The King's English

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The King's English  (1906) 
by Henry Watson Fowler

According to the authors, The King's English was dictated by the following considerations: (1) to pass by all rules, of whatever absolute importance, that are shown by observation to be seldom or never broken; and (2) to illustrate by living examples, with the name of a reputable authority attached to each, all blunders that observation shows to be common.

THE

KING'S ENGLISH

No levell'd malice
Inflects one comma in the course I hold.

Timon of Athens, I. i. 48.

SECOND EDITION

OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1906

PREFACE

The compilers of this book would be wanting in courtesy if they did not expressly say what might otherwise be safely left to the reader's discernment: the frequent appearance in it of any author's or newspaper's name does not mean that that author or newspaper offends more often than others against rules of grammar or style; it merely shows that they have been among the necessarily limited number chosen to collect instances from.

The plan of the book was dictated by the following considerations. It is notorious that English writers seldom look into a grammar or composition book; the reading of grammars is repellent because, being bound to be exhaustive on a greater or less scale, they must give much space to the obvious or the unnecessary; and composition books are often useless because they enforce their warnings only by fabricated blunders against which every tiro feels himself quite safe. The principle adopted here has therefore been (1) to pass by all rules, of whatever absolute importance, that are shown by observation to be seldom or never broken; and (2) to illustrate by living examples, with the name of a reputable authority attached to each, all blunders that observation shows to be common. The reader, however, who is thus led to suspect that the only method followed has been the rejection of method will find, it is hoped, a practical security against inconvenience in the very full Index.

Further, since the positive literary virtues are not to be taught by brief quotation, nor otherwise attained than by improving the gifts of nature with wide or careful reading, whereas something may really be done for the negative virtues by mere exhibition of what should be avoided, the examples collected have had to be examples of the bad and not of the good. To this it must be added that a considerable proportion of the newspaper extracts are, as is sometimes apparent, not from the editorial, but from the correspondence columns; the names attached are merely an assurance that the passages have actually appeared in print, and not been now invented to point a moral.

The especial thanks of the compilers are offered to Dr. Bradley, joint editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, who has been good enough to inspect the proof sheets, and whose many valuable suggestions have led to the removal of some too unqualified statements, some confused exposition, and some positive mistakes. It is due to him, however, to say that his warnings have now and then been disregarded, when it seemed that brevity or some other advantage could be secured without great risk of misunderstanding.

The Oxford English Dictionary itself has been of much service. On all questions of vocabulary, even if so slightly handled as in the first chapter of this book, that great work is now indispensable.

H. W. F.
F. G. F.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

In this edition new examples have been added or substituted here and there.

CONTENTS

PART I

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
1–8
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
4
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
5
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
6
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
6
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
7
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
7
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
8
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
18
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
23
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
26
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
37
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
47
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
53
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
56
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
58
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
59
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
60
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
65
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
70
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
75–107
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
75
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
80
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
85
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
93
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
96
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
104
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
107
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
110
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
116–133
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
116
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
125
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
129
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
133-154
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
134
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
136
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
138
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
139
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
141
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
143
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
149
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
151
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
152
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
154
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
156
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
158
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
161
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
171
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
175
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
180–193
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
181
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
182
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
187
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
190
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
191
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
193–200
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
193
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
198
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
200
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
209
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
213–218
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
213
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
215
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
216
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
217
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
219
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
224
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
226
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
231
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
234
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
235–263
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
235
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
239
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
242
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
244
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
247
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
248
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
250
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
254
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
257
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
258
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
259
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
261
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
262
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
263
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
264
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
266–275
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
266
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
267
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
269
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
274
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
275
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
280–290
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
280
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
282
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
287
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
288
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
289

Euphony, §§ 1-10

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
291
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
292
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
293
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
293
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
294
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
295
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
295
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
298
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
300
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
303

Quotation, &c., §§ 11-19

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
305
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
305
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
306
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
306
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
307
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
308
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
308
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
310
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
311

Grammar, §§ 20-37

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
311
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
314
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
316
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
317
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
317
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
319
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
319
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
321
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
324
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
324
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
326
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
327
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
328
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
328
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
329
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
330
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
330
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
331

Meaning, §§ 38–48

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
331
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
332
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
333
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
334
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
334
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
336
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
339
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
341
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
342
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
343
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
344

Ambiguity, §§ 49-52

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
345
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
346
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
347
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
348

Style, § 53 to the end

•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
348
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
351
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
352
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
355
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
356
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
357
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
357
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
359
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
359

INDEX

In this index all references are to pages. Small italics are used for words and phrases; small roman type for subjects incidentally mentioned, capitals for subjects expressly, even if not fully, treated.


