The New International Encyclopædia/Lawrence (Kansas)
LAW′RENCE. A city and the county-seat of Douglas County, Kan., 40 miles west by south of Kansas City; on both sides of the Kansas River, and on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé and the Union Pacific railroads (Map: Kansas, G 3). The city is well laid out, with wide streets, and has many attractive buildings. It is the seat of the State University (see Kansas, University of), founded in 1866 on Mount Oread, and of the Haskell Institute, a United States Government Industrial School of Indians, which occupies a site of 600 acres. Bismarck Grove, a park including 240 acres, is only a short distance outside the city limits. Lawrence is important as a commercial centre, and its manufacturing interests, which are considerable, are promoted by excellent water-power. The industrial establishments include flouring and paper mills, sash and door factories, a foundry and machine-shop, wire-fence and nail works, and a large creamery. Lawrence (named in honor of Amos A. Lawrence) was the first of the ‘free-State’ towns founded by the Emigrant Aid Society in 1854, immediately after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill (q.v.), and was for several years the headquarters of the Anti-Slavery Party in Kansas. In November and December, 1855, during the so-called ‘Wakarusa War’ it was besieged for a short time by a force of pro-slavery men: and on May 21, 1856, it was occupied and partially destroyed by another pro-slavery force. On August 21, 1863, a body of Confederate raiders under Quantrell almost completely destroyed it, and killed 123 of its citizens. Population, in 1890, 9997; in 1900, 10,862. See Kansas.