The New Dressmaker/Chapter 24
BUTTONHOLES, EYELETS, BUTTONS, PATENT FASTENERS, HOOKS AND EYES AND BLIND LOOPS
Barred Buttonhole—Round-End Buttonhole—Tailors' Buttonhole—Simulated Buttonhole—Loop Buttonhole—Bound Buttonhole—Eyelets—Sewing on Buttons—Covering Button-Molds—Sewing on Patent Fasteners—Sewing on Hooks and Eyes—Blind Loops
A WELL-MADE GARMENT that is otherwise perfect may be greatly injured in appearance by badly made buttonholes. They should always be properly spaced and marked before they are cut. Mark the points for the top and bottom buttonholes, and divide the distance between these two points into the desired number of spaces. The slit must be cut on the thread of the goods, if possible, and must be large enough to allow the button to slip through easily, as a buttonhole becomes tighter after it is worked.
Ill. 227. Correct Position in Making Buttonholes With the buttonhole scissors carefully test the length of the slit and make a clean cut with one movement of the scissors. One of the most noticeable faults in buttonholing results from an uneven or ragged slit. This may be caused by dull scissors or by the slipping of the fabric. To prevent the material from slipping, baste around the cutting line before using the scissors.
Ill. 228. Buttonhole with Bar at Both Ends There are three kinds of buttonholes, one with the bar at both ends (Ill. 228), another with one round and one barred end (Ill. 229), and a third called the tailors' buttonhole. (Ill. 230.)
BARRED BUTTONHOLES as illustrated in Ill. 228 are used for underwear, waists and shirts. If the buttonhole is in an uprightas in the center of a plait, or if the strain does not come at the ends of the buttonhole, as at the center back of a neckband, the buttonhole with a bar at both ends (Ill. 228) is used. If the strain on the buttonhole comes at one end so that the button requires a resting-place, as in a cuff or belt, use the buttonhole with the round end. (Ill. 229.) Buttonholes are stranded to prevent the edges from stretching. Bring the needle up at one end of the buttonhole and, allowing the thread to lie along the edge of the cut on the right side of the material, stick down at the opposite end. Do the same on the other side of the cut and stick down opposite the first stitch, with a stitch across the end to fasten the thread, (Ill 228.)
If the material is inclined to fray, overcast the edges before working the buttonholes.
To make the stitch, place the buttonhole over the forefinger of the left hand, holding it in position with the thumb and second finger as shown in Ill. 227. Begin to work the buttonhole close to the corner or starting-point. Insert the needle, and while it is pointing toward you, bring the double thread as it hangs from the eye of the needle around to the left under the needle. Draw the needle through the loop, letting the thread form a purl exactly on the edge of the slit. Continue these stitches to the opposite end, being careful to take them the same depth and close together. Now pass the needle up and down through the goods until two or three threads cross the end of the slit quite close to the buttonhole stitches, thus forming a bar tack. (Ill. 228.) Ill. 229. Buttonhole with Round End At the end, turn the work around so that the bar end is toward you and make several buttonhole stitches over the bar tack and through the material (Ill. 227.) Work the other side of the buttonhole and the second bar. (Ill. 228.)
THE ROUND-END BUTTONHOLE is stranded in the same manner as the double-barred buttonhole. Illustration 229 shows the steps in the making of this buttonhole with the opening first stranded and then overcast.
Begin the buttonhole stitch as in the first buttonhole, working down one side. When the outer end is reached, the stitches are taken on a slant, inserting the needle each time at a little different angle until the end is rounded. Continue the work on the other side. The inner end is finished with a bar tack. The different steps of this buttonhole are shown in illustration 229.
THE TAILORS' BUTTONHOLE is used for garments of heavy cloth, as the round end or eyelet provides a resting-place for the shank of the button or the stitches holding the button. Baste around the line of cutting so that the material will not slip, and cut the slit the desired length. At the outer end cut a small eyelet as shown in the top figure in illustration 230.
After cutting, the buttonhole should be stranded so that the worked edge of the buttonhole will be firm and distinct. This may be done with two threads of twist. Tailors follow the plan of using a cord formed of several strands of the buttonhole twist, or linen thread twisted together, or a gimp cord. An end of this cord or thread is secured at the inner end of the buttonhole between the fabrics, and the other end is fastened to the knee or some convenient place and kept taut by a slight strain upon the work as it is held in the hand. Ill. 230. Tailors' Buttonhole
By this strain the cord is kept straight and in position just back of the edge of the buttonhole. The stitches are worked over the cord by the usual movements. After each stitch is drawn down, the loose twist should be picked up firmly by the thumb and forefinger quite near the stitch, and two or three circular twisting movements should be made so that the loop formed will settle securely and neatly into its proper position. Be careful to complete each stitch with uniform movements. When the eyelet is reached, the work is adjusted so that the stitches may be made at the proper slant. The stitches should radiate from the eyelet as the spokes do in a wheel. (Ill. 230.)
