The New International Encyclopædia/Munzinger, Werner
MUNZINGER, mụn′tsĭng-ẽr, Werner (1832-75). A Swiss traveler and linguist. He was born at Olten, was educated at Bern, Munich, and Paris, and in 1853 joined a mercantile establishment at Alexandria, Egypt. He was attached to the expedition of Von Heuglin in 1861, but quitted it when it reached North Abyssinia, and in company with Kinzelbach explored an unknown territory. In 1862 he was placed at the head of the German exploring expedition, succeeding Heuglin, but was unable to penetrate farther than Kordofan. In 1864 he was appointed British consul at Massowah and in the Anglo-Abyssinian War acted as a guide to the English forces, after whose withdrawal he remained at Massowah as consul in the French service. In 1870 he made a journey to Southeast Arabia, and was appointed by the Khedive Governor of Massowah. In 1872 he was made Pasha and Governor-General of the Eastern Sudan, and in 1875 was mortally wounded while leading an expedition against Abyssinia. He published: Sitten und Recht der Bogos (1859); Ostafrikanische Studien (1864); Vocabulaire de la langue Tigré (1865).