А

A- 41-2.
A Between Adjective and Noun 329-30.
Absolute Construction 115-6.
Absolute construction and stops 222, 241-2, 265.
Abstract Words 4, 5-6.
Accent, Sentence 296-8.
Acquiesce to 164.
Acte de malveillance 30.
Adjectival clause 235.
Adjectival Clause in Punctuation 242-4.
Adverb and Adverbial Clause in Punctuation 244-7.
Adverbial clause 236.
Adverse from 163.
Aesthophysiology 23.
Aggravate 59.
Aggress 20.
Aim to 164.
Airs and Graces, Cap. III.
-al 22, 42.
Albeit 17, 194, 196-7.
Alit 39-40.
Alliteration 292.
Allusion 307-8.
Alma mater 27.
Almost quite 339.
Also, Conj., and &C. 360.
Altogether 11.
Amateurs 127, 194.
Ambiguity 345-8.
Ambiguity 88, 109, 117, 120, 127, 142, 144-5, 250, 264-5.
Ambiguity and punctuation 264-5.

Ambiguous Enumeration 348.
Ambiguous Position 347-8.
Amend, n. 38-9.
Americanisms 23-6.
A-moral 41-2.
Amphitryon 174.
Anachronism in thought 198, 200.
And 233-4, 245.
And which 85-103.
And who 85-103.
Anent 3.
Animatedly 47
Another story 175.
Antagonize 4, 24, 26.
Antecedentem scclestum 33.
Antics 348-51.
Antithesis 292, 350.
Anyway 25.
Appendicitis 19.
Archaism 193200.
Archaism 17, 83, 103, 137.
Archaism, positive and negative 198-200.
Archaism, Sustained 198-9.
Argon 19.
Arise 9.
Arrière pensée 34.
As also 189.
As and while clauses, slovenly 189.
As, Case 62-4.
As Clause, Causal 298-300.
As far as, that 168-70.
As if 156-7.
As, Liberties with 324-6.
As, Omission of 324.
As to 166-7.
As to whether 333-4.
As who should say 325-6.
At anyrate 280.
At the letter 33.
Aught 194, 197.
Au pied de la lettre 32.
Automedon 174.
Auxiliaries, Split 342-3.
Avail 321.
Available 43.
Averse from 162-3.
Avoidance, clumsy 17, 74, 125, 179, 217, 355-6, 357.
Await 9.
Awful 49-50.

B

Back-number 25.
Back of 25.
Bagehot 210-2.
Balance Inversion 182-7.
Balfour 225, 249.
Ballon d'essai 30.
Banal 38-9.
Banalily 38-9.
Bang in the eye 48.
Bastard cnumeration 231.
Be and do 330.
Beadnell 219.
Bedrock 51.
Benefits of 165.
Besant 198.
Bethink 9.
Bêtise 27.
Between...or 328-9.
Between two stools 327-8.
Between you and I 61.
Bewilderedly 47.
Bien entendu 27.
Bike 49.
Birrelling 51.
Blooming 49-50.
Boom 52.
Borrow, G. 13.
Both... as well as 313.
Bounder 48, 50.
Bow-street 277.
Brachylogy 326.
Brackets and double dashes 286.
Brackets and Stops 270-1.
Brisken, 21.
Briticism 43.

Brontë, C. 29, 358.
Bureaucracy 46.
Burke, E. 111.
But, Superfluous 334.