The inner end of an eyelet buttonhole may be bar-tacked. Sometimes the bars are simply worked with an over-and-over stitch. This is done by passing the needle up through the fabric at one side of the bar and down through it at the other side until the bars are entirely covered with these stitches and the stays look like a fine cord. After the buttonholes are worked, their edges should be closely basted together by an over-and-over stitch made by pushing the needle up and down over the edges just back of the stitches. Then they should be pressed under a dampened cloth. In fact, all buttonholes should be pressed if the goods will permit. Before they are dry, a stiletto should be pushed up vigorously through each eyelet until the opening becomes perfectly round and the stitches around its edges are regular and distinct. When the bastings are removed, the buttonholes will be symmetrical in appearance.
Ill. 231. Bound Buttonhole THE BOUND BUTTONHOLE is shown in Illustration 231. The length and position of the buttonhole should be marked on the garment with basting-cotton. A bias strip of self or contrasting material about seven-eighths of an inch wide is used for binding it. Sew the binding to the right side of the garment with running stitches an eighth of an inch from the buttonhole mark (Ill. 232). Turn in the other three edges an eighth of an inch and press them flat (Ill. 232).
The binding should be fully the length of the slash.
When it is sewed on and the edges pressed, cut the buttonhole in the garment. Be sure to cut a clean, straight hole.
Push the binding through to the wrong side of the garment and slip-stitch it to position in the sewing line of the right side. Slip-stitch the corners of the binding so that they will not fray. Illustration 231 shows the finished bound buttonhole.
The bound buttonhole can be used on wool, silk, linen or cotton garments. It gives a finished look to a coat or dress and is particularly effective when the binding itself is in a contrasting color, though the binding is frequently of the same material as the garment.
Ill. 233. A Simulated Buttonhole A SIMULATED BUTTONHOLE (Ill. 233) is made of a finished bias piping (Chap. 26, page 131), folded in half crossways. The folded end is tacked to the material and the raw edges of the other end are pushed through on the wrong side of the material with a stiletto and tacked.
Ill. 234. A Loop Buttonhole A LOOP BUTTONHOLE (Ills. 234 and 235) is made with a strip of finished bias piping with or without a cord inserted in it. (Chap. 26, page 131.) The loop buttonhole can also be made of braid. The strip should be long enough to Ill. 235. The Ends of a Loop Buttonhole May be Tacked to a Button Ill. 236. Eyelet make a loop that will slip easily over the button after the two raw ends of the loop are tacked together. These ends may be tacked to the back of a button (Ill. 235), or sewed between an edge and its facing (Ill. 234), depending on the style effect required.
EYELETS are holes made and worked in a garment to hold a cord or buttons.
The method of making them is shown in Illustration 236. Pierce the eyelet-hole with a stiletto.
Make running stitches around the circle, place the hole over the forefinger of the left hand and buttonhole the edge, covering the running stitches. (Ill. 236.)
Work from right to left, as shown in the first figure of Illustration 236.
METHODS OF SEWING ON BUTTONS are shown in Illustration 237. Always use a coarse single thread in preference to a fine double one. In placing buttons in position, lap the edges of the garment, and push a pin through at the outer end of the buttonhole. This will bring the button exactly opposite the buttonhole. Make a knot in the thread, push the needle through from the right side so that the knot will be directly under the button. Place the button in position. Bring the thread up through a hole in the button and down through the hole diagonally opposite as shown in the second figure of Illustration 237. Place a pin under the thread on top of the button, in order to keep the thread loose, and make a cross-stitch through the remaining holes. (Ill. 237.) Ill. 237. Sewing on Buttons
Repeat the stitches until the button is securely fastened. Remove the pin, draw the button away from the material as far as possible and wind the working thread tightly several times around the threads between the button and the material, thus forming a thread shank for the button. If a button is too closely sewed to the garment, it will not have room to rest easily in the buttonhole and will crowd the latter out of shape and make the spacing seem irregular. The loose sewing and the winding increase the durability of the work and lessen the strain on the button.
Ill. 238. Covering Button-Molds The first illustration shows another way of sewing on a button in which the stitches are not crossed. This method is used in dress and coat making, as the stitches are considered more ornamental. The third illustration shows the method of sewing on a shank button. Make the stitches parallel with the edge when sewing on this button so that the strain will come on the shank.
COVERING BUTTON-MOLDS—Cut a thin piece of sheet wadding the shape of the mold but about ⅜ of an inch smaller all around. (Ill. 238.)
