The Katha Sarit Sagara
KATHÁ SARIT SÁGARA
OCEAN OF THE STREAMS OF STORY
TRANSLATED FROM THE
C. H. TAWNEY, M. A.
PRINTED BY J. W. THOMAS, AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS.
CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.
|Curse of Pushpadanta and Mályaván,||4—5|
|Story of Pushpadanta when living on the earth as Vararuchi||5—10|
|How Kanabhuti became a Piśácha,||6—7|
|Story of Vararuchi's teacher Varsha, and his fellow-pupils Vyádi and Indradatta,||7—10|
|Continuation of the story of Vararuchi,||11—16|
|Story of the founding of the city of Pátaliputra,||11—16|
|Story of king Brahmadatta,||12—13|
|Continuation of the story of Vararuchi,||16—23|
|Story of Upakośá and her four lovers,||17—20|
|Conclusion of the story of Vararuchi,||23—31|
|Story of S'ivaśarman,||27—28|
|Story of Mályaván when living on the earth as Gunádhya,||32—40|
|Story of the Mouse-merchant,||33—34|
|Story of the chanter of the Sáma Veda,||34—35|
|Story of Sátaváhana,||36—37|
|Continuation of the story of Gunádhya,||41—47|
|How Pushpadanta got his name,||43—46|
|Story of king S'ivi,||40—46
ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA
To Fasciculus I.
Page 1, line 6, for "Part I" read " Book I, called Kathapitha."
Page 14, add to footnote. "See also Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 230 and Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 152."
Page 20, add to footnote.—"General Cunningham is of opinion that the denoument of this story is represented in one of the Bharhut Sculptures; see his Stupa of Bharhut, p. 53."
Page 27, 3rd line, from the bottom of the page, add to footnote.—"The reader will find similar questioning demons described in Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, pp. 54_56, and 109."
Page 40, add to footnote.—"See also the 60th Tale in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen, Vol. II, p. 17.
Page 58, add as a note to the story of the guardian lion. " This incident may be compared with one described in Weckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 82.
Page 70, add to footnote at the bottom of the page—"Cp. also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 72."
Page 77, add to the second footnote—"Cp. also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 124."
CORRIGENDA AND ADDENDA
TO VOL. I.
Page 5. For note t substitute See note on page 281.
Page 12, line 16 " Every day when he awakes from sleep, a hundred thousand gold pieces shall be found under his pillow." This may be compared with Grimm's No. 60, " Die zwei Briider." Each of the brothers finds every day a gold piece under his pillow.
Page 14. Add to footnote See also the story of "Die Kaiserin Trebisonda" in a collection of South Italian tales by Woldemar Kaden, entitled " Unter den Olivenbau- men and published in 1880. The hero of this story plays the same trick as Putraka, and gains thereby an inexhaustible purse, a pair of boots which enable the wearer to run like the wind, and a mantle of invisibility. See also " Beutel, Miintclchen und Wunderhorn" in the same collection, and No. XXII in Miss Stokes's Indian Fairy Tales. The story is found in the Avadanas translated by Stanislas Julien : (Leveque, Mythes et Legendes de L'Inde et de la Perse, p. 570, Liebrecht, zur Volkskunde, p. 117.) M. Leveque thinks that La Fontaine was indebted to it for his Fable of L' Huitre et les Plaideurs. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, pp. 126127, and 162.
Page 16, line 1. " And so taking Patali in his arms he flew away from that place through the air." Compare the way in which Zauberer Vergilius carries off the daughter of the Sultan of Babylon, and founds the town of Naples, which ho makes over to her and her children : (Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. VI, pp. 354, 355.) Dunlop is of opinion that the mediasval traditions about Vergil are largely derived from Oriental sources.
Page 20. Add to note A faint echo of this story is found in Gonzenbach'u Sicilianische Marchen, No. 55, pp. 359 362. Cp. also No. 72(i) in the Novellas Morlini. (Liobrecht's Dunlop, p. 497.)
Page 22, last line of the page, " Yogananda threw S'akatala into a dark dungeon and his hundred sons with him." Compare this with the story of Ugolino in Dante's Inferno.
Page 30, line 5. For " performing" read " presiding at."