C

Cad 50.
Camaraderie 27.
Careless Repetition 303-4.
Carlyle 44, 349.
Case 60-4.
Case 6.
Case after as and than 62-4.
Case, Compound Possessive 64.
Case Confusion 61-2.
Case in absolute construction 115-6.
Case in Apposition 60.
Case of Complement 60.
Case of Relatives 93-4, 99-100.
Causal as Clause 298-300.
Cela va sans dire 31.
Chamade 29.
Chasseur 27, 37.
Cherchez la femme 35.
Chic 51.
Circumlocution 6.
Circumlocution 165-8, 349.
Claim 317-8.
Climb down 51.
Closure 23.
Clumsy patching 355-6.
Coastal 42.
Colloquialisms 331.
Colon 263-4.
Colon, changed usage of 220, 222.
Come into her life 215.
Comma before that 236-7, 249-50.
Comma Between Independent Sentences 254-7.
Comma, distinct functions 221-2.
Comma misplaced 248-50.
Comma, Unaccountable 262-3.
Commas, illogical 241.
Commas, unnecessary 232.
Commercialisms 358-9.
Common case 60.
Common parts 14-6.
Comparatives 70-4.
Complacent 10.
Complaisant 10.
Compositors 219, 230, 266, 273, 282.
Compound Passives 319-21.
Compound possessive 123-3.
Compound verbs and inversion 184-6.
Compound words 20.
Comprehensively 8.
Comprise 12.
Concision 18.
Conditionals 156-8.
Conditionals, Subjunctive 157-8.
Conditionals, subjunctive 192-3, 195.
Confusion with negatives 321-3.
Conjunctions, Compound 165-70.
Conjunctions, coordinating and subordinating 63, 255.
Consequential 17.
Consist of or in 163-4.
Content myself by 163.
Contest, vb. 12.
Continuance 10.
Continuation 10.
Continuity 10.
Contradictions in Terms 339-41.
Contumacity 45.
Coordination of Relatives 85-103.
Copula, Number 65-7.
Corelli 47.
Cornering 51.
Correctitude 21.
Coûte que coûte 27-8.
Criterion of rightness 3, 8, 41, 42, 165, 181, 347.
Crockett 200.
Cryplic 50.
Cui bono? 35-6, 306.

D

Dans cette galère 32.
Dashes 266-75.
Dashes and Stops 269-74.
Dashes, Debatable Questions 269-74.
Dashes, Double 270-1.

Dashes, Misuses 274-5.
Dashes, Types 267-9.
Dead metaphors 201-9.
Decapitable Sentences 303.
Defining Relatives 75-85.
Defining relatives in punctuation 240-1, 242-4.
Déjeuner 27.
Démarche 30.
Demean 16.
Démenti 29-30.
Demonstrative, Noun, and Participle or Adjective 344-5.
Depend upon it 213.
Dependable 43.
Deplacement 21.
Deprecate 12.
Depreciate 12.
De Quincey 80.
Desultory 18.
Détente 30.
Determinedly 47.
Differentiation 10, 11, 46, 85.
Different to 162.
Dilemma 208.
Diplomatic French 29-30.
Disagree from 163.
Dishabille 37.
Dispensable 43.
Disposable 43.
Distinction 38-9.
Distinction 217, 319.
Distinctly 355.
Distinguished 38-9.
Distrait 27.
Do and be 330.
Double dashes and brackets 286.
Double Emphasis 341.
Double event 51.
Double Harness 311-4.
Doubtful gender 67.
Doubt that 158-60.
Dovetailing of Foreign Phrases 33.

E

Each 68.
-edly 47.
E.g. 311.
Eirenicon 26.
Either 69.
Eke out 14-5.
Elegant Variation 175-80.
Elegant variation 30, 163, 211, 357.
Eliot, George 171.
Ellipse in Subordinate Clauses 317.
Emblem, vb. 5.
Emerson 26, 43, 44.
Emphasis, Double 341.
Emphatic Inversion 190-1.
Employé 36.
Endowed by 164.
English, vb. 2.
Enjoinder 43-4.
Ennui 26, 37.
Entente 29-30.
Entourage 30.
Enumeration 250-4.
Enumeration, Ambiguous 348.
Envisage 7.
Epithets, recherché 350.
Epoch-making 31, 50.
Equally as 332.
Ere 2, 194, 196-7.
Especial 11.
Esprit d'escalier 32.
Etc., Slovenly 360.
Euchred 51.
Eudaemometer 23.
Euphemism 12.
Euphony 291-304.
Euphony 46-7, 84, 102, 104, 122, 132, 245, 326; and punctuation 245.
Euphony with relatives 84.
Euphuism 12.
Evasion 11.
Excepting 46.
Exclamation and Question 259-61.
Exclamation Mark 258-62.
Exclamation Mark, Internal 261-2.
Exclamatiory Inversion 181-2.
Ex-Participles 110-1.
Experimentalize 46.
Exploit, vb. 51.
Extemporaneous 45.