Place it on top of the mold. (Ill. 238.) Cut another piece of sheet wadding a little larger than the mold and place it over the mold on the first piece of wadding. Draw it up on the under side of the mold with a few crosswise stitches to make it lie flat.
If the outside material of the button-mold is heavy the wadding may be omitted.
FOR THE COVERING cut a piece of the outside material the same shape as the mold, and a little larger than the button but not large enough to quite come together on the under side. (Ill. 238). If it comes together the button will be bunchy and clumsy.
Gather the cover about one-eighth of an inch from the edge with fine running stitches (Ill. 238) and lay it over the padded side of the mold. Draw up the gathering thread. The gathering must be smooth and tight over the mold without any folds or wrinkles, especially at the edges. A few stitches across the back will hold it (Ill. 238).
Ill. 239. Sewing on Patent Fasteners If the button is to be used to fasten a garment the back should be lined with a piece of the covering material. Cut the lining the size of the mold and the same shape. Turn the edges in and fell it neatly to the back of the button. (Ill. 238). Put the facing on the back of the button so that it is slightly full. This fulness serves as a shank. (Ill. 238.) If a button-mold is covered with heavy cloth the lining should be of satin or some other thin material in the same color for the cloth would be too bulky.
If the button is to be used as a trimming, the lining may be omitted.
For molds which have a hole in the center and which are covered with material which is not too heavy, the covering may be just large enough to cover the mold with only as much material in the back as can be forced into the hole with one's needle.
SEWING ON PATENT FASTENERS—Patent fasteners are used where an especially flat closing is desired and where there is no strain on the closing. Where there is a strain, as at the center back of a waistline or at the closing of a close fitting skirt, patent fasteners don't hold as securely as hooks and eyes.
Ill. 240. Sewing on Hooks and Eyes The edges of the closing may be finished with a hem or facing. Place the upper edge over the under edge in the position they will be in when finished, and mark the position of the fasteners by running a pin straight down through both edges about one-quarter or three-eighths of an inch from the edge. Separate the edges a little and mark both the upper and under edges just where the pin passes through the material. If you use these marks for the center of the fastener the two sides of the fastener will match exactly. The heaviest part of the fastener is used for the under part.
Several stitches should be taken through each of the holes around the edge of the fastener, enough to hold it securely. (Ill. 239.)
When a fastener is sewed through one thickness of material as at a trimming line, ribbon binding or tape should be used underneath the material to relieve the strain.
SEWING ON HOOKS AND EYES—Before sewing on hooks and eyes, stitch each edge of the closing one-eighth of an inch back from the fold edge and again three-eighths of an inch from the first stitching as shown in Illustration 240. This gives a firm edge.
Pin the closing edges together with the upper and lower ends even. Place a tape-measure along one edge and with pins mark the position for the hooks and eyes. For a waist they should be one and one-quarter inch apart. The hooks and eyes are sewed on alternating (Ill. 240). for this arrangement holds the edges closer together and prevents them from unhooking.
The hooks may all be sewed on one side and the eyes on the other side of the opening if preferred but the alternating arrangement is usually considered better.
Separate the two rings of the hook at the back to make it lie flatter. (Ill. 240.) Place the hook well inside the edge and sew through the two rings and over the end of the bill. (Ill. 240.) This last sewing should be one-quarter of an inch from the edge of the garment. (Ill. 240.)
In sewing on the eyes let the eye extend just far enough beyond the edge of the garment to fasten easily. (Ill. 240.) Sew the eye through the two rings and at the edge of the garment. (Ill. 240.)
Sew them securely for the sewing will give a little if there is any strain on the closing.
Be careful in sewing the hooks and eyes on the second side of the closing to have them exactly opposite the eyes and hooks on the first side.
After the hooks and eyes are sewed on, turn back the edge of the hem or facing and hem the fold edge by hand to the row of stitching near the edge of the closing (Ill. 240), covering the sewing of the hooks and eyes. (Ill. 240.)
BLIND LOOPS are used on garments fastened with hooks and eyes, to take the place of the eyes. The process of making them is shown in Illustration 241. Mark the position of the loop opposite the hook, knot the thread and bring the needle up through the material. Make a bar tack the desired length (Ill. 241) by taking three or more stitches one over the other. Working from left to right, hold the thread down with the left thumb, and insert the needle, eye foremost, under the bar and over the thread. (Ill. 241.) The use of the blunt end of the needle facilitates the work. Draw the thread up, letting the purl come to the lower edge of the loop. (Ill. 241.) Repeat the stitches, covering the entire bar tack, and fasten on the wrong side. (Ill. 241.) Sometimes the bar tacks are made in the form of a cross-stitch.
Ill. 241. Blind Loop