order to finish the scene, I threw him the money through the post-slit in the door: and then he really went away." …
After describing his agitation and despair, now meditating suicide as his only relief from above disgrace, the narrator did at last what he ought to have done first. He went to police, disclosed himself as the subject of extortion under threats, and demanded aid. His tormentors were arrested and tried. The "Friseur" received six months imprisonment at hard labour, and the "Cologner" two years. The victim's charge was so managed by the authorities, that he did not incriminate himself. In fact, this accent is manageable in such processes, if the police-justice and jury are intelligent as to the philosophy of homosexualism. Many high germanic authorities, both medical and legal, are so. But this cannot always be depended on. In the foregoing, one must confess that the victim seems very] weak-nerved and feeble-hearted. He should have promptly withstood the impudent friseur. Such rascals are nearly always routed, the moment they meet bold negatives and counter-threats. But many homosexuals are not good at such "bluff."
"A waiter named N— was arrested in Berlin yesterday on account of attempt at blackmail. Heto that dangerous class of persons who attach themselves to gentlemen that walk in the Thiergarten, to extort money from such strollers. This particular affair became known to the city-police because of said N—'s conduct in a well-known resort for criminals, where he spoke of having "come into a big legacy" on the night before, A friend of his was "with" an American gentleman in the park named. N— thereupon came to them, declared himself to be a policeman in plain clothes, and threatened to arrest the American gentleman. The American was willing to give over 500 Marks, to get away; but N— and his accomplice were not satisfied, and demanded more. N— wore a badge like that of the criminal police. The victim of the attempt proved to be travelling from Warsaw, and a guest in one of the best hotels in town. N— declared that the stranger had "given him the money," which included Russian and English pieces. He also made the gentleman hand over his ring, etc."
This blackmailer, too, received six months imprisonment. The American accuser was not asked too many pressing questions, luckily for his own case. Again, seriatim:
"By trial before the Criminal Commission, with closed doors, were sentenced yesterday eight young men, on account of an in instance of their habitual blackmailing of strangers in this city, by accusations of offences against the all too-famous law known as "Paragraph 175," of our present Code. The defendants were of various callings, mostly humble ones, and also mostly nominal; for such mischievous rascals can thrive quite too well, by the fear of their victims, to be forced to work for bread. The group included a certain Kubicky, Gebers (a notary's clerk), Gleisberg (a binder) Staupe (a goldbeater)—Hanck, Krall and Paul (waiters in a café) and Schuckhardt, (a cabman). A ninth member of the clique managed to be acquitted for lack of direct evidence. Those named however received sentences ranging from nine months to two years of imprisonment. The matter came to head on the charge of a well-known professor in the University, and of an officer in command of a regiment here. One result only of their proceedings terrified their victim into turning over to them 1000 Marks—at once! Our city is quite too full just now of this class of banditti, who hang about the streets, parks and cafés, well-dressed and friendly, making themselves agreeable to strangers, luring them into "compromising situations" and then—turning on the thumbscrew."
"The case of Captain D. v. Tz—, who is accused of an unnatural offense, under Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code, in company with a certain young barber of the town, was tried yesterday in a private session of the Criminal Court. The only witness against Captain Tz— was the plaintiff, sixteen years of age, who asserted that the defendant had twice misconducted himself with him when alone in the Captain's rooms, where he came to shave him. The Criminal Court acquitted the Captain. The story told seemed to the judges too strongly as a made-up narrative, carefully learned by heart, and in too close likeness to the filed complaint of the young barber. There appeared to be grounds for supposing that the complaint wps all a scheme of blackmail, aided by some outside parties, using the young man as a catspaw."
"A raid on blackmailing gentry of this city was made last night, in the Thiergarten (Berlin) alleys and copses, near the railway-station, on the part of the local police of Charlottenburg. Repeatedly has it been stated lately that unknown persons attack masculine visitors to the gardens with accusations of immoral offences of a special sort, and have done so by pretending themselves to be secret-police on duty, who will let the victims off—if money be forthcoming! In once instance lately, a large sum was handed over. Three individuals were captured on this kind of charge They were the brothers G— of Charlottenburg, and they are now in the hands of the authorities."
"As we reported yesterday, two non-commissioned officers of the—Cuirassier Guards, named Ebert and Rother, have been put under arrest on account of what seems to be a disgraceful case of conspiracy toward blackmail; both being also, it is thought, concerned in a previous case of the same sort. The facts as to the present charge are these. The accused, on April 14, made their appearance in the apartments of a very distinguished gentleman of this city, a member; of the higher aristocracy, and after charging him with an unnatural offence according to the text of Paragraph 175, they demanded several hundred marks as hush-money. The victim, much terrified, yielded to the demand; but having less than the sum exacted at hand, he asked the two rascals to wait till he could obtain it from a friend. In his absence, the two accused parties drank his liqueurs, became very noisy and violent, smashed mirrors, glass and porcelain in his dining-room, cut pictures out of the frames, and otherwise played the ruffian. Their victim returned and gave them the sum agreed on. A week later they wrote him, demanding a larger amount, and saying that if it were not forthcoming he would receive "another call" which "would not leave a chair on its legs." The intervention of the police being asked, the matter is now in the hands of the military court concerned."
These audacious rascals were imprisoned and degraded from their military service. Their case is interesting (and admonitory) to stratophilic homosexuals, as an example of blackmailing by soldiers. Within a few years, this sort of trouble, once uncommon, for civilians has perceptibly increased in frequency.
Here is an example of how can be utilized a bit of family-history; or its counterfeit:
"A bold attempt at extortion of money by blackmail was made lately against Herr G— a merchant, over in K— strasse. A young man came into his shop and handed over a letter, the contents of of which made Herr G— not a little angry. The writer (who feigned himself 'N. N.') informed Herr G— that his father-in-law had committed a certain sort of criminal act. Unless Herr G— would send at once 300 Marks, then the writer of the letter would immediately communicate the affair to a newspaper, with the full name of the gentleman, and all details needed to bring the affair to publicity. But Herr G— did not fall into so clumsy a plot. As 'N. N.' was to wait near by, in the street, for a reply to the letter, Herr G— accompanied the bearer of this precious communication out to K— strasse, to meet 'N. N.'. The latter was not to be found. But tho next day the same sort of demand was made in sharper language. This time, Herr G— succeeded in meeting his enemy, and also in having the fellow, a certain Emil W—, taken into custody as a blackmailer. Emil W— is in fact a well-known "operator" of this sort. He was given six months imprisonment, with two years loss of civil rights."
The examples so far selected are taken especially from Germany, because they multiply there and are carefully reported. In England and America there are plenty of current cases, more or less of the same stamp. But in England and America the publication of legal or other proceedings that bear on so-called "unnatural offences" is not encouraged by the press, nor often detailed as in Continental Europe. The squeamishness of the Anglo-Saxon mind as to speaking of homosexuality, the British ignorance of how homosexualism should be regarded and is regarded in other countries, considerably suppress such matter from print; or disguise its nature.
Another specimen of this kind of vulgar night-assault is as follows. The instance is reported in the Vienna "Neue Freie Presse", for June 14, 1901. It was much talked of in the capital at the time, as can be supposed.