Page 42. Add to note % This belief seems to be very general in Wales, see Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, p. 113. See also Kuhn's Herabkunft des Fcuers, p. 93, De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, p. 285.
Page 44. Add to note* See also Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 241, where Prince Ivan by the help of his tutor Katoma propounds to the Princess Anna the l;iir, a I'iddlc which enables him to win her as his wife.
Page 46. Add to footnote. M. Levequo (Lcs Myth->s rt I/-^ n.lc-s de L'lado p 327) connects this story with that of Philemon and Baucis. LLo lays particular stress upon the following lines of Ovid :
Unieua atuer erat, minimrr custodia
Qucm Dis hospitibus domini mactare parabant :
Ille celer penna tardos setate fatigat,
Eluditque diu, tandemque est visus ad ipsos
Confugisse deos. Super i vetnere necari.
See also Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, pp. 187, 297 and 414.
Page 53, last lino of page. For illustrations of this bath of blood see Dunlop'a Liebrecht, page 135, and the note at the end of the book. The story of Der arme Heinrich, to which Liebrecht refers, ia to be found in the Vlth Volume of Simrock's Deutsche Volksbuchcr.
Page 54. Add to note Gigantic birds that feed on raw flesh are mentioned by the Pseudo-Callisthenes, Book II, ch. 41. Alexander gets on the back of one of them, and is carried into the air, guiding his bird by holding a piece of liver in front of it. He is warned by a winged creature in human shape to proceed no further, and descends again to earth. See also Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 143 and note. See also Birlinger, Aus Schwaben, pp. 6, 6, 7. He compares Pacolet's horse in the story of Valentine and Orson.
Page 58, line 5. For " the god with the bull-blazoned banner" read " the god whose emblem is a bull."
Page 64, line 9. " A village named Nagasthala near Mathura." Mr. Growse remarks : " In Hindi the word Nagasthala would assume the form Nagal ; and there is a village of that name to this day in the Mahaban Pargana of the Mathura Dis- trict."
Page 70. Add to note J In the Gehbrnte Siegfried (Simrock's Deutsche Volks- biicher, Vol. Ill, pp. 368 and 416), the hero is made invulnerable everywhere but between the shoulders, by being smeared with the melted fat of a dragon. Cp. also the story of Achilles. For the transformation of Chandamahasena into a boar see Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. II, pp. 144, 145, and Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, p. 14.
Page 74, line 7 from the bottom. " Yaugandharayana, by means of that very charm, gave Vasantaka a body full of outstanding veins &c." Cp. the way in which the Eitter Malegis transmutes Reinold in the story of Die Heimonskinder (Sinirock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. II, p. 86). " He changed him into an old man, a hundred years of age, with a decrepit and misshapen body, and long hair." See also p. 114. So Merlin assumes the form of an old man and disguises Uther and Ulfin, Dunlop'a History of Fiction, translated by Liebrecht, p. 66.
Page 76, lino 13. Mr. Growse writes to me with reference to the name Loha- jangha " This name still exists on the spot, though probably not to be found else- where. The original bearer of the title is said to have been one of the demons whom Krishna slew, and a village is called Lohaban after him, where an ancient red sand- atone image is supposed to represent him, and has offerings of iron made to it ut the annual festival.
Page 77. Add to note f " See also the story of Heinrich dor Lowe, Simrock's Di.-ut.sche Volksbiicher, Vol. I, p. 8. Dr. Kiihler refers to the story of llerzog Ernst. The incident will be found in Simrock's version of the story, at page 308 of the Illrd Volume of his Deutsche Volksbiichor."
Page 79. Add to note f The legend of Garuda and the Balakhilyas is found in thu Muhabharata, see De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, p. 96. Page 80. Add to note * But Joscphus in Ant. Jud. XVIII, 3, tells it of a Roman knight named Mundus, who fell in love with Paulina the wife of Saturninus, and by corrupting the priestess of Isis was enabled to pass himself off as Anubis. On tho matter coming to the ears of Tiberius, ho had the temple of Isia destroyed, and the priests crucified. (Dunlop's History of Fiction, Vol. II, p. 27. Liebrecht's German translation, p. 232). A similar story is told by the Pseudo-Callisthenes of Nectaneboa and Olympias.
