The Jewish Manual/Chapter II
A RICH BROWN GRAVY.
The above may be rendered a Sauce Piquante by substituting a little vinegar, whole capers, allspice, and thyme, instead of the smoked beef and lemon; a few onions and piccalilli chopped finely, is a great addition when required to be very piquante.
A sauce like the above is very good to serve with beef that has been boiled for broth.
A GOOD GRAVY FOR ROAST FOWLS.
Take a little stock, squeeze in the juice of a lemon, add a little mushroom powder, cayenne pepper and salt; thicken with flour.
ANOTHER EXCELLENT RECEIPT.
Chop some mushrooms, young and fresh, salt them, and put them into a saucepan with a little gravy, made of the trimmings of the fowl, or of veal, a blade of mace, a little grated lemon peel, the juice of one lemon; thicken with flour, and when ready to serve, stir in a table-spoonful of white wine.
A FINE WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED CHICKENS, TURKEYS, OR WHITE FRICASSEES.
Beat up the yolks of four eggs with the juice of a fine lemon, a tea-spoonful of flour, and a little cold water, mix well together, and set it on the fire to thicken, stirring it to prevent curdling. This sauce will be found excellent, if not superior, in many cases where English cooks use melted butter. If capers are substituted for the lemon juice, this sauce will be found excellent for boiled lamb or mutton.
Cut in small pieces from about four to five heads of celery, which if not very young must be peeled, simmer it till tender in half a pint of
veal gravy, if intended for white sauce, then add a spoonful of flour, the yolks of three eggs, white pepper, salt, and the juice of one lemon, these should be previously mixed together with a little water till perfectly smooth and thin, and be stirred in with the sauce; cream, instead of eggs, is used in English kitchens.
Skin a dozen fine tomatos, set them on the fire in a little water or gravy, beat them up with a little vinegar, lemon juice, cayenne pepper, and salt; some persons like the yolk of an egg, well beaten added. Strain or not, as may be preferred.
GRAVY FOR A FOWL,
WHEN THERE IS NO STOCK TO MAKE IT WITH.
Take the feet, wash them, cut them small, also the neck and gizzard; season them with pepper and salt, onion, and parsley, let them simmer
gently for some time, in about a breakfast-cup of water, then strain, thicken with flour, and add a little browning, and if liked, a small quantity of any store sauce at hand, and it will prove an excellent sauce.
FOR COLD PIES, OR TO GARNISH COLD POULTRY.
Have a bare knuckle of veal, and a calf's foot or cow heel; put it into a stew-pan with a thick slice of smoked beef, a few herbs, a blade of
mace, two or three onions, a little lemon peel, pepper and salt, and three or four pints of water (the French add a little tarragon vinegar). When it boils skim it, and when cold, if not clear, boil it a few minutes with the white and shell of an egg, and pass it through a jelly bag, this jelly with the juice of two or three lemons, and poured into a mould, in which are put the yolks of eggs boiled hard, forms a pretty supper dish.
A FINE SAUCE FOR STEAKS.
Throw into a saucepan a piece of fat the size of an egg, with two or three onions sliced, let them brown; add a little gravy, flour, a little vinegar, a spoonful of mustard, and a little cayenne pepper, boil it and serve with the steaks.
A FISH SAUCE WITHOUT BUTTER.
Put on, in a small saucepan, a cup of water, well flavored with vinegar, an onion chopped fine, a little rasped horse-radish, pepper, and two or three cloves, and a couple of anchovies cut small, when it has boiled, stir carefully in the beaten yolks of two eggs, and let it thicken, until of the consistency of melted butter.
A FINE FISH SAUCE.
One teacup full of walnut pickle, the same of mushroom ditto, three anchovies pounded, one clove of garlic pounded, half a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper, all mixed well together, and bottled for use.
A NICE SAUCE TO THROW OVER BROILED MEATS.
Beat up a little salad-oil with a table-spoonful of vinegar, mustard, pepper and salt, and then stir in the yolk of an egg; this sauce should be highly seasoned. A sauce of this description is sometimes used to baste mutton while roasting, the meat should be scored in different places to allow the sauce to penetrate.
SAUCE FOR DUCKS.
A little good gravy, with a glass of port wine, the juice of a lemon, highly seasoned with cayenne pepper.
Take a large onion and boil it, with a little pepper till quite soft, in milk, then take it out, and pour the milk over grated stale bread, then boil it up with a piece of butter, and dredge it with flour; it should be well beaten up with a silver fork.
The above can be made without butter or milk: take a large onion, slice it thin, put it into a little veal gravy, add grated bread, pepper, &c., and the yolk and white of an egg well beaten.
APPLE SAUCE FOR GOOSE.
Slice some apples, put them in a little water to simmer till soft, beat them to a pulp; some consider a little powdered sugar an improvement, but as the acid of the apples is reckoned a corrective to the richness of the goose, it is usually preferred without.
Mix vinegar with brown sugar, let it stand about an hour, then add chopped mint, and stir together.