"The secretary of a distinguished person here—the latter being an Archduke—on the night of May 15th, after a late supper, happened to stroll along the edge of the Rathhaus Park. He had been taking considerable beer at the Spatenbrau and in the Café Scheidl. Ho is a man in the thirties. He had wanted a little fresh air, and had been also taking a turn in a cab. At the place named, he alighted and walked along, till he reached a certain urinal. He entered it, and found two young men there, the defendants Karl Horak and Karl Mildner, The statement of the gentleman was this: "When I was leaving the latrine mentioned, one of the two defendants came to me and asked for some money. I would not give him any. Then he accused me of an offense. I said that that was not the fact. He repeated his demands, with the remark that if I would not give him money, then I "could not get away from there so easily." I wished to put an end to the situation; so I put my hand in my pocket and gave him a couple of Kronen.—"You'll have to give us more than that, or welet you off! We want a "Tenner"—then we will let you go." I wanted to stop such a scene, so I took out my purse. He seized it out of my hand, (it had some thirty florins in it) and ran off. I wished to pursue him, when the second fellow came up and demanded my watch. Just to get rid of him, I gave it him. I had to borrow money of a café-waiter to get home." …
But this was not the end. Decidedly serious consequences that brought victim and blackmailers in court, were to ensue. These developed as follows:
"In the purse, or card-case, was the visiting-card of the victim, with his name and address, also the coat-of-arms of his royal employer, a photograph of the children of the latter, and other personalia. The two blackmailers actually dared to come to the palace the next day, and asked to speak with the secretary. They were admitted, and demanded two hundred florins hush-money. If they got it, no further "fuss;" if not—a great deal. The noble secretary wisely had them arrested, though he had every reason to dislike any public notice of the adventure. The young men were well-dressed, had a certain degree of education, and one of them was decidedly good-looking. Both were quite of the regular Vienna male prostitute sort—and investigations showed that Horak already had a similar charge of blackmailing, referring to the same locality, against him. The Secretary mentioned that when they threatened him with public proceedings for an offense, he had said "But you will be punished too, if I am;" to which young Horak had coolly replied "That's so! But you will be ruined, and we haven't anything much to lose". Each offender was given eighteen months imprisonment, at hard labour."
The Court conducted the complainant's case carefully. He was not incriminated.
Be it observed here—with regret—as to Germany that during the earlier years of the existence of the Paragraph 175, of the German Code, there was much blackmailing by arresting, etc., from the city-police, as trumpers-up of charges, for the sake of seeming to be vigilant, or for money. This was one of the reasons why the late Herr Meerscheidt-Hüllesem, of the Berlin Police, so strongly urged the removal of the Paragraph mentioned. He found it encouraged crime and roguery in men of his squads, not all of whom were proof against such despicable but infectious temptation.
"The butcher's assistant, Maximilian Strauss, a very good-looking young fellow, was brought to the bar to-day, on a charge of, blackmail. Lately Strauss sent to Herr-Theodore Reichmann, the eminent baritone of our Opera, a most impertinent letter, accusing the distinguished singer of a certain offence coming under Paragraph 129 of our Statue Book, and threatening Herr Reichmann with publicity if a considerable sum of hush-money was not to be forthcoming. The letter was not signed, but Herr Reichmann knew whence it came, and at once put the matter into the hands of the police. In spite of the defence from Dr. Chersch, the young blackmailer was sentenced to four months, with hard labour. Such cases are constantly increasing in our city."
"Georg P—, calling himself a baker by trade, lately became a dangerous sort of character for the artist, Herr X—, of our city, for whom said Georg P— had posed as a studio-model. Systematic attempt at blackmail resulted. The said P— appeared one day at the painter's residence in company with a certain Ludwig A— and Albert A—, bakers, and Albert M— a pork-shop clerk, and conducted themselves so impudently that the painter gave them, first, twenty Marks and then fifty, as hush-money. That however was not sufficient for presently the artist, received the usual threatening letter, demanding 100 Marks, stating that otherwise the accusation would be made in a police-court. It is worth noting that the three companions in rascality did not accuse themselves of being partakers in the offence, but spoke of a fourth person, who was in a hospital, on account of the "physical injury" he had "suffered" from the relations with the artist (!). The painter paid over the 100 Marks more, but as the demand for a like.sum was repeated, he did what he should have done in the first place—went to the police with the correspondence."
These blackmailers were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment that ranged between two years and one-and a-half years, at hard labour. The complainant suffered no legal inconvenience. The second Munich item runs:
"On account of an offence against the public morality, as well as an attempt at blackmail, the case involving Johann Erhard, of Bayreuth, 23 years old, and also Albert Schneider, of Nürnberg, 20 years old, was brought before the Court. According to the complaint, Herr August F— thirty-seven years old, a merchant of Wertheim, was involved, the said F— being charged with conducting himself improperly, under Paragraph 175 of the Code, with young Erhard, in the Hofbräuhaus, one evening: also taking Erhard to his lodging, to pass the night—for similar practices. Erhard confided these matters to his friend Schneider, and prompted Schneider to write Herr F— a threatening letter, demanding GO Marks if there was to be no more "trouble" about the story. The merchant sought aid from the police. But neither he nor Erhard appeared in Court. The proceedings turned on Schneider, and the evidence determined his share. He Was sentenced to five months."
In like category, may be mentioned the Schultz Case, in Hamburg, in January, 1909; the "Gensler Case" before the Elbing Criminal Court, in the same month of 1909; and several other cases, (in which greater or lesser sums were systematically obtained by the accused) brought to trial in Germany in 1907, 1908, 1909. They were typical. A few pages later here, will be found notes of a recent French blackmailing case, as of an Italian one, each involving a large extortion from the victim.
The Parisian male prostitutes, of attractive externals, such as haunt the boulevards, are nowadays extremely dangerous as blackmailers on social and criminal leverages, according to circumstances. These French-speaking pests invade in their annual overflow the smart summer-resorts and Riviera centers, according to season. Rich guests of hotels there often suffer from them.
As another example of systematic extortion, in which affair we again meet with soldiers as blackmailers, here is an instance that occurred in Oldenburg, as cited from a local journal:
"A notable blackmailing affair, which has victimized several persons a good while, has at last been brought before our criminal Court. The matter in question as to its operations has "bled" the victim for as high a sum as 28,000 Marks, and has been carried along against a well-to-do citizen in private life here, viz. Herr von Seggern, on the charge of unnatural offences (Parag. 175, RSB). Two of the seven blackmailers (chimney-sweeps in Oldenburg) were the first arrested; but the main conspirator against Herr von S—, also a chimney-sweep, unluckily was not easy to catch. He was prudent enough to go over to England, and sent thence his threatening letters to his victim, demanding the money; or else wrote his comrades, directing the 'campaign' against Herr von S— through these agents. The active participants extorted sums that varied between 700 Marks and 40. The sentences ranged from one year and six months, to six months. Two soldiers have been found to be of this same conspiracy, and have been tried in the Military Court, and sentenced to degradation from service. Since the proceedings began, the absent leader in the affair, Kirchhoff, has suicide, to avoid extradition."
