The World Factbook (1982)/Iran

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The World Factbook (1982)
the Central Intelligence Agency
1986363The World Factbook (1982) — Iranthe Central Intelligence Agency


(See reference map VI)


1,647,240 km2; 14% agricultural, 11% forested, 16% cultivable with adequate irrigation, 51% desert, waste, or urban, 8% migratory grazing and other

Land boundaries: 5,318 km (including areas belonging to Iran and now occupied by Iraq during continuing border war)


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 50 nm)

Coastline: 3,180 km, including islands, with 676 km


Population: 41,203,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.1%

Nationality: noun—Iranian(s); adjective—Iranian

Ethnic divisions: 63% ethnic Persians, 3% Kurds, 13% other Iranian, 18% Turkic, 3% Arab and other Semitic, 1% other

Religion: 93% Shia Muslim; 5% Sunni Muslim; 2% Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians and Baha'is

Language: Persian, Turkish dialects, Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: about 37% of those seven years of age and older (1976 est.)

Labor force: 12.0 million, est. (1979); 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of skilled labor substantial


Official name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Type: republic

Capital: Tehrān

Political subdivisions: 23 provinces, subdivided into districts, subdistricts, counties, and villages

Legal system: the new constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

National holiday: Shia Islam religious holidays observed nationwide

Branches: Ayatollah ol-Ozma Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, provides general guidance for the government, which is divided into executive, legislative, and Judicial branches

Government leaders: Ayatollah ol-Ozma Ruhollah KHOMEINI, President Ali KHAMENEI (cleric), Prime Minister Mir Hosein MUSAVI-KHAMENEI, Speaker of Islamic Consultative Assembly Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI (cleric)

Suffrage: universal, age 18 and over

Elections: elections to endorse new constitution were held in late 1979; those to select a president in January 1980 and July and November 1981, and those to select the parliament (two rounds) in March and May 1980; several parliamentary by elections were held in 1980 and 1981

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Republic Party (IRP), Ali Khamenei; Tudeh Party, Nur-ed-Din Kianuri

Voting strength: reliable figures not available; IRP and sympathizers dominate the parliament

Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est. sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: People's Strugglers (Mojahedin), People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic Party are armed political groups; other ethnic minorities, local leaders and Islamic Committees enforce their political views through armed militia

Member of: Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISCON, ITU, NAM, OPEC, RCD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO; continued participation in some of these organizations doubtful under the new Islamic constitution


GNP: $81.7 billion (1979), $2,170 per capita; 1979 real GNP growth, -24%

Agriculture: wheat, barley, rice, sugar beets, cotton, dates, raisins, tea, tobacco, sheep, and goats

Major industries: crude oil production (1.4 million b/d in 1981) and refining, textiles, cement and other building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Electric power: 9,614,600 kW capacity (1980); 16.843 billion kWh produced (1980), 431 kWh per capita

Exports: $11 billion (est., 1981); 97% petroleum; also carpets, fruits, and nuts

Imports: $15 billion (est., 1981); foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, machinery, military supplies

Major trade partners: exports—Japan, West Germany, Netherlands, Italy, UK, Spain, France; imports—West Germany, Japan, UK, Italy

Budget: (FY81) proposed expenditures of $39 billion, actual expenditures likely to be below this level

Monetary conversion rate: 70.5 rials=US$1

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March


Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 92 km 1.676-meter gauge

Highways: 81,800 km total; 36,000 km gravel and crushed stone, 15,000 km improved earth

Inland waterways: 904 km, excluding the Caspian Sea, 104 km on the Shatt al Arab

Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,500 km; natural gas, 3,282 km

Ports: 7 major, 6 minor

Civil air: approx. 50 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 178 total, 143 usable; 78 with permanent-surface runways; 17 with runways over 3,659 m, 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 69 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,310,000; 5,722,000 fit for military service; about 409,000 reach military age (21) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 20 March 1981, $4.2 billion; 10% of central government budget