The World Factbook (1982)/Malaysia

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency
Malaysia

MALAYSIA[edit]

World Factbook (1982) Malaysia.jpg
(See reference map IX)

NOTE: established on 16 September 1963, Malaysia consists of Peninsular Malaysia, which includes 11 states of the former Federation of Malaya, plus East Malaysia, which includes the 2 former colonies of North Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Sarawak

LAND[edit]

Peninsular Malaysia: 131,313 km2; 20% cultivated, 26% forest reserves, 54% other

Sabah: 76,146 km2; 13% cultivated, 34% forest reserves, 53% other

Sarawak: 125,097 km2; 21% cultivated, 24% forest reserves, 55% other

Land boundaries: 509 km Peninsular Malaysia, 1,786 km East Malaysia

WATER[edit]

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm, exclusive economic zone 200 nm)

Coastline: 2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia, 2,607 km East Malaysia

PEOPLE[edit]

Population: 14,661,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.3%

Peninsular Malaysia: 12,105,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.1%

Sabah: 1,135,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 4.1%

Sarawak: 1,421,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.6%

Nationality: noun—Malaysian(s); adjective—Malaysian

Ethnic divisions:

Malaysia: 50% Malay, 35% Chinese, 10% Indian

Peninsular Malaysia: 53% Malay, 35% Chinese, 11% Indian and Pakistani, 1% other

Sabah: 69% indigenous tribes, 21% Chinese, 10% other

Sarawak: 50% indigenous tribes, 30% Chinese, 19% Malay, 1% other

Religion:

Peninsular Malaysia: Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu

Sabah: 38% Muslim, 17% Christian, 45% other

Sarawak: 23% Muslim, 24% Buddhist and Confucianist, 16% Christian, 35% tribal religion, 2% other

Language:

Peninsular Malaysia: Malay (official); English, Chinese dialects, Tamil

Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese

Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

Literacy:

Peninsular Malaysia: about 48%

Sabah and Sarawak: 23%

Labor force:

Malaysia: 4.95 million (1980)

Peninsular Malaysia: 4.1 million; 46.2% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 10.9% manufacturing and construction, 31.9% trade, transport, and services (1980)

Sabah: 366,000 (1980); 80% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 6% manufacturing and construction, 13% trade and transportation, 1% other

Sarawak: 455,000 (1980); 80% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 6% manufacturing and construction, 13% trade, transportation, and services, 1% other

Organized labor: 562,000 (May 1980), about 11% of total labor force; unemployment about 6.1% of total labor force (1979), but higher in urban areas

GOVERNMENT[edit]

Official name: Malaysia

Type:

Malaysia: constitutional monarchy nominally headed by Paramount Ruler (King); a bicameral Parliament consisting of a 58-member Senate and a 154-member House of Representatives

Peninsular Malaysian states: hereditary rulers in all but Penang and Malacca where Governors appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state governments limited by federal constitution

Sabah: self-governing state within Malaysia in which it holds 16 seats in House of Representatives; foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Sarawak: self-governing state within Malaysia in which it holds 24 seats in House of Representatives; foreign affairs, defense, and internal security, and other powers are delegated to federal government

Capital:

Peninsular Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur

Sabah: Kota Kinabalu

Sarawak: Kuching

Political subdivisions: 13 states (including Sabah and Sarawak)

Legal system: based on English common law; constitution came into force 1963; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of Supreme Head of the Federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: 31 August

Branches: nine state rulers alternate as Paramount Ruler for five-year terms; locus of executive power vested in Prime Minister and Cabinet, who are responsible to bicameral Parliament; following communal rioting in May 1969, government imposed state of emergency and suspended constitutional rights of all parliamentary bodies; parliamentary democracy resumed in February 1971

Peninsular Malaysia: executive branches of 11 states vary in detail but are similar in design; a Chief Minister, appointed by hereditary ruler or Governor, heads an executive council (cabinet) which is responsible to an elected, unicameral legislature

Sarawak and Sabah: executive branch headed by Governor appointed by central government, largely ceremonial role; executive power exercised by Chief Minister who heads parliamentary cabinet responsible to unicameral legislature; judiciary part of Malaysian judicial system

Government leader: Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad

Suffrage: universal over age 20

Elections: minimum of every five years, last elections July 1978

Political parties and leaders:

Peninsular Malaysia: National Front, a confederation of 11 political parties dominated by United Malay National Organization (UMNO), Mahathir bin Mohamad; opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Islamic Party (PAS)

Sabah: Berjaya Party, Datuk Harris Salleh; United Sabah National Organization (USNO), Tun Datuk Mustapha; Sabah Chinese Consolidated Party (SCCP)

Sarawak: coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka Bumipatra Bersatu (PPBB), Datuk Amar Taib; the United People's Party (SUPP), Ong Kee Hui; and the Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Stephen Ningkan