The blackmailer is often right, in spite of all the law's judiciousness, when he warns his writhing victim that even if he, the blackmailer, will be punished as an offender—or co-offender—so will the victim be punished. The law cannot always distinguish. Sometimes it will not do so—whether failing intolerantly or stupidly. The famous Hasse Case, in 1905 is an example. In December, 1905, Herr Hasse, a high-standing jurist of Breslau—in fact, the president of one of the most important of the Breslau tribunals—one day in Berlin, shot at and wounded a young blackmailer who long had mulcted Herr Hasse of money through their having had homosexual relationships. The sums extorted reached to the thousands. The unlucky Herr Hasse went to the nearest police-court, laid down his revolver, surrendered himself, and was duly tried for attempt at murder. He had wounded the blackmailer only slightly. The affair made a great local sensation. Hasse was highly respected. But in this case, when the matter was raised of a reason for the shooting, the court regarded both the blackmailer (a youth named Lechel) and blackmailed as duly to be punished for homosexuality. Hasse, as well as Lechel, was sentenced to several months of prison. Such an outcome raised a violent outcry against judges and law. But the sexual case was clear as to both parties; and it was not handled so as to favour the unlucky Herr Hasse.
In the current year, a bold German blackmailer named Otto Schlanger made attempts against no lower grade of victims than Prince Heinrich of Prussia (the son of the late Prince Albrecht); and by means of letters demanded five-hundred Marks, under threats to inform the Emperor of sexual facts in the life of Prince Heinrich that would gravely compromise him in the ramified and interminable Eulenburg, Hohenau and Lynar scandals. This blackmailer,also threatened Prince Joachim-Albrecht of Prussia with, exposure as an habitual homosexual. The affair was brought to trial, and Schlanger was given a sentence of two years penal servitude.
The notable "W— and Jirgl Case", occurring in Munich, in the latter years of the nineties just past, presented on its surface an outcome that was perhaps too severe for the blackmailer; not a common aspect. The plaintiff had recourse, most unwillingly, to the law; dreading a scandal. He was of the aristocracy, and a member of the royal household. The defendant was a young man named Jirgl, who was trying to extort money. The facts were that Herr von W— had met the young man in the Pinakothek; had fallen in love with him; and presently Jirgl (who was exceptionally good-looking) though he was a pious youth and a theological student, had become the "mistress" of the rich admirer. They lived together, travelled together, and so on. But Jirgl's health and beauty declined. He grew ill. His protector tired of him, and cast him aside. Jirgl for revenge, and in full appreciation of his hold, blackmailed the deserter. The aristocrat won his case. The ruined Jirgl was sentenced to eighteen months of imprisonment. The high-born complainant was not incriminated legally (the latter adjective is important) in the case, being considered guiltless of technically homosexual rapports with his deserted ephebus. This decision was loudly commented on as personally biased, and influenced by Court intrigues against impartiality of justice. W—had undoubtedly been guilty not only of pederasty but of seduction, and of ruining a youth's whole life.
Fear as the
"Behind closed doors yesterday in the Court last named, before Sir James Smith, was tried the blackmailing case against William Belton, nominally an agent for a patent-medicine, but of no present occupation; the suit brought by Mr. Albert H— of Birmingham. Mr. H- charged that one evening, six months ago (April), while walking in a secluded part of Hyde Park the defendant accosted him, and walked some distance with him chatting. He finally asked the complainant for some pecuniary help, which the complainant gave him—a mere trifle at the time. The defendant managed however to ascertain the name, residence and position in society of the defendant. He presently wrote plaintiff threatening letters, and also twice visited him, against the will of the complainant, at his London lodgings; demanding money, and continuing to threaten the defendant with loss of character and with a felonious charge. He declared that the offence in question had occurred on the evening mentioned. Mr. H— wholly denied the charge, but was however timorous enough to give the defendant considerable sum as hush-money, to avoid any chances of public defamation. The defendant has continued his demands and his visits, and has greatly annoyed and terrified Mr. H— by Ids threats and exactions. He has received from Mr. H— not less than sixty pounds, on one occasion, on another thirty, on another fifty, and so on. The whole amount that Mr. H— has paid over, in a mistaken course toward such scandalous extortion, amounts to four hundred and eleven pounds; and the complainant's estate is seriously injured as well as his peace of mind much impaired. The defendant told a circumstantial story, which the Court concluded was manufactured out of few real incidents. The defendant was sentenced to one year's imprisonment; taking his sentence with a burst of obscenity against the complainant."
In such instance, the victim seems to have succeeded in keeping clear of incriminating himself sexually, while proving the blackmail; an important, troublesome—often impossible—aspect of such a case in England, where the plaintiff in the blackmailing suit may be visited by the law for homosexual offenses. In libel-suits, divorce-suits and the like, this point is grave. It was, as we have seen earlier in this book, the ruin of Oscar Wilde.
Risks of Legal
Tendency to Help
Blackmailing cases do take that turn. The victim can suffer shameful imprisonment, as well as can his.enemy. But the sound principle of legal resort is not invalidated by this fact. The tendency now, in many Continental courts is tactfully to "manage" the victim's case so that he does not incriminate himself. What is yet more significant, in the French, the German, the Austro-Hungarian and other Courts of law, in some Continental countries where most homosexualism acts still are a felony and an obloquy, there has come within a few years an important detail of procedure and sentiment. If the person necessarily incriminating himself in the complaint against his blackmailer, when arrested and on trial on homosexual charges, can prove medically psychiatrically, that he is homosexual by inborn, ineradicable nature, then his case is often materially made light or even dismissed. This is especially helpful when a respectable homosexual has to combat a charge against him begun not by extortion but made in the "interests of public morality". Of course there should not be offenses to public-decorum, nor rape, nor corruption of minors impairing the force of this defence. It it be accepted, the homosexual is turned over to a specialistic physician, who decides (in course of some weeks), whether his "patient" is to be reported to the Court as homosexual by incurably natural propensities or not. Sometimes this examination obliges the defendant to pass months in prison, till the doctor be ready to pronounce on his "nature". But if his status be so settled, he finally is absolved from felony, and is free.
lucky to escape with only exile. A few years ago, as a similisexual he would not have "got off" so lightly. Continental law had not then endured, even vaguely and unwillingly as now, the idea that something quite other than vice underlies much homosexualism; that the uranian Intersex has excuses, has demands, even has rights, however.abnormal they have seemed. Medicopsychic research herein.has affected the jurisprudence of Continental Europe importantly; though much is yet to do.
Austria; not in
Great Britain or
Unknown in France,
Italy, etc., though
In France and Italy, be it noted, if on a charge of debauching a minor the minor can be proved an habitual offender, the case breaks up. To scandals, whether with or without blackmailing aspects (usually with such) in in countries where the liberal Code-Napoléon is the basis of legislation as to similisexuality, many criminal cases are based oh the perversion of minor youth. To these processes belong the famous and tragic Krupp Affair (already referred-to here), along with the "Allers Case," which it rather, in Capri and Germany, in 1902. Its actual legal territory was Italian. The "Krupp Case", in which the victim was accused of pederastic offences with innocent minor lads, ultimately resolved itself, in essential aspects, to a carefully-planned scheme for extortion; the matter of "innocence" being more than vague when the youth typically concerned came into question. In the concurrent "Allers Case", the plan of concerted blackmail was discernible. The distinguished Munich painter was warned by one of his young models—it is said, by the son of the Capriote who brought the attack into form; and the artist fled Capri, in time to escape arrest. He was sentenced (as an absent defendant) in the Naples court, to imprisonment and a fine.
