The World Factbook (1982)/Malawi

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The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
Malawi

MALAWI[edit]

World Factbook (1982) Malawi.jpg
(See reference map VII)

LAND[edit]

95,053 km2; about 31% of land area arable (of which less than half is cultivated), nearly 25% forested, 6% meadow and pasture, 38% other Land boundaries: 2,881 km

PEOPLE[edit]

Population: 6,410,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 3.0%

Nationality: noun—Malawian(s); adjective—Malawian

Ethnic divisions: over 99% native African, less than 1% European and Asian

Religion: majority animist; rest Christian and Muslim

Language: English and Chichewa official; Tombuka is second African language

Literacy: 15% of population

Labor force: 331,536 wage earners employed in Malawi (1978); 48% agriculture, 10% construction, 10% commerce, 11% manufacturing, 15% personal services, 5% miscellaneous services; 6,000 Europeans permanently employed

Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized

GOVERNMENT[edit]

Official name: Republic of Malawi

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lilongwe

Political subdivisions: 3 administrative regions and 24 districts

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; constitution adopted 1964; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Republic Day, 6 July

Branches: strong presidential system with Cabinet appointed by President; unicameral National Assembly of 87 elected and up to 15 nominated members; High Court with Chief Justice and at least two justices

Government leader: Life President Dr. H. Kamuzu BANDA

Suffrage: universal adult (21 years)

Elections: parliamentary elections June 1978

Political parties and leaders: Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Secretary General E. Bakili Muluzi

Communists: no Communist party; Malawi maintains no foreign relations with Communist governments

Member of: AFDB, EEC (associate member), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY[edit]

GDP: $800 million (1980), $133 per capita; current real growth rate 6.5% (1980)

Agriculture: cash crops—tobacco, tea, sugar, peanuts, cotton, tung, maize; subsistence crops—corn, sorghum, millet, pulses, root crops, fruit, vegetables, rice

Electric power: 124,000 kW capacity (1980); 340 million kWh produced (1980), 55 kWh per capita

Major industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, consumer goods

Exports: $278.4 million (f.o.b., 1980); tobacco, tea, sugar, peanuts, cotton

Imports: $335.3 billion (f.o.b., 1980); manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, building and construction materials, fuel, fertilizer

Major trade partners: exports—UK, FRG, US, Netherlands, South Africa; imports—South Africa, UK, Japan, US, FRG

Aid: economic commitments—Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF (1970-79), $683 million; US authorized (FY70-80), $18.2 million

Budget: 1980 revenues $319.3 million, current expenditures $240.5 million, development expenditures $200.5 million

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Malawi kwacha= US$0. 8258

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONS[edit]

Railroads: 754 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 11,311 km total; 2,361 km paved; 381 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 8,569 km improved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Malawi, 1,290 km and Shire River, 144 km, 3 lake ports

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in

Airfields: 50 total, 47 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio-relay links, and radiocommunications stations; 28,800 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 8 AM, 4 FM, and no TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station

DEFENSE FORCES[edit]

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,348,000; about 683,000 fit for military service