Slice finely, and brown in a little oil, two or three onions; put them in a little beef gravy, and add cayenne pepper, salt, and the juice of a lemon. This is a nice sauce for steaks.
Put some good butter into a cup or jar, and place it before the fire till it becomes an oil, then pour it off, so that all sediment may be avoided.
TO DRAW GOOD GRAVY.
Cut some gravy beef into small pieces, put them in a jar, and set it in a saucepan of cold water to boil gently for seven or eight hours,
adding, from time to time, more water as the original quantity boils away. The gravy thus made will be the essence of the meat, and in
cases where nutriment is required in the smallest compass, will be of great service. Soups are stronger when the meat is cut, and gravy drawn before water is added.
Peel and slice as many truffles as required, simmer them gently with a little butter, when they are tender, add to them good white or brown consommé lemon juice, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a very little white wine.
Take about a pint of fine young button mushrooms, let them stew gently in a white veal gravy seasoned with salt, pepper, a blade of
mace, and if approved, the grated peel of half a lemon, it should be thickened with flour and the yolk of an egg stirred in it, just before serving; English cooks add cream to this sauce.
The usual way of making sauces for puddings, is by adding sugar to melted butter, or thin egg sauce, flavoring it with white wine, brandy, lemon peel, or any other flavor approved of.
Although this sauce is one of the most simple, it is very rarely that it is well made. Mix with four ounces of butter, a desert spoonful of flour, when well mixed, add three table spoonsful of water, put it into a clean saucepan kept for the purpose, and stir it carefully one way till it boils; white sauce to throw over vegetables served on toast, is made in the same way, only putting milk and water, instead of water only.
SAUCE WITHOUT BUTTER FOR BOILED PUDDINGS.
Mix a table-spoonful of flour, with two of water, add a little wine, lemon peel grated, a small bit of clarified suet, of the size of a walnut, grated nutmeg, and sugar, put on in a saucepan, stirring one way, and adding water if too thick, lemon juice, or essence of noyeau, or almonds may be substituted to vary the flavour.
SAUCE ROBERT FOR STEAKS.
Chop up some onions, throw them into a saucepan with a bit of clarified fat, let them fry till brown, then add pepper, salt, a little gravy, mustard, lemon juice, and vinegar; boil it all, and pour over the steaks.
This is merely melted butter with a few pickled capers simmered in it, or they may be put into a sauce made of broth thickened with egg, and a little flour.
SAVORY HERB POWDER.
It is useful to select a variety of herbs, so that they may always be at hand for use: the following are considered to be an excellent selection, parsley, savory, thyme, sweet majoram, shalot, chervil, and sage, in equal quantities; dry these in the oven, pound them finely and keep them in bottles well stopped.
SEASONING FOR DUCKS AND GEESE.
Mix chopped onion with an equal quantity of chopped sage, three times as much grated stale bread, a little shred suet, pepper, salt, and a beaten egg to bind it, this is generally used for geese and ducks, the onions are sometimes boiled first to render them less strong.
ENGLISH EGG SAUCE.
Boil two eggs hard, chop them finely, and warm them up in finely made melted butter, add a little white pepper, salt, a blade of mace, and a very small quantity of nutmeg.
SAUCE A LA TARTARE.
Mix the yolk of an egg with oil, vinegar, chopped parsley, mustard, pepper, and salt; a spoonful of paté de diable or French mustard, renders the sauce more piquante.
A FINE SAUCE FOR ROAST MUTTON.
Mix a little port wine in some gravy, two table-spoonfuls of vinegar, one of oil, a shalot minced, and a spoonful of mustard, just before the mutton is served, pour the sauce over it, then sprinkle it with fried bread crumbs, and then again baste the meat with the sauce; this is a fine addition to the mutton.
ASPARAGUS SAUCE, TO SERVE WITH LAMB CHOPS.
Cut some asparagus, or sprew, into half inch lengths, wash them, and throw them into half a pint of gravy made from beef, veal, or mutton thickened, and seasoned with salt, white pepper, and a lump of white sugar, the chops should be delicately fried and the sauce served in the centre of the dish.
BROWN CUCUMBER SAUCE.
Peel and cut in thick slices, one or more fresh cucumbers, fry them until brown in a little butter, or clarified fat, then add to them a little strong beef gravy, pepper, salt, and a spoonful of vinegar; some cooks add a chopped onion browned with the cucumbers.
WHITE CUCUMBER SAUCE.
Take out the seeds of some fresh young cucumbers, quarter them, and cut them into pieces of two inch lengths, let them lay for an hour in vinegar and water, then simmer them till thoroughly soft, in a veal broth seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little lemon juice; when ready for serving, pour off the gravy and thicken it with the yolks of a couple of eggs stirred in, add it to the saucepan; warm up, taking care that it does not curdle.
BROWNED FLOUR FOR MAKING SOUPS AND GRAVIES DARK AND THICK.
Spread flour on a tin, and place it in a Dutch oven before the fire, or in a gentle oven till it browns; it must often be turned, that the flour may be equally coloured throughout. A small quantity of this prepared and laid by for use, will be found useful.
BROWNED BREAD CRUMBS.
