The New International Encyclopædia/Engels, Friedrich
ENGELS, ĕng'els, Friedrich (1820-95). A German socialist, born in Barmen, Prussia. He was an apprentice at Bremen and Berlin, and subsequently became connected with manufacturing interests in Manchester, England. In 1814 he was a collaborator on the Deutsch-französische Jahrbücher, issued at Paris by Karl Marx (q.v.) and Arnold Ruge (q.v.). From 1846 he was associated with Marx in the Communistic League, a precursor of the International, and in 1848 was joint author of the manifesto to the laboring classes of the world. Afterwards (1848-49) he was an editor of Marx's Neue Rheinische Zeitung at Cologne, participated in the revolutionary movement led by Struve and Hecker in Baden in 1848-49, and from 1850 until his retirement in 1869 was a manufacturer of cotton goods at Manchester. He was a prominent assistant of Marx in the extension of Social Democracy, and was secretary for Portugal, Spain, and Italy in the general council of the International. He wrote Die Lage der arbeitenden Klassen in England (1845; new ed. 1892). He also edited the third (1885) and fourth (1894) volumes of Marx's Das Kapital (Hamburg). Consult: Dawson, German Socialism (1888), and the biography of Engels by Sombart (Berlin, 1895).