F

Faits divers 28.
Fall (autumn) 24.
False Scent 345-6.

False scent 93, 123-4, 246, 264-5, 274, 356.
Fanfaronnade 29.
Far-fetched Words 4-5.
Femininity 38.
Ferrier, S. 67.
Fielding 215.
Filtrate 7.
Find fault to 164.
Fix up 25.
Flexibility 41, 120.
Flood-of-Tears-and-Sedan-Chair 173.
Floored 51.
For 233-4, 245.
For all it is worth 48.
Forbid from 164.
Forceful 21-2.
Foreign Words 26-39.
Foreign Words, Adaptation of 37-9.
Foreign Words, Blunders 34-6.
Foreign Words Translated 30-9.
Foreword 2.
Formation and Analogy 41-3.
Formation Blunders 39-41.
Formation, Ugly 46-7.
Fresh Starts 330-I.
Frills 195.
Frontal attack 51.
Frontispiece 51-2.
Fudging in punctuation 240-1.
Fused Participle 117-25.

G

Gallant 174.
Galore 174.
Ganymede 174.
Gaucherie 27.
George Eliot 171.
Gerund 116-33.
Gerund and Infinitive 129-33.
Gerund and Participle 107-10, 119.
Gerund and Possessive 116-25.
Gerund, Compound Subject 123-4.
Gerund, Omission of Subject 125-9.
Get the boot 48.
Globetrotter 51.
Go Nap 51.
Go one better 51.
Grammar 311-31.
Grammar and Punctuation 220-5, 235-63.
Green, J. R. 249, 359.
Group System in Punctuation 228-30.

H

Half-world 31.
Hebe 174.
Hedge, vb. 51.
He-or-she 67.
Hereof 196.
He said 282.
Homologate 7.
Honey-coloured 25.
Howbeit 17, 194, 197.
However 265.
How it pans out 51.
Hugo 226.
Humour, Polysyllabic 171-2.
Humour, Types 171-5.
Huxley 225, 249.
Hybrid words 41-2, 46.
Hyphens 275-80.
Hyphens 42.

I

Ideal 75.
Idiom 53, 161, 356.
Idioms, Maltreated 336-8.
I. e. 311.
If and when 334-5.
Ignorance crasse 29.
I guess 24.
Illegitimate Infinitives 317-8.
Immanence 50.
Immovability 46.
Impersonal one 328.
Impliedly 47.
Inasmuch as 166.
Incentive 206.
Incongruity 194.
Incontinently 9.
Indirect question and punctuation 238.
Individual 52, 53-6.

Infinitive and Gerund 129-33.
Infinitive, Omission of Subject 125-9.
Infinitive Perfect 154-6.
Infinitives, Illegitimate 317-8.
Infinitive, Split 319.
-ing 107-10.
Initiative of 164.
Innate 12.
In nowise 280.
Insensate 9.
In so far as, that 168-70.
Instil 12.
Insuccess 21.
Intellectuals 22-3.
Intelligence 18.
Intensate 44.
Intervening-noun error in number 66-7.
Intimism 38-9.
Intimity 38.
Inversion 180-93.
Inversion and compound verbs 184-6.
Inversion and emphasis 182, 184.
Inversion, Balance 182-7.
Inversion, Emphatic 190-1.
Inversion, Exclamatory 181-2.
Inversion in as or than clauses 188-9.
Inversion in relative clauses 188.
Inversion in SyntacticClauses 187-9.
Inversion, Miscellaneous191-3.
Inversion, Negative 190-1.
In view of 167-8.
Inwardness 50, 52.
Irony 215-6.
Irony 15.
Irreparable 12.
Italics 186.
Italics and irony 216.
It should seem 194.
It's me 61.
It...that 104-7.
It were 195.

Jehu 174.
Jingles 291-2.
Jonathan Wild 215.
Journalese 351-2.
Journalese 7, 352, 357.
Judicial 8.
Just 25.