The same leverage against homosexuals has lately shown itself in the affair, in Home, of the well-known photographer P—, charged with habitual proxenetism and corruption of minors; a case involving a large number of persons of high station and of all nationalities, professions and social distinctions. This affair was not brought to trial until many months after the arrest of P— and the assistants in his studio; which arrest, by the by, was made when a noted German concert-singer was discovered in the photographer's premises, in compromising circumstances as to his relations with a youthful civus romanus. The unlucky photographer was shut up in durance all the long delay between his arrest and his trial; it was said, because the Italian authorities wished to give to as many, persons as possible their time to escape from Rome and appearances in court. A large and extremely compromising correspondence, between P—and clients all over the world, was seized. The photographer had long specialized nude male "studies", and did a large business in such portraits of tipi midi e ben membruti, as do several Italian photographers, including a near relative of P—, resident in Taormina. The painter was sentenced to some eight months of imprisonment and to a large fine. The affair was as much as possible kept out of the local journals, to which satisfaction, for all concerned, a general "strike" of the. printers of the daily newspapers in Rome most opportunely contributed. At last accounts, P— had been duly enlarged from prison, and had resumed in Rome all his specialities of business. Another noted Roman photographer of modelli nudi, G— was arrested and punished for "injury to public morality" at about the same date, on account of too-audacious "studies" in photography for general sale—even in Rome.
Some years ago an English gentleman (a completely homosexual type) of high family, distinguished in literature, happened on an Italian instance of blackmailing "bluff". In Rome, walking one afternoon in the Villa Doria, he chanced on a handsome well-mannered young male prostitute, who mentioned himself as employed in the Villa. This was not the fact, as he had been discharged some months earlier. After half-an-hour's strolling about in the garden (which at the time had no other promenaders) the Englishman suggested that "—si diverterebbe un momentino," if the other was inclined. They turned into the shrubbery, and remained for a few minutes. (Onan. mut). Soon after, the stranger and his "friend" left the gardens; the Italian insisting on accompanying the Englishman toward his hotel. The Englishman had given his companion five lire—a liberal amount for such informal "services rendered". The Italian demanded, more, and threatened a scandal in the street. The Englishman much dreaded that turn of the situation. However he vigorously ridiculed the young rascal's charge. The circumstances had not been "public,"—to say nothing of the impossibility of the prostitute's proving a case in a court. "But the Villa is a public place, any part of it!"—insisted the other, who knew the text of Italian law better than his victim. "Pay me fifty lire, or I will also accuse you of having attempted me—forced me—though I resisted"—and so on. The Englishman, now very nervous (as several passers were in earshot and a sicnrezza not far) took advantage of a tram coming by him. He escaped to it, though his adversary sent a volley of abuse after him that made the passengers look at him. But the end was not there. In course of a week, he received a threatening visit from the young man, who had found out his name and address. The Englishman unwillingly went to a legal friend and stated enough of the facts to receive advice. He learned that although the.Villa gardens, like many others were indeed "public" places, just as is some lonely impasse, or a spot in the Campagna—nevertheless the fact of his having met his tormentor in the Villa on a day when, as was the fact, the same was not open to the public (as on other days) would be a sufficient defence, in any well-disposed court. The other charge was absurd. Fortified with this advice, he met his adversary scornfully on his second call, and so put him out of countenance, that the scamp went away silenced. The Englishman never had a word from him again, though he often saw him.
Transatlantic blackmailing affairs are not often before the public. But they occur, passim. In America, always a practical country, occurred in the latter nineties a very curious example of a blackmailing plot, where every person concerned was of smart social position; men of culture, wealth and youth. A family living in one of the largest cities was conspicuous for fortune—a great fortune—for finance, and for religious affiliations, the line being Keltic-American. One of the brothers was noted as homosexual, had been publicly so charged. A younger one was even more famous for his effeminate beauty, his elegance, and skill as a dancer and actor in private theatricals. Humour had long united his name with several boyish "intimates" of fashionable life, art, letters, and the stage; also with an eminent clergyman of his own creed—a handsome wordly celibate, of brilliant individuality. Two clubs to which young Mr. B— belonged were almost -notoriously sprinkled with an uranian membership, of the local jeunesse dorée. One winter, chance threw Mr. A— into acquaintance with a fellow-townsman considerably his junior, also homosexual, extremely and rich, the heir to a vast fortune also. The two young men were at once violently sympathetic—became inseparable. The relationship took its warmest course. Unluckily, it was remarked by a third party, and then by a fourth—Messrs. C— and D—. These two, although they appeared to have plenty of money at their disposal, really were deeply and anxious. Over the head of C— hung an impending financial crash. D— also had got himself into deep water. He was being indirectly bled of cash by an of humble rank, who was not likely to be discreet if not kept in good humour by "loans"—continually asked. One night, chance happened to disclose to C— and D—unmistakeably the nature of the relationship between Messrs. A— and B—. Thy decided, in a burst of mutual roguery and confidence, to try to profit by it. They accordingly went to work to collect something like evidence, to use as a leverage—somehow. They secured what would pass very well for such; at least what would greatly disconcert their victims, who were much more hares than lions. Next, they ventured on a bold coup. They won. over to a particular usefulness, a new ally, X—. Fairly organized, they now proceeded to threaten B— (who was the most conspicuously rich target) with anonymous letters, and so on; mentioning circumstances that B— would much dislike to have published, not to mention A—. A large sum was to be ready and surrendered, under certain circumstances—presently; or trouble would be swift for both A— and B— together. But just at the crisis, the newest partner in the game, X— became frightened. He decided to retreat. He went to the ecclesiastical friend of A—, gave him the proofs, and betrayed his accomplices. Even then it was necessary, if a social scandal were to be avoided, to use very delicate agencies for breaking-up the scheme. The high hierarchy of the church was called into help. A— and B— were both rescued, from an affair that neither of them fully had divined, and that never was fully explained to them. The actors in the drama who were its main-springs, hastily left the city. The intimacy between A— and B— was however presently completely broken, as an inevitable and prudent consequence. Later both these friends married. The entire affair was one of quite unusual social complexion, audacity and skill. It was known to some outsiders only on the death of One of the persons officially concerned in its devolution.