Page 86. Add to note f See also " The king of Spain and his queen " in Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, pp. 452 455. Thorpe remarks that the tale agrees in substance with the ballad of the " Graf Von Rom" in Uhland, II, 784 ; and with the Flemish story of " Ritter Alexander aus Metz und Seine Frau Florentina." In the 21st of Bandello's novels the test is a mirror (Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 287). See also pp. 85 and 86 of Liebrecht's Dunlop, with the notes at the end of the volume.
Page 98, line 3, for " he went and begged the hermit to give him to her in marriage" read " he went and begged the hermit to give her to him in marriage."
Page 98. Add to note * Bernhard Schmidt in his Griechische Marchen, page 37, mentions a very similar story, which he connects with that of Admetos and Alkestis. In a popular ballad of Trebisond, a young man named Jannis, the only son of hia parents, is about to be married, when Charon comes to fetch him. He supplicates St. George, who obtains for him the concession, that his life may be spared, in case his father will give him half the period of life still remaining to him. His father refuses, and in the same way his mother. At last his betrothed gives him half her allotted period of life, and the marriage takes place. The story of Ruru is found in the Adiparva of the Mahabharata, see Leveque, Mythes et Legendes de 1' Inde, pp. 278, and 374.
Page 99. Add to note. See also Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, p. 45. " The vicar of Stranton was standing at the churchyard gate, awaiting the arrival of a funeral party, when to his astonishment the whole group, who had arrived within a few yards of him, suddenly wheeled and made the circuit of the churchyard wall, thus traversing its west, north, and east boundaries, and making the distance some five or six times greater than was necessary. The vicar, astonished at this proceeding, asked the sexton the reason of so extraordinary a movement. The reply was as follows : ' Why, ye wad no hae them carry the dead again the sun ; the dead maun aye go with the sun.' This custom is no doubt an ancient British or Celtic custom, and corresponds to the Highland usage of making the deazil or walking three times round a person according to the course of the sun. Old Highlanders will still make the deazil around those to whom they wish well. To go round tho person in the opposite direction, or " withershins," is an evil incantation and brings ill- fortune. Hunt in his Romances and Drolls of the West of England, p. 418, says, "If an invalid goes out for the first time, and makes a circuit, the circuit must be with the sun, if against the sun, there will be a relapse. Liebrecht, zur Volks- kundo, p. 322, quotes from the Statistical Account of Scotland, Vol. V, p. 88 tho following statement of a Scottish minister, with reference to a marriage ceremony : " After leaving the church, the whole company walk round it, keeping the church walls always on the right hand."
Thiselton Dyer, in his English Folk-lore, p. 171, mentions a similar custom as existing in the West of England. In Devonshire blackhead or pinsoles are cured by creeping on one's hands and knees under or through a bramble three times with the sun ; that is from cast to west. See also Ralston's Songs of the Russian people, p. 299. Page 102 ; Add to note * Cp. Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, p. 131.
Page 103 Add to note * This story bears a certain resemblance to the termina- tion of Alles aus einer Erbse, Kadon's Unter den Olivenbiiumen, p. 22. See also page 220 of the same collection.
Page 104. Add to note f Liebrecht, in note 485 to page 413 of his translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction, compares this story with one in The Thousand and One Days of a princess of Kashmir, who was so beautiful that every one who saw her went mad, or pined away. He also mentions an Arabian tradition with respect to the Thracian sorceress Uhodope. " The Arabs believe that one of the pyramids is haunted by a guardian spirit in the shape of a beautiful woman, the mere sight of whom drives men mad." He refers also to Thomas Moore, the Epicurean, Note 6 to Chapter VI, and the Adventures of Hatim Tai, translated by Duncan Forbes, p. 18.
Page 115. For parallels to the story of Urvasi, see Kuhn's Herabkunft des Feuer's, p. 88.
Page 121, lino 6. Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (translation by Stallybrass, p. 121, note,) connects the description of wonderful maidens sitting inside hollow trees or perched oc the boughs, with tree-worship.
Page 130, line 6. Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (translation by Stallybrass, p. 392) remarks " One principal mark to know heroes by is their possessing intelligent horses, and conversing with them. The touching conversation of Achilles with his Xanthos and Balios finds a complete parallel in the beautiful Karling legend of Bayard. (This is most pathetically told in Simrock's Deutsche Volksbucher, Vol. II, Die Heimons- kinder, see especially page 64). Grimm proceeds to cite many other instances from European literature. See also Note 3 to the XXth story in Miss Stokes's collection. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, p. 336 and./.