K

Kipling 24-5, 175.
Knock out 51.

L

Lamb, Charles 193.
Lapsus calami 21.
Latin Abbreviations, &c. 311.
Laughable 43.
Laxity, disappearance of 108, 110-1.
Laxity in punctuation 235, 244-7.
Laze 51-2.
Leading question 306-7.
Legislature 10.
Lie and lay 40.
Like 331.
-like 278.
Literary critics' words 38-9.
Logic and Punctuation 220-5.
Logic and rhetoric in punctuation 252.
Log-rolling 51.
Long and Short Derivatives 44-6.
Long sentences 226, 300.
Long words 349-50.
Loquently 20.
-ly 47, 219.

M

Macaulay 350.
Malaprops 8-18.
Malnutrition 5.
Maltreated Idioms 336-8.
Mannerism 47, 190, 195, 210, 212, 217.
Meaning 331-45.
Meaningless while 357-8.
Me, ethic 199.
Mercury 174.
Meredith 198.
Metaphor 200-9.
Metaphor, live and dead 201-9.
Metaphysical 16.
Meliculous 38-9, 349.
Metrical Prose 295.

Misplacement of Words 346-7.
Misquotation 305-7.
Mixed metaphor 203-9.
Mob 49.
Monstrosity stops 259, 283, 286-7.
Morale 34.
More and more than ever 73.
More easily imagined than described 213.
More honoured in the breach 306-7.
More than I can help 74.
Most 75.
Most of any 74-5.
Mutual 56-8.
My and mine 40-1.

N

Naïveté 37-8.
Naivety 38.
Native words 2, 37.
Negative Confusion 321-3.
Negative Inversion 190-1.
Negatives, resolved and compound 323.
Négligé 26, 37.
Negotiate 51-2.
Neither 69.
Neither...or 313.
Neologisms 18-23.
Neologisms, scientific 23.
Newspaper style 162, 178, 180, 226, 262, 266, 351-2.
Nice 49.
No and none 41.
Noisiness 202-3.
Nom de guerre 34.
Nom de plume 34.
Nonce-words 19-20.
Non-defining Relatives 75-85.
Non est 33.
Nothing if not critical 213.
Nouns and abstract expression 35.
Nouns of Multitude 69.
Nouns used adjectively 42, 276.
Number 65-70.
Number of Copula 65-7.

O

Oblivion to 165.
Oblivious to 161.
Observance 9.
Œuvre 27-8.
Of sorts 51.
Oft 194.
Oft-times 194.
Ohne Hast ohne Rast 33.
Old-fashioned enough to 213.
Olfactory organ 171.
Omission of as 324.
Omission of Relatives 101-2.
Omission of relatives 84.
Omission of that, conj. 356-7.
On a moment's notice 164.
One 67.
One, Impersonal 328.
One's and his 328.
One's or his 67.
On your own 51.
Oppositely 44.
Orient, vb. 31.
Originality, Cheap 217-8.
Ornament 35, 215.
Orphanage 11.
Ostentation 27, 31, 349.
Our and ours 40-1.
Overloading 343-4.
Over-stopping 231-4.
Over stopping 245, 262-3.

P

Parenthesis 269, 270.
Parenthesis 247-50.
Parenthesis in Relative Clauses 94-5.
Partially 45-6.
Participle and Gerund 107-10, 119.
Participles 110-6.
Participles Absolute 115-6.
Participles Unattached 112-5.
Participles with my, &c. 111-2.
Passive monstrosities 43.
Passives, Compound 319-21.
Patching, Clumsy 355-6.
Paulo-post future 17.
Pedantry 34, 42, 64, 129, 162.
Penchant 27.
Perchance 4, 196.
Perfect Infinitive 154-6.
Perfection, vb. 44-5.
Period 226.
Perseverant 21-2.