The reader will meet plenty of examples of "Uranian murders" in such German publications as the "Jahrbuch" mentioned; in the curious monthly bulletin of homosexual data taken from the current newspaper-press, and entitled "Mittheilungen des Bundes für Männliche Kultur," published by B. Zack, at Treptow (Berlin); and in dozens of studies dealing with homosexualism; as also in daily papers and criminal reports. In Ulrich's book "Memnon" are a classic few—now of long-ago—such as the murder of Lindemann by König; the attempt to drown a victim (already robbed) in Geneva; a series of desperate brutalities, including murder or its attempt, by the celebrated "Zürich Clique" of homosexuals and of other bad characters generally, in 1895; who lured persons of wealth into similisexual intimacies, gained access to their victims' houses, plundered them, and so on. Metropolitan police-annals abound in assassinations that are homosexual in colour. Strangers often imprudently go to the very lairs of just such assassins; have valuables on their persons; and never are seen alive again. Berlin, Vienna, London, New York, Cairo, Naples—all such large cities show this dangerous phase of the Uranian's quests and acquaintances. Here are a few such, from newspaper police-items:
"In Potsdam occurred a few days ago the mysterious murder of one Albert Schmidt, an elderly resident living for some time past in K— strasse. Schmidt was unmarried and given to peculiarly "intimate relations" with young soldiers. He had a very roomy apartment, and each week he was host to such special guests, often on short acquaintance. About a year ago Schmidt was brought into one of the criminal courts on a charge of an offence under Paragr. 175 of the Statute-Book, and the charge being-proved he was sentenced to six months imprisonment. Unluckily this affair did not 'cure' him of his eccentric habits. He was constantly to be met of an evening, in the parks or streets near the Barracks especially, "taking-up" with young soldiers, as mentioned. After four days of being missed by his immediate neighbours, he was found dead last Monday, on the floor of his sitting room, wholly undressed, and in a pool of his own blood. His skull was broken, and he had also been strangled. Evidently a hard, if curiously quiet, struggle had taken place, between Schmidt and his assailant, during an evening together. As Schmidt's purse containing 85 Marks in gold and silver, (and also his watch and valuables) were not stolen, the exact origin of the quarrel with his murderer is not clear. Several individuals, however, are suspected, including a certain young man described as wearing a light-coloured brown suit, lately much seen with Schmidt; also a soldier known to be a "friend" of the murdered man. Not long ago, Schmidt was severly chastised in the Park here one night, by three young infantry-soldiers one of whom he offended by his improper proposals. Possibly his murder completes some vengeance, with a terrible effect. Schmidt leaves a considerable estate."
In Naples, in March, 1901, occurred this characteristic affair. I cite the newspaper-account:
"A mysterious and frightful criminal occurrence has come to light, discovered last evening. About one o'clock in the morning, four officers of our police-service, Riccio, Cuomo, Stanco and Galati were informed that cries for help had been coming from the house Number 81, Via Nuova di Capodimonte, close by the Ponte di Sanità, On trying to gain access, no one admitted the policemen, and all was still. They broke open the door of the apartment in question, on the fifth floor, the residence of a certain young medical doctor named Filippo Raffaeli M—, formerly a student at our University, but lately admitted to practice, and located in the rooms mentioned. As the officers finally entered, they heard renewed groans from the darkness beyond, and at the same time were nearly knocked down by some unknown party who tried to pass them, and reach the stair, but who was captured. A direful spectacle presented itself to the officers, on lighting up the room. On the bed lay young Doctor M— perfectly naked, and bathed in his own blood, his throat cut, and faintly moaning in his last agony. He was carried to the hospital in the Via Pellegrini, but expired shortly, unable to murmur more than a few syllables … The other individual in the room, fortunately unable to escape, is beyond doubt the murderer of the ill-fated young physician. The circumstances are partly as follows. Dr. M— belonged to a family in easy circumstances, in Gravina, (Puglia). He was 28 years old, single, and highly talented. Lately he took into his confidential intimacy and nominal service a young Neapolitan named Vincenzo Morelli, a thorough vagabond, though not bad looking; a relative (it is said) of the concierge of the house where the Doctor was living. The young rascal had free access to the Doctor's apartments, and often slept there with his patron, it seems. Lately M— had noticed that the young man—about twenty years old—had stolen small sums from him, but nothing important came of the matter till lately when some fifty lire were missing unmistakeably through the protègé's operations. There have been several altercations since, and Dr. M— told Morelli that he would discharge him from his not very clear 'services'. It may be mentioned that a year ago the youth was arrested in consequence of public prostitution, and has Jived by such a device for part of his life. The fact that Dr. M— tolerated some equivocal associates has been unfavourable commented on, in the past. The commission of the crime by young Morelli seems to have been that partly in cupidity and partly in a fit of passionate hatred to his benefactor, he took advantage of the sleep of Dr. M—, or of other circumstances, to cut his patron's throat with fatal address, by a common razor. He slipped into the room in his stocking-feet, ready to escape after putting his victim to death and pocketing has valuables; evidently a plan long premeditated. He tells a story not in consonance however with this plain account, as indicated by the facts in the case."
In Vienna, a murder came to light, awhile ago (the victim being a citizen of respectable business connections) presenting typically uranian circumstances. The account here is abbreviated from the press:
"The mysterious murder of Herr H. K— lately noted in our columns, appears explained, although the, assassin of the merchant is still unknown positively and in at large. For two or three months, Herr K— whose habits of life and acquaintances have pointed him out as given to the class of offences referred to in Paragr. 129, of the Criminal St. B., has been especially intimate with two or three young men, all of them members of a certain well-known clique, and associated with the patrons of the notorious X— Bath establishment. One of them, not a great while ago, figured as defendant in a blackmailing case here The room of Herr H. K— was on the ground-floor, and opened directly on the street mentioned; and several times lately the police or neighbour have suspected that persons—visitors to Herr K— went in or out from the lodging at curious hours, the guests being always male. The motive of the crime appears to have been robbery, and the escape of the murderer by the window (which we have mentioned in reporting the affair a week ago) was easy enough. As the body of Herr K—: was not discovered until nearly a fortnight after he must have been knocked down, when nude, in or near his bed, as narrated—owing to the little notice fastened to his door "Gone to Brünn—will return on the 20th"—by this time the whole group of individuals suspected seems to have fled the city, to avoid examination. The arrests are not yet in sight. On Sunday—" etc. etc.
Or a brutal assault stops just at murder's threshold. As here:
"Yesterday night, Professor L— the well-known language teacher, was the victim of an impudent attempt at robbery and murder, which luckily stopped at theft, though with no light one. Professor L— was walking homeward from Moabit, at about two o'clock in the morning, when two well-dressed young men, strangers to him, accosted him near the Parliament House; and with them he entered into a conversation. Suddenly he was knocked down by them, and robbed of fifty Marks and his gold watch. As he could not save himself from falling, he fell directly down into the Spree from the sidewalk, and had the water been higher he might have drowned. Fortunately, the water was low, and Professor L— did not roll farther than the foot of the stone stairs leading down. He was found in a pitable condition and was taken home by the night-police. His injuries proved to be slight. The authors of the outrage were not identified. They belong to the worst class of social criminals.
That murders are not rare in connection with soldierhomosexualism, military prostitution, etc., was mentioned in an earlier chapter. A special example of the soldier as murderer under homosexual circumstances—already included in our references when speaking of military life and uranianism—was the shocking "Studio Affair" in London, in 1906, where a young homosexual painter, A— W— who invited only soldiers to frequent him, was discovered in his apartments, naked and dead, one morning, with his head smashed by a hammer. The evidence at the inquest was so likely to raise an appalling garrison-scandal that the affair was suppressed as quickly as possible. The murderer (out of question a soldier) was not traced. It is said that a royal command cut short the search.