Page 132. Add to note * The belief that the dead rose from the tomb in the form of Vampires appears to have existed in Chaldsea and Babylon. Lenormant observes in his Chaldiean Magic and Sorcery, (English Translation, p. 37) "In a fragment of the Mythological epopee which is traced upon a tablet in the British Museum, and relates the descent of Ishtar into Hades, we are told that the goddess, when she arrived at the doors of the infernal regions, called to the porter whoso duty it was to open them, saying,
" Porter, open thy door ;
Open thy door that I may enter.
If thou dost not open the door, and if I cannot enter,
I will attack the door, I will break down its bars,
I will attack the enclosure, I will leap over its fences by force ;
I will cause the dead to rise and devour the living ;
I will give to the dead power over the living."
The same belief appears also to have existed in Egypt. The same author observes (p. 02). "These formula) also kept the body fircm beoomhig, during fta separation from the soul, the prey of some wieked spirit which would enter, re-animate, and cause it to rise again in the form of a vampire. For, according to the Egyptian belief, the possessing spirits, and the spectres which frightened or tormented the living were but the souls of the condemned returning tu tho earth, before undergoing the annihilation of the ' second death.' " Page 133, lino 1. Cp. the way in which the witch treats the corpse of her son in the Vlth book of the Aethiopica of Heliodorus, ch. 14, and Lucan'a Pharealia, Book VI, 754757.
Page 134, line 25. Cp. Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. Ill, p. 399.
Page 137, line 26. General Cunningham identifies Pauudravardhana with the modern Pubna.
Page 138. Add to note See also the 30th page of Lenormant's Chaldn ,m Magic and Sorcery, English translation.
Page 142, lines 1 and 2. For stories of transportation through the air, see Wir Sikes, British Goblins, p. 157 and/ 1 .
Pago 142. Add to footnote. See also the story of Heinrich der Lowe, Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. I, pp. 21 and 22.
Pago 151. Add to note * Probably the expression means " flexible, well-tempered sword," as Professor Nflmani Mukhopadhyaya has suggested to me.
Page 153, lino 21. For the worship of trees and tree-spirits, see Grimm's Teu- tonic Mythology, p. 75 and,/'., and Tylor's Primitive Culture, Vol. II, p. 196 and^.
Pago 154. Add to note See also Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, pp. 200, and 201 ; Henderson's Northern Folk-lore, p. 19, Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen, und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, pp. 128, 213. Professor Jebb, in his notes on Theophrastus* Superstitious man, observes " The object of all those ceremonies, in which the offerings were carried round the person or place to be purified, was to trace a charmed circle within which the powers of evil should not come."
Page 157. Add to note* In Icelandic Sagas a man with meeting eyebrows is said to be a werewolf. The same idea holds in Denmark, also in Germany, whilst in Greece it is a sign that a man is a Brukolak or Vampire. (Note by Baring-Gould in Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties).
Page 159, line 15. " Kalaratri came into it with a drawn sword in her hand." Cp. the Aethiopica of Heliodorus, Book VII, ch. 15, where the witch is armed with a sword during her incantations ; and Homer's Odyssey, XI, 48. See also for the magic virtues of steel Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 312, 313. Add to footnote J See also Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchon und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, p. 115.
Pago 166. Add to note f See also Bernhard Schmidt's Gricchische Marchcn, p. 38. " A popular ballad referring to the story of Digenis gives him a life of 300 years, and represents his death as due to his killing a hind that had on its shoulder the image of the Virgin Mary, a legend the foundation of which is possibly a recollec- tion of the old mythological story of the hind of Artemis killed by Agamemnon." [Sophoclis Elcctra, 568.] In the llomance of Doolin of Mayence Guyon kills a hermit by mistake for a deer. (Liebrecht's translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction, p. 138) See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, pp. 84 86.
Pago 174, line 13. For " all you desire " read " all ice desire." Liebrccht, speak- ing of the novel of Guorino Meschino, compares this tree with the sun and moon- trees mentioned in the work of the 1'seudo-Callisthenes, Book III, c. 17. They inform Alexander that the years of his life are accomplished, and that ho will die in Babylon. See also Ralston's Songs of the Russian people, p. 111.