Grate into fine crumbs, about five or six ounces of stale bread, and brown them in a gentle oven or before the fire; this is a more delicate way of browning them than by frying.
Wash and drain a handful of fresh young sprigs of parsley, dry them with a cloth, place them before the fire on a dish, turn them frequently, and they will be perfectly crisp in ten minutes.
When the parsley is prepared as above, fry it in butter or clarified suet, then drain it on a cloth placed before the fire.
BREAD CRUMBS FOR FRYING.
Cut slices of bread without crust, and dry them gradually in a cool oven till quite dry and crisp, then roll them into fine crumbs, and put them in a jar for use.
Pound to a pulp in a mortar a handful of spinach, and squeeze it through a hair sieve; then put it into a cup or jar, and place it in a basin of hot water for a few minutes, or it may be allowed to simmer on the fire; a little of this stirred into spring soups, improve their appearance.
These preparations are so frequently mentioned in modern cookery, that we shall give the receipts for them, although they are not appropriate for the Jewish kitchen. Velouté is a fine white sauce, made by reducing a certain quantity of well-flavoured consommé or stock, over a charcoal fire, and mixing it with boiling cream, stirring it carefully till it thickens.
Béchamel is another sort of fine white stock, thickened with cream, there is more flavouring in this than the former, the stock is made of veal, with some of the smoked meats used in English kitchens, butter, mace, onion, mushrooms, bay leaf, nutmeg, and a little salt. An excellent substitute for these sauces can in Jewish kitchens be made in the following way:
Take some veal broth flavored with smoked beef, and the above named seasonings, then beat up two or three yolks of eggs, with a little of the stock and a spoonful of potatoe flour, stir this into the broth, until it thickens, it will not be quite as white, but will be excellent.
FORCEMEAT OR FARCIE.
Under this head is included the various preparations used for balls, tisoles, fritters, and stuffings for poultry and veal, it is a branch of cooking which requires great care and judgment, the proportions should be so blended as to produce a delicate, yet savoury flavor, without allowing any particular herb or spice to predominate.
The ingredients should always be pounded well together in a mortar, not merely chopped and moistened with egg, as is usually done by inexperienced cooks; forcemeat can be served in a variety of forms, and is so useful a resource, that it well repays the attention it requires.
A SUPERIOR FORCEMEAT FOR RISOLLES, FRITTERS, AND SAVORY MEAT BALLS.
Scrape half a pound of the fat of smoked beef, and a pound of lean veal, free from skin, vein, or sinew, pound it finely in a mortar with chopped mushrooms, a little minced parsley, salt and pepper, and grated lemon peel, then have ready the crumb of two French rolls soaked in good gravy, press out the moisture, and add the crumb to the meat with three beaten eggs; if the forcemeat is required to be very highly flavored, the gravy in which the rolls are soaked should be seasoned with mushroom powder; a spoonful of ketchup, a bay leaf, an onion, pepper, salt, and lemon juice, add this panada to the pounded meat and eggs, form the mixture into any form required, and either fry or warm in gravy, according to the dish for which it is intended.
Any cold meats pounded, seasoned, and made according to the above method are excellent; the seasoning can be varied, or rendered simpler if required.
COMMON VEAL STUFFING.
Have equal quantities of finely shred suet and grated crumbs of bread, add chopped sweet herbs, grated lemon peel, pepper, and salt, pound it in a mortar; this is also used for white poultry, with the addition of a little grated smoked beef, or a piece of the root of a tongue pounded and mixed with the above ingredients.
Chop finely any kind of fish, that which has been already dressed will answer the purpose, then pound it in a mortar with a couple of anchovies, or a little anchovy essence, the yolk of a hard boiled egg, a little butter, parsley or any other herb which may be approved, grated lemon peel, and a little of the juice, then add a little bread previously soaked, and mix the whole into a paste, and form into balls, or use for stuffing, &c.
The liver or roe of fish is well suited to add to the fish, as it is rich and delicate.
FORCEMEAT FOR DRESSING FISH FILLETS.
Pound finely anchovies, grated bread, chopped parsley, and the yolk of a hard boiled egg, add grated lemon peel, a little lemon juice, pepper and salt, and make into a paste with two eggs.
FORCEMEAT FOR DRESSING CUTLETS, ETC.
Add to grated stale bread, an equal quantity of chopped parsley, season it well, and mix it with clarified suet, then brush the cutlets with beaten yolks of eggs, lay on the mixture thickly with a knife, and sprinkle over with dry and fine bread crumbs.
Beat the hard yolks of eggs in a mortar, make it into a paste with the yolk of a raw egg, form the paste into very small balls, and throw them into boiling water for a minute or so, to harden them.
PREPARATION FOR CUTLETS OF FOWL OR VEAL.
Make a smooth batter of flour, and a little salad oil, and two eggs, a little white pepper, salt, and nutmeg, turn the cutlets well in this mixture, and fry a light brown, garnish with slices of lemon, and crisped parsley, this is done by putting in the parsley after the cutlets have been fried, it will speedily crisp; it should then be drained, to prevent its being greasy.