A noteworthy murderous attack, in combination with a suicide—the whole affair homosexual—occurred in the vicinity of New York City, early in November, 1907. It was the subject of not only discreet legal scrutiny (not to much purpose) but also of wide local comment, on account of the high social station of the family of the younger of the two actors. The nationalities involved were rather more French in blood on the one side and Scandinavian on the other than strictly American; but the family is one identified as of America for at least three or four generations. It was a presumptively case of pederastic intrigue, ending in a bloody drama. In the luxurious summer home of the Z— family, at X—, a fashionable suburb of the metropolis, had subsisted for many months an intimacy between the young son of the house, who was a lad of about seventeen, and a valued butler named B—. To this B—, in fact, the youth (a very handsome boy) was much entrusted. during the absence of the family; and in hunting-excursions, travelling etc., B— was always with him. B—was apparently in the' habit of stealing down to the boy's bedroom—quite detached, in a large villa—seeking clandestine relationships at night. The youth transferred his interest, it would seem, to a new and younger man-servant. B—, who was also alcoholic, thereupon became furiously jealous; and finally grew insanely so. One morning he bullet-wound in bis head, tрat just missed taking his life and which kept him unconscious for weeks. On the floor lay the man B—, naked; dead by his own hand. At the inquest, some considerable time later, the youth (as might be expected) declared that he knew absolutely nothing of what had occurred; that B—had shot him in his sleep, and that no reason could be guessed at for the affair, except that the butler was drunk or crazy. The attack was undoubtedly one of maniacal jealousy, with intent to kill.—long before daylight (probably as so often before)—threw on his bath-gown, and slipped down to the lad's room. What took place there has never been fully told. Shots were heard, awakening the sleeping household. Another servant burst open the locked door of the bedroom. On the bed—from which he had sprung up, nude—crouched the boy, with a
In July 1908, occurred in Berlin a murder of distinctively homosexual accent, which made much talk. A certain Julius E—, proprietor of a café-restaurant was found strangled in his elegant rooms in Genthinerstrasse 26, the sash-cord of a window wound tight about his neck. Robbery had been the motive. E—was a notorious homosexual; during years on the secret lists of the Berlin police, and in sexual relations with many doubtful characters, including some young soldier-prostitutes of bad report. The murderer was not identified.
In 1907, 1908 and 1909, were conspicuous in the assizes of Germany several murder-cases more or less directly associated with homosexual relations between the assassins and the victims—with blackmailing, robbery and so on as also part of the story; such as the "Brühl-Forest Murder" (Guben) the murder of the insurance-agent Franke by his acquaintance Senger; the "Maagh Murder" on a railway-train—by an architect, etc., etc.
on an Uranian.
'Geloso', etc., as
A most complicated affair came in New York City, some half-a-dozen years back, in a smart club. It involved two poisonings, with fatal results. It was a drama of homosexual jealousy, and of revengeful self-protection. The recent attempt at assassination of a German of rank by another individual of much higher station, with a terrible risk, had much the like origin. The Italian term "geloso" refers to occasional assassinations in a race which has homosexuality more or less of its tissue, and which is always keen upon homosexual relations with rich foreigners who become residents. But such strangers easily grow tired of connections useful only to the vicious protègé. A tragedy easily results.
"Open Door Out."
So extends an enormous and melancholy volume of suicides, in lands where no liberal sentiments, knowledge or humane Codes aid the philarrhene. In Latin-America and Latin-Europe and so on, the proportion of self-destructions from homosexual causes is extremely small, almost nil—a strong contrast. It is true that the annual tale of suicides from other causes is long. Money-difficulties, domestic unhappiness of normal natures, heterosexual love-affairs, insanity, dread of other than such shames as sexual ones, griefs—all are in the common catalogue. But dread of exposure as a homosexual is a terribly potent factor. Such motives are assiduously "hushed-up." But the sexual truth is often not buried with the victim.
Before the writer of these pages there lay, not long ago, a blotted letter. Here is a transcription of part of it:
"… I cannot stand it any longer. I am what I am, and I can't change myself, and nothing can. So I am not going to try to keep up the fight any more. Sooner or later the thing would leak out about me, just as it did about poor W. S. [This referred to a homosexual scandal in the same city that had ended in the social ostracism of the person indicated.] I could never face such a disgrace and it would surely kill my father …… I have had two narrow escapes already that you know of … I am that way, and there is nothing to help me … It is no use to talk to me about "God and religion." "God" could not make a man so and then let him suffer as I have, trying to crush it out of me, never to any use … I know perfectly well now that to marry any girl ever made would not change that in me … it would only make things worse … You must not mind if people talk about what I've decided to do, if only they don't say that it is because I was [—] But I don't think it will be much suspected …… You have not suspected it, at least I am almost sure you have not. Now you know everything …… They will say I am crazy but I never was clearer-headed. For anybody in my situation there is only one thing to do, that is to end it before matters are worse. Do not let G— know, I don't think he has ever guessed anything …"
The young professional man who wrote the foregoing letter poisoned himself a few years ago, in consequence of deep sexual bewilderment as an Uranian, and because of dread of an exposure of his homosexualism, through some possible misadventure in the future. He had been of strongly religious temper; his sexual struggles had left him almost bitterly atheistic. No word of scientific, humane interpretation of his intersexual nature had met his eyes or ears—but instead everything had darkened his views of himself and of his sex-impulses, to the final step—suicide.
A Black List.
"—He was found dead in his bed, last evening, with a bullet in his heart. But the cause of his suicide is utterly unexplainable."——"—He was found hanging, dead, to a tree in the Park this morning. The identity of the suicide who appeared to be in professional life was not established."——"The hotel-proprietor, on opening the door, discovered Mr. X— dead on the sofa, with a bottle of laudanum empty beside him. A few lines stated that private worries had ruined his life. The friends of the unhappy man cannot find the least reason for his being so depressed."——"—The deceased young man had been in apparently excellent spirits on the preceding evening. Nothing yet is traced in his affairs to explain his act."——"In the note left his brother, the dead man threw no light one his rash act, merely stating that for many years he had been burdened with life, and was tired of it. The deceased had occasionally appeared out of sorts, but not often."——"—The friend to whom the dead young man wrote the letter declines to mention its contents; he states that the deceased had long suffered from an incurable nervous disorder. But this has not ever been known to his relatives, who cannot understand the allusion."
Such are the frequent phrases of suicides not accompanied by obvious facts. Too often, not money, not disease, not woman, anxieties, disappointments nor any other reasons are at the root of the action, so much as sheer weariness of a lonely, restless or conscience-burdened homosexual life. Or perhaps dread of a blackmailer's persecution due to some imprudence; or fear of unpardonable social scandal.
Veiling of Causes
Thus we can group, in melancholy sequence, the following necrologic items from the papers:
to Escape Legal
"The business-acquaintances and family or other friends of the merchant S— of this city, were shocked to hear of his having committed suicide yesterday night, at his apartments, by taking hydrocyanic acid. He left all his business-affairs in order, by various memoranda, and the suicide was most carefully carried-out. The reason is known to be the threat against the deceased man of legal proceedings in connection with a recent scandal, under the provisions of Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code, owing to certain developments lately attracting public notice again to the affair. Herr S— leaves a large fortune. He was unmarried."
"The suicide of Mr. D— R—, a guest in the Hotel W— of this city, of which some account was given in yesterday's papers, appears to be explained beyond any doubt, by the letter left by the deceased to a family-friend in this city. "—I have been for two years at the mercy of a rascal, without honour or pity, who has driven me now to my death. God help me! I cannot struggle any more, and my means to keep him at bay are gone. I prefer death to disgrace." The painful affair has aroused much sympathy and surprise in the native city of the deceased, where however no such private anxieties were suspected. He was not married, but lived with his parents and sisters, in entirely comfortable circumstances."
"The well-known lawyer here, Dr. Johann B—, committed suicide yesterday by a revolver-shot, in his lodgings. Dr. B— was not married, and being in excellent circumstances had lately given up, quite prematurely compared with other men, some part of his large practice. Nothing whatever is wrong, as far as searching examinations already attest, with his affairs, and he was the last man to expect to be influenced by sentimental relations with the other sex. He has left only a note to a friend saying—"God be with you all! The reason of my suicide I shall carry along with me." Incurable neurasthenic trouble has been mentioned as the reason."