Pago 183, lino 1. M. Le"veque considers that the above story, as told in the Mahabharata, forms the basis of the Birds of Aristophanes. He identifies Garuda with the hoopoe. (Les Mythes et los Legcndes do 1' Inde et de la Perse, p. 14).
Page 183. Add to note f Seo also Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen, und Gebriiuche aus Mekleuburg, Vol. I, p. 277 and/ 1 . Page 189. Add to note f For the idea see note on page 305.
Page 205. Add to note f Lenormant in his ChalcUean Magic and Sorcery, p. 41, (English Translation), observes : " We must add to the number of those mysterious rites the use of certain enchanted drinks, which doubtless really contained medicinal drugs, as a cure for diseases, and also of magic knots, the efficacy of which was firmly believed in, even up to the middle ages." See also Ralston's Songs of the Russian people, p. 288.
Page 206. Add to note * Cp. also Kaden's TJnter den Olivenbaumen, p. 56.
Page 224. Add to note * In Wirfc Sikes's British Goblins, p. 84, a draught from a forbidden well has the same effect.
Page 237, Add to note* See also Bartsch' s Sagen, Marchen, und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, VoL I, p. 90.
Page 241, line 4, " Story of the seven Brahmans." This appears to be found in a slightly different form in the Harivansa. (Leveque, Mythes et L^gendes de 1'Inde, p. 220).
Page 253. Add to note * A very striking parallel will be found in Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Marchen, Story No. 3, p. 68. In this story the three Moirai predict evil. The young prince is saved by his sister, from being burnt, and from falling over a precipice when a child, and from a snake on his wedding-day. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, pp. 301302.
Page 254. Add to note * See also Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors, Book IV ch. 9, " Of saluting upon sneezing."
Page 255, line 22, " the evil importunity of Pisachas." There is a story illus- trating the " pertinacity" of goblins in Wirt Sikes's British Goblins, p. 191.
Page 263. Add to footnote. Compare also the way in which the gardener in "Das Rosmarinstrauchlein," Kaden's Unter den Olivenbaumen, p. 12, acquires some useful information. The story of Kirtisena from this point to the cure of the king closely resembles the latter half of Die Zauberkugeln in the same collection.
Page 276. Add to footnote. So Arthur in the Romance of Artus de la Bretagne (Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 107) falls in love with a lady he sees in a dream. Liebrecht in his note at the end of the book tells us that this is a common occurrence in Romances, being found in Amadis of Greece, Palmerin of Oliva, the Romans de Sept Sages, the Fabliau of the Chevalier a la Trappe, the Nibelungen Lied, &c., and ridiculed by Chaucer in his Rime of Sir Topas. He also refers to Athenseus, p. 675, and the Henno- timus of Lucian.
Page 286. Add to note * Cp. the story of St. Macarius.
Page 290. Add to footnote. See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen, und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, pp. 265, 313, 441444, and 447, where peas are used for the same purpose. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, p. 165.
Page 305. Add to note J The same notion will be found in Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen, und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, pp. 17, 64, 89, 91 ; Vol. II, p. 43.
Page 306. Add to footnote. For treasures and their guanli itsch's Sagen, Miirchon, und Gcl.nluchc aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, p. 213 and Jf, and for the candle of human fat, Vol. II, pp. 333 and 335 of the same work. Cp. also Birliiigi-r, Aus Schwaben, pp. 261 and 262 270.
Page 312. Add to note t The author of Sagas from the Far East remarks ; " Scrpont-Cultus was of very ancient observance, and is practised by both foil* of Brdhmanism and Buddhism. The Brahmans seem to have dr.-ind to show their disapproval of it by placing the serpent-gods in the lower ranks of their mythology, (Lassen. I, 707 and 544, n. 2). This cultus, however, seems to have received a fresh development about the time of Asoka circa 250 B. C. (Vol. II, p. 467). When Madhy- antika went into Cashmere and Gandhara to teach Buddhism after the holding of tho third synod, it is mentioned that he found sacrifices to serpents practised there (II. 234, 235). There is a passage in Plutarch from which it appears to have heen tho custom to sacrifice an old woman (previously condemned to death for some crime) to the serpent-gods by burying her alive on the banks of the Indus (II. 467, note 4) Ktesias also mentions the serpent worship (II. 642). In Buddhist legends serpents are often mentioned as protecting patrons of certain towns. (Sagas from the Far East, p. 355). See also Mr. F. S Growse's Mathura memoir, p. 71.