Personification 68.
Perspicuity 8-9.
Peter out 48.
Pet Phrases 359-60.
Phantasmagoria 35.
Phase 5.
Phenomenal 50.
Philistine 50.
Picturesque 350.
Picturesquities 20.
Placate 24, 26.
Playful Repetition 172-3.
Play the game 51.
Pleonasm, v. Redundancies.
Poetic words 3, 349.
Polysyllabic humour 51, 54.
Polysyllabic Humour 171-2.
Pontificalibus 33.
Possessive, absolute 40-1.
Possessive and Gerund 116-25.
Possessive, Compound 64.
Possessive, compound 122-3.
Possible 318.
Preciosity 2.
Predication 13.
Prediction 13.
Preface 2.
Prefer 318.
Preposition at end of clause 62, 84, 99.
Prepositions 161-70.
Prepositions, Compound 165-70; Omitted 165; Repeated 293; Superfluous 165-7.
Pretend 318.
Preventative 46.
Probable 318.
Procession 11.
Promote 6.
Pronominal variation 175.
Proportion 300-3.
Provided 13-4.
Prudential 45.
Psychological moment 50, 52.
Punctuation, Cap. IV.
Punctuation and ambiguity 264-5.
Punctuation and neatness 284.
Punctuation and relatives 78, 242-4.
Punctuation, Difficulties 219-24.
Punctuation, full and slight 225.
Punctuation, group system 228-31.
Punctuation in scientific and philosophic work 225, 231.
Punctuation, Logic, and Rhetoric 220-5.
Punctuation, Spot Plague 226-31.

Q

Qua 29.
Quand même 27.
Question and Exclamation 259-61.
Quetion-mark, Internal 261-62.
Quieten 45
Quotation 305-11.
Quotation, half-and-half, 237-8, 289.
Quotation marks 280-90.
Quotation marks and irony 216.
Quotation marks and slang 48, 49, 50.
Quotation marks and Stops 282-8.
Quotation marks misplaced 288-9.
Quotation marks, Single and Double 287-8.
Quotation marks, superfluous 280-82.
Quotation, Trite 310-1.
Quotations cut up 309-10.

R

Racial 22-3, 42.
Railway names 276-7.
Raison d'être 26.
Reader 2-3, 7, 36, 98, 210, 225, 228, 230, 231-3, 253, 268, 269, 280-1, 310, 347-8, 355.
Reading aloud 296, 300.
Recasting 64, 67, 120, 125, 177-8, 185, 226, 231, 232-3, 239, 241, 257, 284, 330, 355-6, 357.
Recliner 20.
Record, adj. 51-2.
Recrudescence 5, 15-6.
Rectitudinous 21.
Rédaction 27.
Redouble 32.
Redundancies 332-3.
Regard 324.

Regenesis 20.
Régime 36.
Relative and participle 327.
Relative clauses and inversion 188.
Relative Coordination 85-103.
Relative, Miscellaneous Uses and Abuses 96-107.
Relative, Omission of Preposition 102-3.
Relative omitted 101-2.
Relatives 75-107.
Relatives and punctuation 78,242-4.
Relatives, Case 93-4, 99-100.
Relatives Defining and Non-Defining 75-85.
Relatives, Parenthesis 94-5.
Relatives, Sequence of 293-4.
Reliable 42-3.
Remindful 21.
Repetition 209-13.
Repetition, Careless 303-4.
Repetition, Playful 172-3.
Requisition 11.
Research 11.
Resource 13.
Reverend 8.
Rhetoric 234, 236.
Rhetorical repetition 209, 213.
Rhetoric and Punctuation 220-5.
Right along 25.
Romance Words 1, 3.
Royal pronoun 178.
Run the show 51.

