The World Factbook (1982)/Japan

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JAPAN[edit]

World Factbook (1982) Japan.jpg
(See reference map VIII)

LAND[edit]

370,370 km2; 16% arable and cultivated, 3% grassland, 12% urban and waste, 69% forested

WATER[edit]

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm except 3 nm in five international straits (fishing 200 nm)

Coastline: 13,685 km

PEOPLE[edit]

Population: 118,519,000, (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.7%

Nationality: noun—Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective—Japanese

Ethnic divisions: 99.2% Japanese, 0.8% other (mostly Korean)

Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites; about 16% belong to other faiths, including 0.8% Christian

Language: Japanese

Literacy: 99%

Labor force (1980): 56.5 million; 10% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 35% manufacturing, mining, and construction; 51% trade and services; 4% government; 2% unemployed

Organized labor: 22% of labor force

GOVERNMENT[edit]

Official name: Japan

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Political subdivisions: 47 prefectures

Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence; constitution promulgated in 1946; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 29 April

Branches: Emperor is merely symbol of state; executive power is vested in Cabinet dominated by the Prime Minister, chosen by the lower house of the bicameral, elective legislature (Diet); judiciary is independent

Government leaders: Emperor HIROHITO; Prime Minister Zenko SUZUKI

Suffrage: universal over age 20

Elections: general elections held every four years or upon dissolution of lower house, triennially for one-half of upper house Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Z. Suzuki, president; Japan Socialist Party (JSP), I. Asukata, chairman; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), R. Sasaki, chairman; Japan Communist Party (JCP), K. Miyamoto, Presidium chairman; Komeito (CGP), Y. Takeiri, chairman; New Liberal Club (NLC), S. Tagawa; Social Democratic Federation (SDF), H. Den

Voting strength (1980 elections): Lower House—47.9% LDP, 19.3% JSP, 9.8% JCP, 9.0% CGP, 6.6% DSP, 3.0% NLC, 0.7% SDF, 3.6% independents and minor parties; Upper House—43.3% LDP, 22.4% JSP, 11.7% JCP, 5.0% CGP, 5.1% DSP, 0.6% NLC, 0.0% SDF, 11.8% independents and minor parties

Communists: approximately 400,000 registered Communist Party members

Member of: ADB, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, IWC—International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

ECONOMY[edit]

GNP: $1,038 billion (1980, at 226.8 yen=US$1); $8,889 per capita (1980); 58% personal consumption, 32% investment, 10% government current expenditure, 1% stocks, and—1% foreign balance; real growth rate 4.2% (1980); average annual growth rate (1976-80), 5.5%

Agriculture: land intensively cultivated—rice, sugar, vegetables, fruits; 73% self-sufficient in food (1978); food shortages—meat, wheat, feed grains, edible oil and fats; caloric intake, 2,502 calories per day per capita (1974)

Fishing: catch 10.6 million metric tons (1979)

Major industries: metallurgical and engineering industries, electrical and electronic industries, textiles, chemicals Shortages: fossil fuels, most industrial raw materials

Crude steel: 111 million metric tons produced (1980)

Electric power: 153,000,000 kW capacity (1980); 520.0 billion kWh produced (1980), 4,435 kWh per capita

Exports: $130.7 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 88% manufactures (including 27% machinery, 23% motor vehicles, 14% iron and steel)

Imports: $122.9 billion (f.o.b., 1980); 50% fossil fuels, 17% manufactures, 13% foodstuffs, 8% machinery and equipment

Major trade partners: exports—24% US, 21% Southeast Asia, 11% Middle East, 7% Communist countries, 17% Western Europe; imports—31% Middle East, 13% Southeast Asia, 17% US, 7% Western Europe, 5% Communist countries

Aid: bilateral economic and committed (ODA and OOF), $22 billion (1970-79)

Budget: revenues $101 billion, expenditures $168 billion, deficit $67 billion (general account for fiscal year ending March 1980)

Monetary conversion rate: 219 yen=US$1 (mid-January 1982), floating since February 1973

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONS[edit]

Railroads: 29,711 km total (1979); 1,077 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 28,634 km predominantly narrow gauge (1.067 m), 7,539 km double track, 8,279 km or 28% of total route length electrified; 82% government owned

Highways: 1,106,138 km total (1976); 474,434 km paved, 631,704 km gravel, crushed stone, or unpaved

Inland waterways: approx. 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal "inland seas"

Pipelines: crude oil, 50 km; natural gas, 1,728 km

Ports: 53 major, over 2,000 minor

Civil air: 265 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 195 total, 170 usable; 125 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 24 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 46 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service; 55.4 million telephones (47.6 per 100 popl.); 167 AM stations, 48 FM stations plus 429 relay stations; 5,525 TV stations (192 major—1 kw or greater), and 2 ground satellite stations; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and USSR

DEFENSE FORCES[edit]

Military manpower: males 15-49, 31,204,000; 26,059,000 fit for military service; about 884,000 reach military age (18) annually

Supply: defense industry potential is large, with capability of producing the most sophisticated equipment; manufactured equipment includes small arms artillery, armored vehicles, and other types of ground forces materiel, aircraft (jet and prop), naval vessels (submarines, guided missile and other destroyers, patrol craft, mine warfare ships, and other minor craft including amphibious, auxiliaries, service craft, and small support ships), small amounts of all types of army materiel; several missile systems are produced under US license and a vigorous domestic missile development program exists

Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 March 1983, $11.8 billion; about 5.2% of total budget