Page 327. Add to footnote. See also Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. I, p. 301 ; Vol. Ill, p. 12 ; Vol. VI, p. 289. Lucian in his De Dea. Syria ch. 32, speaks of a precious stone of the name of vxvis which was bright enough to light up a whole temple at night. We read in the history of the Pseudo-Callisthenes, Book II, ch. 42, that Alexander found in the belly of a fish a precious stone which he had set in gold and used at night as a lamp. See also Baring Gould's Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, p. 42.
Page 338. Add to note * The incident in Sicilianische Marchen closely resembles one in the story of Fortunatus as told in Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. Ill, p. 175. There is a pipe that compels all the hearers to dance in Hug of Bordeaux, Vol. X, p. 263, and a very similar fairy harp in Wirt Sikes's British Goblins, p. 97 ; and a magic fiddle in Das Goldene Schachspiel, a story in Kaden's Unter den Olivcn- baumen, p. 160. A fiddler in Bartsch's Sagen aus Meklenburg, (Vol. I, p. 130) makes a girl spin round like a top. From that day she was lame. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, pp. 182 and 288, and Baring Gould, Ilnd Series, p. 152.
Page 343. Add to note. Cp. also Miss Keary's Heroes of Asgard, p. 223, where Loki and Iduna in the forms of a falcon and a sparrow are pursued by the giant Thiassi in the shape of an eagle.
Page 350, line 14. Cp. Sicilianische Marchen, Vol. II, p. 46, where the giant treacherously lets fall his gauntlet, and asks his adversary to pick it up. His ad- versary, the hero of the story, tells him to pick it up himself, and when the giant bends down for the purpose, cuts oif his head with one blow of his sword.
Page 355. Add to note * Another parallel is to be found in Kaden's Unter den Olivenbiiumen, p. 168. See also Sagas from the Far East, p. 268 ; Birlinger, Aua Schwaben, p. 105.
Page 360, Note*; 3rd line from bottom. After "p. 408" insert "and Wirt Sikes's British Goblins, p. 39."
Pago 361. Add to note * So in No. 83 of the Sicilianische Marchen the anta help Carnfedda because ho once crumbled his bread for them.
Page 364. Add to footnote. See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen, und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, p. 508.
Page 369. Add to note on Chapter 39. Cp. also for tho tasks the story of Bisara in Kaden's Unter den Olivcnbaumen, and that of Die schone Fiorita. Herr Kaden aptly compares the story of Jason and Medea. Another excellent parallel is furnished by the story of Schneeweiss-Feuerroth in the same collection, where we have the pursuit much as in our text.
Page 387. Add to footnote f See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebhiuche aus Mcklonburg, Vol. I, p. 474. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, p. 328, Vol. II, p. 317. Page 393. Add to note* See also the romance of Parthenopex of Blois in Dunlop's History of Fiction, (Liubrucht's translation, p. 17-J).
Page 465. Add to note * See also Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. II, p. 313, and Birlingcr, Aus Schwaben, pp. 374 378, and 404. For similar superstitions in ancient Greece see Jebb's Characters of Thoophrastus, p. 163, "The superstitious man, if a weasel run across his path, will not pursue his walk until some one else has traversed the road, or until he has thrown three stones across it. When he sees a serpent in his house, if it be the red snake, he will invoke Sabazius, if the sacred snake, he will straightway place a shrine on the spot * * * If an owl is startled by him in his walk, he will exclaim " Glory be to Athene !" before he proceeds." Jebb refers us to AT. Eccl. 792.
Page 480. Add to note t The same is asserted by Palladius of the trees in the island of Taprobane, where the Makrobioi live. The fragment of Palladius, to which I refer, begins at the 7th Chapter of the Illrd book of the History of the Pseudo- Callisthenes edited by Carolus Mueller.
Page 499. Add to note t Kuhn in his "Herabkunft des Feuers" traces this story back to the S'atapatha Brahmana.