S

Said with inversion, 192.
Same, the 358.
Sans 27.
Save 2-3, 196.
Saxon Words 1, 2-3, 7.
Scandalum magnatum 34.
Schadenfreude 27-8.
Scott 174.
Seasonable 43.
Self-consciousness 351.
Semicolon and independent sentences 255
Semicolon and Subordinate Clauses 257-8.
Semicolon, distinct functions of 222.
Sense and sound 296.
Sensibleness 44-5.
Sentence 112, 254-5.
Sentence Accent 296–8.
Shall and will 133-54.
Shall, archaic and literary 137, 153, 194-5.
Short and Long Words 6-7.
Shrimp-pink 25.
Sic 311.
Signpost connexion 183, 184.
Since several days 32.
Skilled 17.
Slang 47-53.
Slang and idiom 53.
Slang, Various origins 49-51.
Slang with quotation marks 48.
Slating 51.
Smartness 351.
Smollett 111.
So far as, that 168-70.
Somewhat, &c. 352-5.
Sordor 43.
Sound and sense 296.
Soupçon 27.
Special 11.
Spencer 193.
Spirit of the staircase 32.
Split Auxiliaries 342-3.
Split Infinitive 319.
Spot-Plague 226-31.
Standpoint 25.
Stands to reason 213-4.
Status quo 26.
Stave off 206-7.
Steep (slang) 48.
Sterne 266.
Stevenson 198-9.
Stops and tone symbols 220, 285.
Street names 276-7.
Stronger, adv. 40.
Stumped 51.
Style 348-end.
Styles, various 7-8.
Subject, &c., and Verb in Punctuation 239-42.
Subjunctive 154, 157-8.
Subjunctive conditionals 195.
Substantival Clause in Punctuation 235-8, 265.

Such 358-9.
Such who, which, and that 103-4.
Summerly 20.
Superfluous but and though 334.
Superlatives 74-5.
Superlatives, Carlylese 349.
Superlatives without the 216-17.
Super-sensitized 20.
Superstitions 62, 99, 245, 266, 273, 319.
Surprisedly 47.
Syntax, Cap. 11.

T

Tache 28.
Tackle 51.
Take a back seat 51.
Take it lying down 51.
Take my word for it 213.
Tautology 331-2.
Tautology 56.
Tear and wear 217-8.
Telegram 19, 23.
Tell-tale errors 21, 53, 56, 235, 254, 261, 308.
Tête-à-tête 26.
Thackeray 88, 198.
Than, Case 62-4.
Than whom 64.
That and which 242–3.
That and which (who) 80-5.
That (conjunction), Omission of 356-7.
That (relative) of persons83-4.
That resumptive 330-1.
That, Sequence of 294-5.
That's him 61.
The exception proves, &c. 306.
Their 67.
The more 70-4.
The more 218.
Thereanent 29, 194.
Therefore 265.
Thereto 196.
Theretofore 196.
The same 358.
The...that (resolved interrogative) 101.
Thither 5, 196.
Those interested 344-5.
Those sort 331.
Though superfluous 334.
Thrasonical 50, 52.
Tinker with 164.
Today 280.
To have... 154-6.
Tomorrow 280.
Tone symbols and stops 285.
To the foot of the letter 32.
Transcendentally 10-11.
Translate 2.
Translation of Foreign Words 30-3.
Transpire 4, 16, 24.
Trite Phrases 213-5.
Trite Quotation 310-1.
Trow 194.
Truisms 339-41.
Trustedly 47.
Trustfulness 9.
Types of Humour 171-5.

U

-ude 21.
Unconscious to 161.
Under dog 51.
Under-stopping 234.
Unequal Yokefellows, &c. 311-14.
Unique 58-9, 339.
Unquiet, n. 21.
Up to date 51.

V

Verbal noun 108.
Verberant 20.
Vexedly 47.
Vide 311.
Vieille escrime 28.
Vieilles perruques 28.
Vieux jeu 28.
Violence 11.
Vividity 46-7.

Vocabulary, Cap. 1.
Vocabulary, General Rules 1-4.
Vocabulary, prose and poetry 3.
Vulgarism 103, 118.
Vulgarisms 331.

W

Waddle 25.
Walking stick 276.
War-famous 20.
Wens and Hypertrophied Members 300-3.
Were 157-8.
What, antecedent-relative 100-1.
What ever...? 331.
Whatever...? 331.
What, relative and interrogative 100-1.
Whereof 196.
While and as clauses, slovenly 189.
While, Meaningless 357-8.
Whimsical 42.
Who and whom 61.
Whole-hogging 51.
Will and shall 133-54.
Will not do this thing 214.
Wind-flower 4.
Wire, vb. 19.
With a view to 167-8.
With the view of 167, 168.
Word-formation 37-47.
World policy 51.
Worn-out Humorous Phrases 173-4.
Worthy 174, 214.
Wot 194.
Write you 165.
Wrong Turning 316.

Y

Your and yours 40-1.
You shall find 194.


Oxford: Printed at the Clarendon Press by Horace Hart, M.A.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926.


The author died in 1933, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.