"The affair of the suicide of Captain K—, which occurred at T— two days ago is not yet explainable. The letter which Captain K— left, bidding farewell to his comrades and to what had been till recently a promising career, is not enough to make the reason we lately printed (the failure of the dead officer to receive a farther advancement in rank immediately) the cause of his act …… Within a few weeks he had been melancholy, in fact quite unlike his former self. It is mentioned that a severe nervous weakness only lately disclosed, and of a kind not easily to be cured, involved the young officer in painful anxieties … The suicide was deliberately planned."
"As the one o'clock express train from Wien arrived here last night, a young man who was a passenger entered a toilette-closet of one of the carriages, and there shot himself. In dying condition, he was brought to the nearest city-hospital, but he died at eight this morning. He was identified as Richard S— who has been missing for some days from the Finance Department here. He has lately seemed in good health, and there being no question as to money-affairs or relations of a sentimental sort, the act is a mystery to the public and his friends."
We have already, in Chapt. VIII, mentioned the suicide of Major-General Hector Macdonald, of the British Army, in Paris, in 1903.
Some years ago, the pastor of a large German parish, a man of conspicuous worth, piety, esteem and usefulness, on consulting the local physician for an ailment of importance, was obliged to confess that he was homosexual. He had never violated his physical chastity. His Uranian sentiment, though indomitable and terribly clear to him, was kept within psychic limits. But the medical man mentioned the confession. The pastor was ruined socially and professionally. He killed himself, in despair.
In London, in 1906-1907, were to be particularized two suicides; in New York City in 1908 one notable suicide; in St. Petersburg (about a year ago) another suicide—all clearly indicated by the dead men to be from similisexual causes.
A brilliant Continental capital has lately added to the record an aristocratic suicide at least open to suspicion under its veiled reference—though of this particular tragedy conflicting explanations have been current:
"Over the melancholy death of the Hon. H— G— of the … Legation here, which occurred through the young diplomat's suicide a few days ago, nothing further can be stated. The funeral took place at three o' clock yesterday afternoon at the M— Cemetery. Most of the diplomatic corps were represented or present … At the grave, was made a brief and suitable address and a prayer … In course of the pastor's remarks he said: "We do not come here this afternoon to sit in judgement on the act of our young brother; but as friends to show our grief for him. We all Stand or fall in life by the grace of God." As to the still unexplained cause of the sudden act … the only person who can throw any light on it,… is understood to decline to utter a word on the topic, and says that he will not under any future circumstances break the confidence reposed in him; except to state distinctly that no money-troubles, no affair connected with the other sex, and no illness brought the tragedy. The reason will probably therefore remain ever obscure, perhaps wisely so. The deceased was a reserved, quiet, well-mannered young man, living a very orderly life in handsome apartments, cared little for social gatherings, and was chiefly in company with a very few friends of his own sex, of various nationalities."
Here is an example of a double suicide, because of the mere passion of a coming separation:
"In Werden, three days ago, occurred a painful "double-suicide." Two young men of the town, of humble life but thoroughly respectable and apparently in comfortable stations as employés in the city mentioned, have been somewhat noted in the place for their closely affectionate friendship. The elder was a certain Albert W—, the younger H— G—, and both were in good health. Recently young Albert W— received a proposal to betake himself to a distant city, to remain indefinitely. Since this matter came up, the two friends have been increasingly unhappy. Last Sunday, after a long walk together, in which they met with several of their acquaintances and rather to the surprise of these remarked that they had seen their way to leaving the place together, they returned to the modest room of young W—, being already dressed in their best clothes; and—as it would seem—when clasped tight in each other's arms, lying on the neat bed, fired simultaneously two fatal shots, each with a revolver. They had already inserted a notice in a newspaper taking a farewell of their friends. The real, motive for the tragedy is not clear."
The mutual suicides, in the artillery-barracks at Laibach, in February, 1909, of two young under-officers, Adolf Waldeck and his friend Kogei, had a strong accent of homosexualism. Such affairs are far from rare in military or civilian life.
Or suicide may be complicated with homicide—murder—because of philarrenic love and jealousy. Here are two instances:
"In the N— gasse, last evening, Herr Rudolf Wieser, hotelier, was shot and killed instantly by his best friend, one Loren/ Rotzer. The murder immediately thereafter turned the same pistol on himself, and was immediately dead also. Both bodies were found in the room of little hotel where the crime had occurred. A letter left behind by Rotzer, "for whoever might open it," stated that Wieser (who was the owner of the hotel) had made him, Rotzer "unspeakably miserable" because their relationship of a certain kind not necessary to specify here, had been "broken off", to the ruin of the writer; and the letter concluded with an appeal for forgiveness and kindly judgment. The young man also left a melancholy letter to his mother."
"A mysterious affair, which still awaits explanation, has put the residents of the Kleinseite District into much excitement. Opposite the A— Barracks, was established the shop of Johann Rak, a man of 35 years of age, unmarried. Yesterday morning the shop was not opened as usual, and a certain Joseph Rak,—not a relative, though of the same name as the owner—a clerk to Johann Rak, was not to be found. Hours passed, and the place remained closed; and neither of the two Raks was visible. Both of them lived in rooms in the building, and these rooms also were noticed as shut. On looking through a window, young Joseph Rak was seen lying on his bed, dressed. The door, was forced, and the clerk was discovered to be dead. Two half-filled glasses of soda-water were on the table by the bed, along with some confectionery. The bed of the merchant, Johann Rak, was undisturbed. The physician summoned found no traces of violence on the person of the young clerk, but there is no doubt now that he was poisoned. The body of his employer, the older Rak, was discovered in the cellar of the shop, hanging to a. hook. He had committed suicide, with careful deliberation, during the night. It had been pretty generally said in the neighbourhood that the relations between the two Raks were of a criminal sort (under Paragraph 129 of the Statutes). The physical examination during the autopsy of each body afforded grounds for conclusively accepting this idea. What precipitated the murder and suicide is not clear: but it is thought that the elder Rak poisoned the young clerk and then comitted suicide. Still—this is open to some question."
Insanity as a
Other factors that classify homosexual suicides will be noticed in the same succeeding chapter.
The Uranian as
Happiest of all, surely, are those Uranians, ever numerous, who have no wish nor need to fly society—or themselves. Knowing what they are, understanding the natural, the moral strength of their position as homosexuals; sure of right on their side, even if it be never accorded to them in the lands where they must live; fortunate in either due self-control or private freedom—day by day, they go on through their lives, self-respecting and respected, in relative peace.
An Old Summary:
By the suppression in Germany of one single paragraph of the Criminal Code (often referred to here as "Paragraph 175") at some general revision of the Statute-Book, the most formidable aid to the blackmailer,—that worst barrier to the worthy and respectable Uranian's peace—will be removed, and yet no social harm will be wrought. Other changes may follow, as legal and public sentiment are clarified on the whole psychic-physic aspects of similisexualism. But the removal of express statutory clauses affecting natural, decent and private homosexualism will be a humane and legitimate gain.
