The World Factbook (1982)/Liechtenstein

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The World Factbook (1982)
the Central Intelligence Agency
2002481The World Factbook (1982) — Liechtensteinthe Central Intelligence Agency


(See reference map V)


168 km2

Land boundaries: 76 km


Population: 26,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 1.7%

Nationality: noun—Liechtensteiner(s); adjective—Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: 95% Germanic, 5% Italian and other

Religion: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Language: German, Alemannic dialect

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 11,368, 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and Austria); 54.5% industry, trade, building trade; 41.6% services; 4.0% agriculture, forestry, and hunting


Official name: Principality of Liechtenstein

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Political subdivisions: 11 communes

Legal system: principality has its own civil and penal codes; lowest court is county court (Landgericht), presided over by one judge, which decides minor civil cases and summary criminal offenses; criminal court (Kriminalgericht), with a bench of five judges, is for major crimes; another court of mixed jurisdiction is the court of assizes (three judges) for misdemeanors; Superior Court (Obergericht) and Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) are courts of appeal for civil and criminal cases (five judges each); an administrative court of appeal from government actions and the State Court determine the constitutionality of laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Branches: unicameral Parliament, hereditary Prince, independent judiciary Government leaders: Head of State, H. S. H. Prince FRANZ Josef II; Head of Government (Prime Minister), Hans BRUNHART

Suffrage: males age 20 and over

Elections: every 4 years; last election 1982

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto Hasler; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Peter Marxer; Christian Social Party, Fritz Kaiser

Voting strength (1978): FBP 51%, VU 49%; in 1982 elections Brunhart received 53.6% of the vote

Communists: none

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, ITU, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; under several post-World War I treaties Switzerland handles Liechtenstein's customs and postal telephone and telegraph systems and represents the principality abroad on a diplomatic and consular level whenever requested to do so by the Liechtenstein Government


Liechtenstein has a prosperous economy based primarily on small-scale light industry and some farming; metal industry is by far the most prominent sector employing almost 4,000 workers; high-frequency installations, boilers for central heating, hardware, small machinery, canned goods, furniture and upholstery, chemical and pharmaceutical goods, vacuum installations, optical and measuring instruments, oil tanks, artificial teeth, ceramics, and textiles are the principal manufactures, intended almost entirely for export; industry accounts for 98 percent of total employment; livestock raising and dairying are the main sources of income in the small farm sector; major source of income to the government is the sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors, estimated at $6 million annually; low business taxes and easy incorporation rules have induced between 20,000 and 30,000 holding companies, so-called letter box companies, to establish nominal offices in the principality; average tax paid by one of these companies is about $400 a year; economy is tied closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union; no national accounts data are available

GNP: approximately $14,000 per capita (1978)

Major trade partners: exports (1979)—$466 million; 42% EC, 32% EFTA (24% Switzerland), 26% other

Electric power: 23,000 kW capacity (1980); 57 million kWh produced (1980), 2,110 kWh per capita; power is exchanged with Switzerland, but net exports average 35 million kWh yearly

Budget: (1979) revenues $113 million, expenditures $112 million, surplus $15 million


Railroads: 18.5 km, standard gauge (1.435 m), electrified; owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads

Civil air: no transport aircraft

Airfields: none

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system serving about 18,000 telephones (72.0 per 100 popl.); no broadcast facilities


Defense is responsibility of Switzerland