The World Factbook (1982)/Luxembourg

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LUXEMBOURG[edit]

World Factbook (1982) Luxembourg.jpg
(See reference map V)

LAND[edit]

2,590 km2; 25% arable, 27% meadows and pasture, 15% waste or urban, 33% forested, negligible amount of inland water

Land boundaries: 356 km

PEOPLE[edit]

Population: 366,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.3%

Nationality: noun—Luxembourger(s); adjective—Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: 83% Luxembourger, including an estimated 5% of Italian descent; remainder French, German, Belgian, and other

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, remaining 3% Protestant and Jewish

Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; most educated Luxembourgers also speak English

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: (1977) 147,300; one-third of labor force is foreign, comprised mostly of workers from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and West Germany (1977); unemployment 0.9% (1981)

GOVERNMENT[edit]

Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Political subdivisions: unitary state, but for administrative purposes has 3 districts (Luxembourg, Diekirch, Grevenmacher) and 12 cantons

Legal system: based on civil law system; constitution adopted 1868; judicial review of legislative acts in the Cassation Court only; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 23 June

Branches: parliamentary democracy; seven ministers comprise Council of Government headed by President, which constitutes the executive; it is responsible to the unicameral legislature, the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State, appointed for indefinite term, exercises some powers of an upper house; judicial power exercised by independent courts

Government leaders: Grand Duke JEAN, Head of State; Pierre WERNER, Prime Minister

Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18

Elections: every five years for entire Chamber of Deputies; latest elections June 1979

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party, Pierre Werner (parliamentary president) and Jacques Santer (party president); Socialist, Robert Krieps (party president); Social Democrat, Henry Cravatte (party president); Liberal, Colette Flesch; Communist, Dominique Urbany; Independent Socialists, Jean Gremling (party president); Enroles de Forces

Voting strength in Chamber of Deputies (1979): Christian Socialist, 24; Socialist Workers, 14; Liberals, 15; Social Democrats, 1; Communists, 2; Independent Socialists, 1; Enroles de Force, 1

Communists: 500 party members (1981)

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions, Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

Member of: Benelux, BLEU, Council of Europe, EC, ECSC, EEC, EIB, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IOOC, IPU, ITU, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

ECONOMY[edit]

GNP: $5.8 billion, $15,950 per capita (1980); 46.6% private consumption, 13.0% government consumption, 20.0% investment, 1.6% stockbuilding, 17.5% foreign balance

Agriculture: mixed farming; main crops—dairy products and wine

Major industries: iron and steel (25% of GNP), food processing, chemicals, metal products and engineering, tires, and banking

Crude steel: 4.6 million metric tons produced (1980), 14 metric tons per capita

Electric power: 1,500,000 kW capacity (1980); 1.115 billion kWh produced (1980), 3,050 kWh per capita

Exports, Imports, Major trade partners: Luxembourg has a customs union with Belgium under which foreign trade is recorded jointly for the two countries; Luxembourg's principal exports are iron and steel products, principal imports are coal and consumer goods; most of its foreign trade is with Germany, Belgium, France, and other EC countries (for totals, see Belgium)

Budget: (1980) revenues $1,545 million, expenditures $1,566 million, deficit $20.5 million

Monetary conversion rate: LF29.24=US$1, 1980 average; under the BLEU agreement, the Luxembourg franc is equal in value to the Belgian franc which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS[edit]

Railroads: 270 km standard gauge (1.435 m); 160 km double track; 136 km electrified

Highways: 5,094 km total; 4,981 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway completed or under construction

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

Port: (river) Mertert

Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in and 4 leased out

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried cables; 199,000 telephones (54.8 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV stations

DEFENSE FORCES[edit]

Military manpower: males 15-49, 96,000; 80,000 fit for military service; about 3,000 reach military age (19) annually