The Petitions to
Herr Bebel's Plea
The reference is just'on the speaker's part, to the fact that by the Paragraph ought to be punished female similisexualism. The law does not base any argument that women should be allowed legally to gratify uraniad appetites. Uraniads are continually known to offend so, are discovered so doing, but without any legal penalty affecting them. This is of course, an old statutory inconsistency.
The Petition was rejected in 1897. It was received in part with decided favour, in part with the expected very resolute opposition—and abuse. In 1898, it was brought , even more vigorously, with more supporters. But its fate was not any better, though there is hope that a near Code Revision will remove the specific Paragraph. The Clerical Party is not friendly to any such change. More or less active and dignified attempts to similar ends iii Austria and in Hungary, aided by Protestants or Catholics, have not been to practical purport; chiefly in view of similar clerical opposition. Imperial favour is not shown to the movement.
There is some reason to argue that even as a dignified leverage to publicity in the German Parliament the association of the movement with any political party is not useful. Many persons thoroughly favouring humane and intelligent laws, will not aid in the conscientious and brilliant activities of the Committee, until it has another political atmosphere, or none. They claim that such a national movement should have absolutely no political conjunctions. The hostility of the German Emperor as to the Social Democratic element in politics is so emphasized that alliance with that faction (which includes some of the most progressive, patriotic and intellectual men in German politics) embitters the Kaiser against more liberal legislation. But it has been well said that so humane and observant a monarch as the present emperor cannot hold absolute and personal objections to the removal of a law that does his subjects no good; a law that is the cause of infinite disgraces and harm to to them.
Thus much space in this study has been given to Germany's even hesitant advance toward recognizing some human and natural rights of the homosexual, and toward freeing him from unintelligent persecution, undeserved shame and agony, because, the attitude of distinctively Anglo-Saxon social civilizations is so clearly in contrast. Hardly a shadow of any legal change in those legislations—severest of all—is manifest. Public sentiments and public ignorances in England, in her dependent States and Colonies, as in the United States of America, are against any leniences. Lawmakers will not tolerate the thought of even a legal silence as to phases of homosexualism that do not offend public morality, nor deprave innocent youth, nor exhibit other aspects always meriting legal provision. That there is any scientific view of the problem is largely unknown in Great Britain and in America. In those large dominions, with their multitudes of homosexuals, the Uranian seems likely to remain a social and a legal victim for an indefinite time to come.
The Uraniad as
Should Not Statu-
tory Laws Deal
Example of the
ings of Uraniad-
ism on Woman's
In an Appendix to this study will occur a comment on aspects of the Uraniad when victim of her sexual-sentimental impulses; as contrasted with uranianism.
tribution of the
In the lower levels of uraniadism, outbreaks of jealousy or of revenge elicit such assaults and murders. In the demi-mondaine atmosphere these affairs come to notice. A few days before these lines are written, a Parisian prostitute, not at all "amazonian" or unfeminine in any external, stabbed another of her class in the brothel where they lived, dangerously wounding her victim. Interrogated by the police-judge, she answered with angry pride—"I wanted to kill her. I was not going to allow her to belong to any other girl! She was mine—I found her a traitress to our love!" The would-be murderess added intimate details of a physical and psychological clarity. A few months ago a similar crime had the same sexual motive. A boulevard cocotte of much beauty and elegance of dress, walked up to a "rival" in the street, and threw the classic vitriol into her face, disfiguring it forever. "She was my wife", was the excuse to the police. "I won't have her running around all the time with other women." A prostitute put a knife into the back of another of the same profession … "She said she was tired of men for good and all. I found she lied to me … I loved her … She had a man with her this morning … She was better than any man—she could make love a lot better." As a rule, however, the uraniad does not object to the "relations" of her intersexual partner when they are with men. It is only in proportion to their, occurring with "other women," with other Intersexuals of the feminine type, that the fire of jealousy rises.
A muscular and courageous Uraniad as a criminal on quite masculine lines of activity, and undoubtedly of countersexual i. e. intersexual type, came before the Paris police in April, 1909. A young man—or apparently such—was arrested in the Rue du Faubourg SaintMartin as a souteneur, while watching and aiding a young woman to pick up her clientage, as a prostitute. The prisoner was tall, robust, virile in manner, deep-voiced, had a (natural) light:brown moustache, wore a neat dark suit, and actively resisted arrest. At the station-house, "he" proved to be of more feminine gender; by name one Anna Guelin, aged twenty-eight, formerly a a singer in cafés-chantants. In physique and sexual organs "he" was feminine, but with sundry developments toward masculinity. During eight years Anna Guelin had lived by consorting with female prostitutes. She was able to maintain sexual relations with them, had been their 'protector' in various skirmishes, and when not able to obtain an income as their "poteau" had turned to bi-sexual prostitution.
Sometimes the scandal as to an uraniad liaison, between types not criminal but degenerated, breaks forth on the most emphatic plane of publicity: as in the recent affair between the wife (a brilliant woman of lighter letters, internationally popular) of a well-known Parisian littérateur and another and titled uraniad; whose debuts in a theatrical piece provoked a stormy demonstration, that compelled their retirement from the piece.
The criminality of the Uraniad, her vicious deviations, indeed-are in key with the general aspects, of the feminine intersex; and, for that matter with women when considered in the aggregate. Uraniads suggest a lower moral nature than the uranian; and that only femininely social and physical disabilities really keep them in check from evil-doing on much the same scale as their more masculine rivals.
Note: The authour desires again to express (as in the Preface) his regret that so considerable a part of the examples and incidents in this chapter are by no means recent (however serviceable as of sorts and kinds permanently typical) and that a larger number of recent ones at his hand could not be inserted under one or another class considered—owing to the arrangements for putting the book to press, after a long delay. In 1905, 1906 and 1907 occurred many appropriate instances of intersexuals as degenerates, as criminals or as social and legal victims for which place could not be made now in these pages. The Continental daily press, and specifically the little bulletin "Mittheilungen des Bundes für Männliche Kultur" (B. Zack; Treptow; Berlin) and many current psychiatric publications, all will' remedy the deficiency. To readers who cannot utilize studies in German, French, Italian, etc., Dr., Henry Havelock Ellis's large and detailed researches into the topic of sexual inversion will be of profound interest; even where the reader may not be fully in accord with the opinion of so authoritative an observer.
- The writer take this opportunity to note the loss of some lines in the first paragraph of the eighth chapter of this study (p. 231) by which error, not observed till too late for correction, there is a confusion in referring to Philippe d'Orléans senior and the Regent.
- Since writing the foregoing paragraph, this bath has been subject to a surveillance that, according to information at hand, has perceptibly changed its aspects as a practical rendezvous.
- See preceding reference to Germanic Law, Chapt. IV, p. 67.
- See Chapt. IV.
- A special attestation of this curious aspect occurred in a very recent libel suit—mentioned on a later page—in Berlin, originating in a scandal in a women's club.
- Since the Eulenburg Trials and concurrent scandals in Germany, in 1907-8, there is noticeable in that State a serious popular reaction against even the intelligent scientific discussion of the Uranian and of uranianism; a sort of social recrudescence of sentiment against all the uranian problem; a phase regrettable on grounds of legislative justice, humanity and science, and which, it may be hoped, will not continue. Of scientific acceptance there has been no , nor could there be. It is little to the Credit of Great Britain and American that of them not even so much as "action with reaction" can be said to have occurred yet.