Voting strength:

Peninsular Malaysia: (1978 election) National Front, 131 of 154 seats in lower house of parliament; Democratic Action Party, 16 seats; Islamic Party, 5 seats; Sarawak People's Organization, 1 seat; 1 independent seat

Sabah: (March 1981 Assembly Elections) Berjaya Party controls 43 of 48 seats in State Assembly, USNO 3 seats, SCCP 1 seat, 1 seat vacant

Sarawak: (1979 elections) National Front controls 45 of 48 State Assembly seats

Communists:

Peninsular Malaysia: approximately 3,000 armed insurgents on Thailand side of Thai/Malaysia border; approximately 300 full-time inside Peninsular Malaysia

Sarawak: 125 armed insurgents in Sarawak

Sabah: insignificant

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISCON, ITC, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY[edit]

GNP:

Malaysia: $21.6 billion (1980), $1,520 per capita; annual growth 8.2% (1980)

Agriculture:

Peninsular Malaysia: natural rubber, oil palm, rice; 10%-15% of rice requirements imported

Sabah: mainly subsistence; main crops—rubber, timber, coconut, rice; food deficit—rice

Sarawak: main crops—rubber, timber, pepper; food deficit—rice

Fishing: catch 685,107 metric tons (1978)

Major industries:

Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber

Sabah: logging, petroleum production

Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Electric power:

Peninsular Malaysia: 1,899,973 kW capacity (1980); 8.157 billion kWh produced (1980), 725 kWh per capita

Sabah: 183,000 kW capacity (1980); 586 million kWh produced (1980), 558 kWh per capita

Sarawak: 147,000 kW capacity (1980); 343 million kWh produced (1980), 269 kWh per capita

Exports: $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1980); natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, light manufactures

Imports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1980)

Major trade partners: exports—17% Singapore, 17% US, 23% Japan, 14% EEC; imports—23% Japan, 15% US, 11% EEC (1979)

Budget: 1982 revenue and grants, $4 billion; current expenditure $7.7 billion, capital expenditures $6.5 billion; deficit $2 billion; $2.2 billion military, 80% civilian

Monetary conversion rate: 2.25 ringgits=US$1 (December 1981)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS[edit]

Railroads:

Peninsular Malaysia: 1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track; government owned

East Malaysia: 136 km meter gauge (LOO m) in Sabah

Highways:

Peninsular Malaysia: 19,753 km total; 15,900 km hard surfaced (mostly bituminous surface treatment), 3,000 km crushed stone/gravel, 883 km improved or unimproved earth

East Malaysia: about 5,426 km total (1,644 km in Sarawak, 3,782 km in Sabah); 819 km hard surfaced (mostly bituminous surface treatment), 2,936 km gravel or crushed stone, 1,671 km earth

Inland waterways:

Peninsular Malaysia: 3,209 km

East Malaysia: 4,200 km (1,569 km in Sabah, 2,518 km in Sarawak)

Ports:

Peninsular Malaysia: 3 major, 14 minor

East Malaysia: 3 major, 12 minor (2 major, 3 minor in Sabah; 1 major, 9 minor in Sarawak)

Civil air: approximately 30 major transport aircraft

Pipelines: crude oil, 69 km; refined products, 56 km

Airfields:

Peninsular Malaysia: 61 total, 61 usable; 17 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Sabah: 35 total, 35 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Sarawak: 47 total, 47 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications:

Peninsular Malaysia: good intercity service provided mainly by microwave relay; international service good; good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 305,000 telephones (2.9 per 100 popl.); 26 AM, 1 FM, and 16 TV stations; submarine cables extend to Singapore; connected to SEACOM submarine cable terminal at Singapore by microwave relay; 2 ground satellite stations

Sabah: adequate intercity radio-relay network extends to Sarawak via Brunei; 36,000 telephones (2.8 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 1 FM, 5 TV stations; SEACOM submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; 1 ground satellite station

Sarawak: adequate intercity radio-relay network extends to Sabah via Brunei; 40,000 telephones (2.5 per 100 popl.); 5 AM stations, no FM, and 6 TV stations

DEFENSE FORCES[edit]

Military manpower:

Peninsular Malaysia: males 15-49, 2,993,000; 1,901,000 fit for military service; 135,000 reach military age (21) annually

Sabah: males 15-49, 278,000; 165,000 fit for military service; 13,000 reach military age (21) annually

Sarawak: males 15-49, 351,000; 209,000 fit for military service; 15,000 reach military age (21) annually

External defense dependent on loose Five Power Defense Agreement (FPDA) which replaced Anglo-Malayan Defense Agreement of 1957 as amended in 1963

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1982, $2,928.3 million; about 21.1% of central government budget